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Ancient Egyptian culture from the 11th Dynasty to the end of the 17th Dynasty



Egyptian Chronology


Egyptian Chronology
      Date          Culture          Duration     
11 000 BC Jebel Sahaba  
Before 8 000 BC - Palaeolithic in Europe and Northern Asia
8 000 BC - Nominal end of the Ice Age
8 600 - 4 400 BC Nabta Playa Neolithic 4 200 years
6 100 - 5 180 BC    Qarunian (formerly known as Fayum B)     920 years
5 200 - 4 200 BC Fayum A 1 000 years
4 800 - 4 200 BC Merimde 600 years
4 600 - 4 400 BC El Omari 200 years
4 400 - 4 000 BC Badarian 400 years
4 000 - 3 300 BC Maadi 700 years
4 000 - 3 500 BC Naqada I 500 years
3 500 - 3 200 BC Naqada II 300 years
3 200 - 3 100 BC Naqada III 100 years
3 100 - 2 670 BC Early Dynastic 586 years
2 670 - 2 181 BC Old Kingdom 505 years
2 181 - 2 025 BC First Intermediate Period 156 years
2 025 - 1 700 BC Middle Kingdom 325 years
1 700 - 1 550 BC Second Intermediate Period 150 years
1 550 - 1 077 BC New Kingdom 473 years
1 077 - 664 BC Third Intermediate Period 413 years
664 - 525 BC Late Period 139 years
525 - 404 BC First Persian Period 121 years
404 - 343 BC Late Dynastic Period 61 years
343 - 332 BC Second Persian Period 11 years
332 - 305 BC Macedonian Period 27 years
305 - 30 BC Ptolemaic Period 275 years
30 BC - 395 AD Roman Period 425 years
395 AD - 640 AD Byzantine Period 245 years
640 AD - 1517 AD Islamic Period 877 years
1517 AD - 1867 AD Ottoman Period
(French Occupation 1798-1801)
350 years
1867 AD - 1914 AD Khedival Period 47 years
1914 AD - 1922 AD Sultanate under Hussein Kamel,
as a British Protectorate
8 years
1922 AD - 1953 AD Monarchy 31 years
1953 AD - Present Day Republic  


Table of dates for the history of Egypt, adapted from various sources.



First to Twentieth Dynasties
Date Dynasty Period Duration
(years)
3 100 - 2 890 BC First Dynasty Archaic/Early Dynastic Period 214
2 890 - 2 670 BC Second Dynasty Archaic/Early Dynastic Period 220
2 670 - 2 613 BC Third Dynasty Old Kingdom 57
2 613 - 2 494 BC Fourth Dynasty Old Kingdom - Golden Age 119
2 494 - 2 345 BC Fifth Dynasty Old Kingdom 149
2 345 - 2 181 BC Sixth Dynasty Old Kingdom 164
2 181 - 2 160 BC Seventh and Eighth Dynasties First Intermediate Period 21
2 160 - 2 134 BC Ninth and Tenth Dynasties First Intermediate Period 26
2 134 - 1 991 BC Eleventh Dynasty Middle Kingdom 43
1 991 - 1 802 BC Twelfth Dynasty Middle Kingdom 189
1 802 - 1 649 BC Thirteenth Dynasty
From Memphis, over Middle and Upper Egypt
Middle Kingdom 153
1 805 - 1 650 BC Fourteenth Dynasty
From Avaris, Nile Delta, over Lower Egypt
Second Intermediate Period 155
1 650 - 1 550 BC Fifteenth Dynasty
First Hyksos dynasty, ruled from Avaris,
without control of the entire land
Second Intermediate Period 100
1 649 - 1 582 BC Sixteenth Dynasty
Ruled the Theban region in Upper Egypt
The Hyksos ruled the delta
The Kingdom of Kush ruled Upper Egypt
Second Intermediate Period 67
1 580 - 1 550 BC Seventeenth Dynasty
Ruled Thebes, Hyksos ruled the delta
Second Intermediate Period / New Kingdom 30
1 543 - 1 292 BC Eighteenth Dynasty
Egypt reaches the peak of its power
New Kingdom 251
1 292 - 1 187 BC Nineteenth Dynasty
Conquests in Canaan
New Kingdom 105
1 187 - 1 077 BC Twentieth Dynasty End of the New Kingdom 110


Table of dates for the First to Twentieth Dynasties, from various sources, mostly via Wikipedia


Early Egypt timeline

Timeline for early Egypt, from 11 000 BC to 2 500 BC.

Photo: Poster, British Museum © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015



The Middle Kingdom

After the First Intermediate Period (2 181 BC to 2 061 BC, including the rules of the early members of the 11th Dynasty before Mentuhotep II) during which Egypt was governed by independent local rulers, the Middle Kingdom brought with it not only another period of central government but also a heyday of literature and an outstanding development of the individual. The most important wisdom and socio-critical texts date back to that period and show this newly discovered understanding which is also represented in statuary.

Based on the portrayal of the respective ruler, people not only represent themselves with noticeably large ears, but also an almost pessimistic expression. The long coat, veiling the entire body, intensifies this effect. The repertoire of private statues has been expanded by the block statue, depicting a person sitting on the ground with his knees drawn to his body. Private statuary is not limited to the funerary context any longer but can now be found in the temples as well. Votive temple statues were supposed to make sure that the donor could take part in the temple rituals.
Text above: © Poster at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)








The Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 BC - 1 991 BC

The Eleventh Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XI) is a well attested group of rulers, whose earlier members before Mentuhotep II are grouped with the four preceding dynasties to form the First Intermediate Period, while the later members are considered part of the Middle Kingdom. They all ruled from Thebes. The relative chronology of the 11th Dynasty is well established by contemporary attestations and, except for count Intef and Mentuhotep IV, by the Turin canon.


Eleventh Dynasty
Name Personal Name Consort Burial Years Dates Comments
Intef the Elder           Iry-Pat, 'the Count', probably
the same as 'Intef, son of Iku'.
Theban nomarch serving an unnamed king
Mentuhotep I Tepya Neferu I     2 134 BC - Tepy-a, 'the ancestor'
Intef I Sehertaway   El-Tarif, Thebes    - 2 118 BC Son of Mentuhotep I
Intef II Wahankh   El-Tarif, Thebes 49 2 118 BC - 2 069 BC Brother of Intef I
Intef III Nakhtnebtepnefer Iah (queen) El-Tarif, Thebes 8 2 069 BC - 2 061 BC Brother of Intef I
Nebhepetre
Mentuhotep II
Smatawy Tem, Neferu II, Ashayet
Henhenet, Kawit,
Kemsit, Sadeh
Deir el-Bahari 51 2 061 BC - 2 010 BC Son of Intef III and Iah.
Reunifies Egypt, starting the Middle Kingdom
Sankhkare
Mentuhotep III
Sankhtawyef   Deir el-Bahari 51 2 010 BC - 1 998 BC Son of Mentuhotep II and Tem.
Nebtawyre
Mentuhotep IV
Sankhtawyef   Deir el-Bahari 51 1 998 BC - 1 991 BC Son of Mentuhotep II and Tem.


Table of Eleventh Dynasty Rulers, adapted from various sources, including Wikipedia.


Standing - striding figure of Perhernefret img_2135antefsm


Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Intef / Antef II


Standing figure of Antef II, circa  1 950 BC

Dimensions: 370 x 122 x 186 mm.

This cloaked statue of Intef / Antef probably originated in the later Eleventh Dynasty, or at the beginning of the Twelfth Dynasty, indicated by the characteristics of the hieroglyphic and hieratic signs. The dense covering of the long mantle, the severity of the deep wig, and the arms that cross over the chest, strictly limit the structure of the body to the essentials. The hands clenched in fists once held objects. The column-like subdivided legs show Antef slightly stepping forward, the oversized feet and the bulky base are only simply shown.

The well-preserved painting shows black hair and red skin. The clothing now shows only bare limestone, but was originally painted white. The base and backposts are red with black dots as an imitation of granite. The blue-painted hieroglyphs identify his brother Inherhotep and his sister Nachti, as well as denoting him as 'the honored one at Ptah-Sokaris-Intef, born of Sat-Mechit'.

Catalog: Painted limestone, Thebes, ÄM 12485
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_2581stelaipepism
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Stela of Ipepi


Ipepi is shown worshipping Osiris. He is accompanied by his wife, mother and sister

Catalog: Limestone, ÄM 24031
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_2290henniferandwifesm
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Hanefer and his wife


Tomb relief: Hanefer and his wife in front of an offering table with three sons.

Circa 2 000 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, ÄM 1197
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




model brewing butchery
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Broad collar of faience beads

Late 11th Dynasty, about 2 000 BC, from Deir el-Bahri (Thebes / Luxor), funerary monument of King Mentuhotep II, tomb 3, width 240 mm, length 416 mm, diameter 183 mm

Items of jewellery, placed on the mummy, also provided magical protection. Some were personal possessions, others were made specifically for the tomb, and were often flimsy since they were not intended to be worn by the living.


An important category of funerary jewellery is that of collars. The wesekh, or 'broad' collar conferred protection on the deceased, the terminals are often in the form of falcon heads. This was found in the tomb of a female member of the court of King Mentuhotep II.

This 'wesekh' consists of five rows of beads, two semicircular terminals and seven mummiform pendants, all of glazed composition. Four of the rows are of vertically strung cylindrical beads connected only at the ends. The longer beads are in the centre of the collar, the shorter ones at the sides. The top row is of white glazed composition, the second of bright-blue, the third of white and the outermost row of purplish glazed composition. The last colour, not common until the Eighteenth Dynasty is produced from manganese oxide.

The fifth, topmost, row is composed of a single string of bright-blue and white cylinder beads strung lengthwise. In the centre of each of the five rows is a short loop of bright-blue glazed composition disc beads. The seven bright-blue glazed composition mummiform pendants are attached to the bottom row of beads. The two bright-blue semicircular terminals are undecorated. Each has a ridge along the underside which is pierced by six holes through which the threads holding the rows of beads are knotted.

Catalog: EA40928
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




dsc07578headofmansm dsc06932headsm


dsc07579headofmansm
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Head of a statue of a man

Circa 2000 BC

Catalog: Granite, Thebes, ÄM 254
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




inteftheeldersm
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Stele of Prince Intef

False-door shaped stele of prince Intef, nomarch of Thebes, here depicted receiving offerings from his servants.

Limestone, Height 104 cm, from Dra Abu el-Naga, proto-11th dynasty, First intermediate period. Cairo, Egyptian Museum

Catalog: Egyptian Museum CG 20009.
Photo: Gaston Maspero, 1914
Permission: Public Domain
Source: Original, Cairo Museum




magician magician
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Hétépi, chief of the magicians.


Height 430 mm, length 183 mm, width 381 mm.

Circa 2 000 BC, the end of the 11th Dynasty.

Coniferous wood, acacia, and ficus were used in its construction.

Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Salle18, E 123
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




DSC06175axewithwoodenhandlesm


Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Axe


Axe blade with reconstructed handle, Intermediate period, circa 2 000 BC.

( note that this tool looks more like a machete than an axe, and may have been used for cutting a path through tangled vines and similar vegetation, or perhaps for harvesting papyrus stalks, as we might use a modern machete today - Don )

Catalog: Bronze with modern wood, origin unknown, Inv. Nr. 1935.200.97
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




beaded dress on black model beaded dress on black model beaded dress on black model


beaded dress on black model
Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1069 BC

Body of a goddess

The Egyptians used an alloy of copper and tin (bronze) which is easier to melt and harder than pure copper ore. Egyptian bronzes also contain lead, which lowers the melting temperature. Some bronzes have a black patina that highlights the gold inlays.

Gold is not uncommon in the desert, east of the Nile, in Egypt and Nubia. Electrum, a natural alloy of gold and silver also occurs. The 'black bronzes' are special alloys (copper, silver, gold) whose patina highlights the incrustations of metals in contrasting colours.

This inlay of yellow gold threads and red gold 'rivets', only visible in the full size images ( click on any image to zoom in ), imitates bead netting.

Height 12 cm.

Catalog: Sully, salle 7, E 27430
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




model of a boat


Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)

Model of a boat

This wooden model of a boat is from the Middle Kingdom, 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC.

Height 116 mm, length 503 mm, thickness 87 mm.

The decoration and the accessories for this object have disappeared.

Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Le Nil, Salle 3, E 5539
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




egypt


egypt


egypt


egypt


Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)

Model of a boat

Painted wooden model of a funerary boat bearing a mummy.

Height 490 mm, length 775 mm, width 190 mm

( note that there are no oars or seated rowers - the boat is apparently being poled along at a shallow part of the Nile - Don )

Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Le Nil, Salle 336, Vitrine 2, le Nil, E 17111
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source and text: Louvre Museum, Paris, France
Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr/


egypt


egypt


Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)

Model of a boat

Length 890 mm, height 285 mm.

From the Assiut necropolis. Oars in this deposit were piled on the boats, not displayed as here.

Catalog: Salle 336, E 11993 - E 11994, (the individual parts of this model have been made up from two different models)
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Musée du Louvre
Additional text: http://egyptomusee.over-blog.com/2018/06/de-la-navigation-egyptienne-4.modeles-d-embarcations-e-11993-94-et-e-12027.html



egypt


Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)

Funerary model of a large boat and crew.

Catalog: Wood, painted, E 32566
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Louvre Museum, Paris, France



egypt


egypt


egypt


Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)

Model of a boat and crew.

The owner sits in the cabin, a flower in his hand.

Height 295 mm, length 670 mm, width 155 mm.

( note what is apparently a model stone anchor weight beneath the prow of the boat, and the large decorated steerage oar provided in this model - Don )

Catalog: Wood, stuccoed and painted, E 284
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source and text: Louvre Museum, Paris, France



DSC00832plattersm
Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)

Platter

Pottery offering-platter or table, oval in form, with offerings in relief.

Dimensions: Length: 307 mm, width 265 mm.

The graves of the poor were often simple shafts, without a mortuary-chapel for the ritual provisioning of the dead. To supply this need a pottery offering-platter or model house was often deposited at the mouth of the shaft. The platters contain a water basin and a range of food offerings. More elaborate 'soul houses' incorporated a house to serve as a dwelling for the spirit.


Catalog: Pottery, provenance unknown, EA21702
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




dsc04642hipposm dsc04642hipposm



Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)

Hippopotamus

Height 920 mm, length 163 mm.

Decorations of aquatic plants and a bird evoke the swamps where the animal lives.

Catalog: Silicious faience, Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Salle 336, Vitrine2 : le Nil, E 5886
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source and text: Louvre Museum, Paris, France



dsc04642hipposm img_5970hipposm


Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)

Hippopotamus

Height 57 mm, length 96 mm.

Catalog: Silicious faience, Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Salle 336, Vitrine 2: le Nil, E 4495
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source and text: Louvre Museum, Paris, France



magic baton in ivory
Magic Baton in ivory

Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)

Carved into incisor of a hippopotamus, this stick is engraved with real or fantastic animals and demons.

On the reverse a text, shown in the reflection of the mirror below the object, is translated as: 'I bring the protection of life to the lady Mersenebès.'


Length 161 mm, width 60 mm, thickness 9 mm.

Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Les dieux et la magie, Salle 18, Vitrine 2: La magie, E 3614
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




magic baton in ivory


Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)

Magic Baton in ivory


Carved into incisor of a hippopotamus, this stick is engraved with real or fantastic animals and demons.

Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Les dieux et la magie, Salle 18, Vitrine 2: La magie, AF 6447
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




magic baton in ivory
Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)

Magic Baton in ivory


Carved into incisor of a hippopotamus, this stick is engraved with fantastic animals and demons.


Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Les dieux et la magie, Salle 18, Vitrine 2: La magie
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




magic baton element
Part of a Magic Baton

Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)


Material: Steatite, formerly enamelled.

Height 21 mm, length 62 mm, width 22 mm.


Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Les dieux et la magie, Salle 18, Vitrine 2: La magie, E 9940
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




wax figures
Two female figures in wax, used in Magic

Eleventh - Twelfth Dynasty: Circa 2 000 BC - 1 900 BC (Middle Kingdom)


Height 227 mm (upper figure).


Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Les dieux et la magie, Salle 18, Vitrine 2: La magie, (upper figure) E 27250
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




Dog devouring a man
Dog devouring a man, used in Magic

Date very uncertain, possibly: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)


Figurine of enchantment: dog devouring a man.

Wax and linen, length 71 mm, height 37 mm.


Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Les dieux et la magie, Salle 18, Vitrine 2: La magie, (upper figure) E 27079
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




bound prisoner
A bound prisoner

Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)


Statuette of enchantment: a bound prisoner.

Material: alabaster

Height 107 mm, length 46 mm, thickness 26 mm.

Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Les dieux et la magie, Salle 18, Vitrine 2: La magie, E 27691
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




Magic tablet with seven Wadjet eyes
Magic tablet

Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)


Magic tablet with seven Wadjet eyes, in faience. The Eye of Horus is an ancient Egyptian symbol of protection, royal power and good health. The eye is personified in the goddess Wadjet

Length 92 mm, width 67 mm, thickness 14 mm.

One of the formulas of the Texts of the Sarcophagi (Coffin Texts) reads: 'on the drawing of seven Wadjet eyes, washed in beer and natron, and drunk.'


The Coffin Texts are a collection of ancient Egyptian funerary spells written on coffins and other objects beginning in the First Intermediate Period. They are partially derived from the earlier Pyramid Texts, reserved for royal use only, but contain substantial new material related to everyday desires, indicating a new target audience of common people. Ordinary Egyptians who could afford a coffin had access to these funerary spells and the pharaoh no longer had exclusive rights to an afterlife.

Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Les dieux et la magie, Salle 18, Vitrine 2: La magie, E 17358
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre, Wikipedia




dsc00409coffinsm
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Outer coffin of Sebekhetepi

This massive outer coffin of Sebekhetepi, also listed as Sobekhotep, circa 2040 BC - 1750 BC, is constructed from sycomore fig, a native Egyptian timber widely used for the making of objects for the tomb. The sparsely decorated exterior is inscribed with formulae requesting offerings from the gods Osiris and Anubis. A pair of eyes painted on the long side which faced east in the tomb enabled the dead man to look out towards the rising sun. ( note that this view shows the opposite, western side - Don ) The inner surfaces of the coffin are also painted with friezes of offerings and inscriptions.


Height 864 mm, width 635 mm, length 2038 mm.

Catalog: 41571
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




sebekhetepi outer coffin
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Outer coffin of Sebekhetepi

The outer coffin of Sebekhetepi is constructed from sycomore fig, a type of wood which was locally available. It is used extensively throughout this funerary equipment. Unlike other outer coffins, where the decoration is usually juxtaposed with the plain wood, the exterior of the Sebekhetepi's coffin is painted yellow. In ancient Egypt yellow was associated with the sun, and a substitute for gold.


The main features of the external decoration are the border in red, blue-green and white, and the wedjat eyes. These eyes were placed on one of the long sides of the coffin, which would have faced east. This was so that the deceased, placed on his side within the coffin, could watch the sun rise. The inscriptions are in pale blue, a colour often chosen for hieroglyphs, against a white background. They consist of the request for offerings from the funerary gods Osiris and Anubis, typical of the coffins of the Middle Kingdom (about 2040 BC - 1750 BC).

Catalog: 41571
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/outer-coffin-of-sebekhetepi/cAF-9XfxmLucxg?hl=en




sebekhetepi outer coffin dsc00407coffinsm


dsc00408coffintopsm
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Outer coffin of Sebekhetepi

The decoration of the interior is also austere. It consists of friezes of offerings, and inscriptions taken from the Coffin Texts. However, it has no maps of the Underworld, which appear on the outer coffin of Gua (also in The British Museum, see below in the section on the Twelfth Dynasty).

Catalog: 41571
Photo: (top left) © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Photo: (top right, lower left) Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/outer-coffin-of-sebekhetepi/cAF-9XfxmLucxg?hl=en




sebekhetepi inner coffin
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Inner coffin of Sebekhetepi

Sebekhetepi's inner coffin is of finer construction than the outer case, and is constructed from the more expensive cedarwood, which was pre-eminent among imported timbers used by the Egyptians. The exterior is decorated with a pair of eyes and with inscriptions, which, like those of the outer coffin, request offerings from Osiris and Anubis. Similar texts are painted on the interior, together with images of offerings.


Height 458 mm, width 406 mm, length 1873 mm.

Catalog: 41572
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




sebekhetepi outer coffin
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Lid of the inner Coffin of Sebekhetepi

The lid of the inner coffin of Sebekhetepi, seen from above, and the end of the outer coffin.

Catalog: 41572
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum




sebekhetepi outer coffin
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Inner coffin of Sebekhetepi showing the Wadjet eyes in close up.

Like many wealthy individuals of the Middle Kingdom (circa 2040 BC - 1750 BC), Sebekhetepi was buried in two rectangular coffins. The inner coffin was made of imported cedarwood, which was of much higher quality than that of local trees. The palm tree, the most common in Egypt, does not consist of wood as such, but coarse fibres, which are unsuitable for carpentry.


The decoration on the exterior of this coffin is cut into the wood, and painted. The inscriptions running down the centre of the lid and around the top of the case are written in blue on a white band. The edges of the lid and corners of the case are decorated with long striped bands separated by perpendicular short bands in the same colours. The large wedjat eyes on one side are similarly in blue against a white background, surrounded by a multicoloured border. These enabled the mummy, placed on its side so it faces the wedjat eyes, to see out of the coffin. The inside of the coffin is decorated with representations of offerings.

Catalog: EA41572
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/outer-coffin-of-sebekhetepi/cAF-9XfxmLucxg?hl=en




sebekhetepi sandals

Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Sandals of Sebekhetepi

These sandals, 253 mm long, were found lying on the lid of the inner coffin, above the feet of the corpse. They are made of cedar wood with leather straps, coated with white plaster. This delicate constructional technique shows that they could not have been worn in life, and hence were made specifically for the tomb.

Catalog: 41578
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card, British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




sebekhetepi headrest
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Headrest of Sebekhetepi

Headrest found in the tomb of Sebekhetepi. It is constructed of sycomore fig, and is made of three parts joined together.

Height 160 mm, length 210 mm.

Catalog: 41579
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card, British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




sebekhetepi linen
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Linen sheet of Sebekhetepi

This large fringed sheet of linen was probably originally part of the household linen of Sebekhetepi's family. Linen items were sometimes included in burials, for use in the Afterlife. The fact that these are often threadbare and darned suggests that they had been heavily used before being placed in the tomb.

Few examples of textiles have been found in a domestic setting; most come from burials, either for use in the Afterlife, or torn up and used as wrappings on the mummy. Fragments of cloth can provide a great deal of information. Some bandages have been torn from loincloths, tunics and other items of clothing. One individual was even wrapped in a torn-up sail.


The fabric is woven of relatively coarse threads, which would not have been suitable for most items of clothing or ritual cloth. The cloth used in temples and for the garments of the king were of the finest weave.

The fringe is sewn on to the fabric, rather than being the loose warp threads, which are hemmed. The brown discolouration is probably staining from the cellulose in the flax plant, which bonded the fibres together so that it could be spun into thread.

Width 105 cm, length 137 cm.

Catalog: 41580
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Text: http://www.bmimages.com/results.asp?image=00032897001, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




sebekhetepi poster
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

The Burial of Sebekhetepi

Photo: Poster at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: From photographs and text © Trustees of the National Museum of Scotland, and © School of Archaeology, University of Liverpool




sebekhetepi poster
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

The Burial of Sebekhetepi

The interior of Tomb 723 as found.

Artist and reconstruction: C. Thorne
Photo: Poster at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2018




Hetepnebi
Tenth Dynasty: 2 130 BC - 2 040 BC

Sail boat of Sebekhetepi


Models of boats were a regular feature of tomb assemblages from the end of the Old Kingdom to the mid Twelfth Dynasty. In many tombs, two boats were provided, equipped in the manner of Nile river craft when travelling north or south. Hence one is represented propelled by oars alone, for journeys downstream, the other with the sail set, to catch the northerly winds when travelling upstream.


When found, the mast, sail and rigging were folded down. Under a canopy, on the roof of which are painted depictions of shields, sits the owner with two boxes or storage chests. At the stern sits the helmsman who originally operated the tiller (lost), attached to the steering oar. In the bows stands the pilot. Three of the crew are hauling on the rigging, while two others are depicted using poles (lost), as if levering the boat off a sandbank - a regular obstacle to navigation on the Nile.

Wooden model of sailing-boat: the hull is rather narrow, with moderate sheer; bow lower and more narrow than stern, which has notch for steering-oar; exterior devoid of paint. Deck flush and not cambered, so that raised gunwales are absent; painted white with deck-plan and outer edges in red. The painted centre-strip runs the full length of the vessel; the fore-deck is marked only by a normal painted thwart, but the after-deck is marked by an exceptionally broad painted band. There are seven white rectangles on each side; the midships pair are separated by the usual mast-space. The point of the fore-deck is painted black.

In the after part of the vessel is an open-sided cabin, consisting of a rounded top supported on either side by four posts, the latter strengthened each side with a single cross-piece tied to them about half-way up. The rounded roof is yellow edged with black to represent leather strips which have white markings edged with black to indicate the lashings which hold them in place; the roof of the cabin is also decorated on each side with two paintings of round-topped shields, alternately white with black markings and black with white markings. The cabin is open to the stern. Immediately abaft the cabin stands a steering-post which has been trimmed roughly to an octagonal section but has no groove on top. To it was lashed the butt of the steering-oar, which was also lashed to the notch on the stern; the present lashings are modern.

The tiller was broken off, only the stump remaining. In the bows stands the pilot with right arm extended and left hanging down. Between mast and cabin stand three sailors hauling on the rigging, while forward of the mast are two other members of the crew facing aft and heaving on quant-poles as if to push the boat off a sandbank; they are leaning forward with almost straight bodies, one arm and shoulder pressing on the quants while their disengaged arms are supposed to be pressing on the deck to obtain greater leverage; actually the hands do not quite touch the deck.

The human figures on board have red bodies, white skirts, and short black wigs; it is noticeable that both the men working the rigging and those pushing on the quants have their legs well separated so as to get a good purchase on the deck. The helmsman sits in the stern, left arm at 45 degree with the body, right arm straight in front to grasp the tiller, which is missing; the stump is sticking out of the hole in the shaft of the steering-oar.

In the cabin squats the figure of the owner of the boat; he has his right arm forward at an angle of about 45 degrees and his left arm slightly forward. Behind him are two round-topped travelling trunks placed one on top of the other and painted red and yellow. All the standing sailors except the pilot, as well as the owner, still have the remains of the original fabric skirts. No facial features carved except noses; eyes are painted on. Arms are pegged to shoulders and cut off straight at ends; hands are not shaped.

As received by the Museum the mast and rigging were in disorder, but photographs taken by the excavator on the site show that the mast, yards and rigging, and the rolled-up sail originally rested in part on the cabin top and in part on the figures of the crew. The spars are slight twigs with much of the original bark and the minimum of trimming, and the same comment applies to two quant-poles on which men are shown as pushing; these were 'in situ' when the boat was found.

The boat comes from the tomb of Sobkhetepi (no. 723), and was found lying on top of the outer wooden coffin, together with a second boat, a model granary, a model of brewing, baking and butchering, and a wooden figure of a serving-girl with a basket on her head (not in the collection).

Catalog: EA41574
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Hetepnebi
Tenth Dynasty: 2 130 BC - 2 040 BC

Row boat of Sebekhetepi


Painted wooden model of a boat propelled by oars. The crew of the boat comprises four pairs of oarsmen, a pilot and a helmsman. When found, this boat, like its companion, was provided with a mast, sail and rigging, which have not survived.


Wooden model boat under oars. The solid hull has a slight sheer sloping sharply up to the stern, which has a small block notched for a steering-oar. Gunwales, thwarts, and the central deck-strip are painted in red on a white deck, with seven white rectangles on each side and a small mast-space.

The point of the fore-deck is painted black, the exterior of the hull in white. A steering-oar with tiller and steering-post were present originally. The oar was secured to the notch in the stern but not to the steering-post.

Four oars belonging to this boat were found in the tomb; only one was found actually in place, in the hands of the third rower from forward on the starboard side, but the excavator replaced the three loose oars in the hands of the other starboard rowers.

The pilot is seated in the bows facing forward with right arm extended at an angle of about 40 degrees, as if using a sounding-pole ( or a quant for poling - Don ), and the left arm is hanging down.

There are four pairs of rowers amidships. The helmsman is aft in the same attitude as the pilot. Owing to the fact that the steering-oar was not secured to the steering-post as it should have been, the helmsman did not in fact hold the tiller as his attitude suggests.

The bodies of the crew are red, their features are roughly indicated and the eyes are painted on in white and black, the wigs are black, and the skirts white. All the crew except the helmsman when found still had fabric skirts as well. The arms and hands of crew are represented by straight bars of wood pierced with holes to take the butts of oars, and are pegged and glued (?) to the shoulders. Skirts and legs are represented by solid blocks carved in one piece as trunks and are painted white.

This boat had suffered losses before reaching the Museum. Photographs taken 'in situ' show that originally the mast, yards, rigging, and furled sail were laid horizontally on the shoulders of the rowers and the spars are thin twigs with much of their original bark.

Catalog: EA41575
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Hetepnebi
Tenth Dynasty: 2 130 BC - 2 040 BC

Granary of Sebekhetepi


Wooden funerary model of a granary, made of painted wood and grain, comprising a granary and five figures, from the tomb of the official Sebekhotep. The model building has a doorway painted red and yellow ( on the right - Don ).

A ladder leads between two levels (its original position is not certain). The granary is filled with grain and juniper berries. Workmen on the lower level handle grain, one of them carrying a sack.


A scribe sits on the upper level recording on a writing board the amounts of grain being stored or issued; a representation of his palette is painted onto the writing board beside his hand. Beside him sits a figure apparently directing the workmen below. There are hieratic jottings on the walls. These perhaps recorded different amounts and types of grain, but are now illegible.

Height 210 mm, widthe 300 mm, depth 358 mm.

Catalog: EA41573
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




model brewing butchery
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Wooden model from the tomb of Sebekhetepi

Painted wooden model representing baking, brewing, and butchery, from the tomb of Sebekhetepi at Beni Hasan, Middle Kingdom, 2125-1795 BC.

A group of wooden servant figures, originally dressed in miniature linen garments, are shown engaged in the preparation of food and drink for the deceased. A man pounds grain in a mortar, while a squatting woman tends the bread oven, and a second woman grinds grain on a quern.


One man strains mash into a vat to make beer, while another carries two jars suspended from a yoke. A butcher slaughters a trussed ox with a knife.

Catalog: EA41576
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

model brewing butchery
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Wooden model from the tomb of Sebekhetepi

Six figures engaged in brewing and butchering from tomb 723 of Sebekhetepi at Beni Hasan, Middle Kingdom, 2125-1795 BC.

From the Middle Kingdom period.


Dimensions 496 mm x 243 mm.

Catalog: EA41576
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




The Art of the Early Middle Kingdom

In the wake of the regional conflicts that raged throughout the First Intermediate Period, the reunification of the land spread out from Thebes: by 2040 BC, Mentuhotep II was ruler of a unified Egypt. Artistic production had already begun to rediscover its fundamental rules under his predecessors, if at first mostly in the field of two-dimensional wall carvings. The newly regulated political and social structures are reflected in the definite structure and confident draughtsmanship of the reliefs on royal and private stelae. The dynamism inherent in this new beginning is apparent in the energetically powerful style of the reliefs from the funerary temple of Mentuhotep II, which also documents the sculptors reacquired technical perfection. The Munich fragments came from the chapel of Kemsit, one of six wives of Mentuhotep, who, in view of her facial features and curly hairstyle, probably came from Nubia in the south.

Text above: © Ägyptischen Museum München

Relief fragment
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Relief fragment from the mortuary temple of Pharaoh Mentuhotep II

In particular, it came from the Chapel of Kemsit, one of six wives of Mentuhotep, who, in view of her facial features and curly hairstyle shown here, probably came from Nubia in the south.

Height: 370 mm, Width: 335 mm

Middle Kingdom, 11th dynasty, around 2030 BC

Catalog: Limestone, Deir el-Bahari (Thebes West), ÄS 1621
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München
Additional text: http://www.leben-in-luxor.de/luxor_lexikon_museen_smaek2.html, http://www.mentuhotep.de/museen/muenchen/muenchen.htm




Relief fragment
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Relief fragment from the mortuary temple of Pharaoh Mentuhotep II

In particular, it came from the Chapel of Kemsit, one of six wives of Mentuhotep, shown in the fragment further up this page.

Middle Kingdom, 11th dynasty, around 2030 BC.

Catalog:
Deir el-Bahari (Thebes West), Limestone, ÄS 3390, Fragment with remnants of the title Mentuhotep Nebhepetres.
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München
Additional text: http://www.leben-in-luxor.de/luxor_lexikon_museen_smaek2.html, http://www.mentuhotep.de/museen/muenchen/muenchen.htm




Relief fragment Relief fragment



Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Relief fragment from the mortuary temple of Pharaoh Mentuhotep II

In particular, it came from the Chapel of Kemsit, one of six wives of Mentuhotep, shown in the fragment further up this page.

Middle Kingdom, 11th dynasty, around 2030 BC.

Catalog:
Deir el-Bahari (Thebes West), Sandstone, ÄS 1617
Height: 11.5 cm. Width: 12.5 cm, Presentation of the King with the Red Crown.
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018, 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München
Additional text: http://www.leben-in-luxor.de/luxor_lexikon_museen_smaek2.html, http://www.mentuhotep.de/museen/muenchen/muenchen.htm




Relief fragment



Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Relief fragment from the mortuary temple of Pharaoh Mentuhotep II

Middle Kingdom, 11th dynasty, around 2030 BC.

Catalog: ÄS 7114
Origin: Deir el-Bahri; 11. Dynasty
Material: Limestone
Height: 120 mm. Width: 188 mm
Window ornamentation from one of the shrines of the Mentuhotep temple.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München
Additional text: http://www.leben-in-luxor.de/luxor_lexikon_museen_smaek2.html, http://www.mentuhotep.de/museen/muenchen/muenchen.htm




Relief fragment Relief fragment



Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Relief fragment from the mortuary temple of Pharaoh Mentuhotep II

Middle Kingdom, 11th dynasty, around 2 030 BC.

Catalog: ÄS 7117
Origin: Deir el-Bahri, 11th dynasty
Material: limestone, remains of black paint
Height: 125 mm. Width: 113 mm
Royal figure.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018, 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München
Additional text: http://www.leben-in-luxor.de/luxor_lexikon_museen_smaek2.html, http://www.mentuhotep.de/museen/muenchen/muenchen.htm




dsc00348canopicheadlidsm
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Canopic jar from the Tomb of Pharaoh Mentuhotep II


Wooden lid in the shape of the head of Pharaoh Mentuhotep II from a Canopic jar.

Height of head 165 mm.


The complete find consisted of this painted wooden head as well as five calcite fragments from a canopic jar.

The jars of Pharaoh Mentuhotep II were made of calcite, but only fragments of them were recovered from his plundered tomb. This lid is the earliest securely datable example in the form of a human head.

Catalog: Painted wood, Deir el-Bahri (Thebes): Temple of Mentuhotep II: Tomb of Mentuhotep II, EA47628
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




DSC06078hathorreliefsm
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 - 1 991 BC

Pharaoh Mentuhotep II


Pharaoh Mentuhotep II drinks at the udder of Hathor, portrayed as a cow, 2 061 BC - 2 010 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, painted, West Thebes, Deir el-Bahari, Inv. Nr. 1935.200.62
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




dsc00312mummyclothsm
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 BC - 1 991 BC

Linen mummy cloth with blue border from the mortuary temple of Pharaoh Mentuhotep II

Late 11th Dynasty, about 2 000 BC.

The woven blue border suggests that this cloth belonged to a piece of domestic linen before its reuse as part of the wrappings of a mummy.


Catalog: Deir el-Bahri, funerary monument of King Mentuhotep II, Tomb 3, EA40923
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Text: Card at museum display © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




DSC00820servantleftsm
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 134 BC - 1 991 BC

Female servant


Painted wooden statue of a female servant carrying offerings. Late 11th Dynasty, circa 2 000 BC.

Catalog: Deir el-Bahri, funerary complex of Mentuhotep II, Tomb 5, EA41673
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




boat


boat


boat


boat


Eleventh - Twelfth Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 802 BC

Models of two boats.


Note the pilot in each of the boats standing on the prow, directing the rowers which direction to take.

Catalog: Wood, Museumsstiftung Post und Telekommunikation, Museum für Kommunikation Berlin 3.2010.2781 + 2
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Statuettes of the Middle Kingdom

In the old kingdom, non-royal statuary was only ever found within a single context: the tomb. Starting in the Middle Kingdom, an additional location was added, namely the temple. As inscriptions attest, the placement of smaller figures of officials, priests, priestesses and their families within the temple was a sign of particular favour from the king.

Text above: © Ägyptischen Museum München

munich egyptian exhibits

Eleventh - Twelfth Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 802 BC

Naked Man

Standing-striding figure of a naked man. Middle Kingdom, circa 2000 BC.

Catalog: Copper / Assiut / ÄS 1591
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




munich egyptian exhibits

Eleventh - Twelfth Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of Kai

Stela of Kai, chief of the desert hunters with his favourite hounds. Middle Kingdom, circa 2000 BC.

Catalog: Kamula (?), limestone, ÄM 22820
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_4130stelesm
Eleventh - Twelfth Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 802 BC



Sen-tes-irj and his wife Su-ten-hen-aftenu

The mortuary stela of Sen-tes-irj and his wife Su-ten-hen-aftenu. They stand in front of the offering table with gifts.

This stele dates from the Middle Kingdom around 2 000 BC - 1 700 BC.

Catalog: Inv. No. H 412
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe Germany
Additional text: http://www.moin-monja.de/egypt/Museen/karlsruhe_museum/karlsruhe_museum-b/karlsruhe_museum-2.htm




kitchen model


Eleventh - Twelfth Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 802 BC

Model of a kitchen.


Workers grinding, baking, and brewing.

At the time of the Middle and New kingdoms, flour was made by pounding the grain in large mortars with pestles. In order to get finer flour, the grain was rolled between two stones, as may be seen in this model.

The stove was a blunted cone of Nile mud, open at the top and about a metre high. The fire was burning on the inside, with flames and smoke coming out of the top, and the cakes were stuck on the outside of the stove, as may be seen here, though there appears to be a lid on the stove in this instance to control the rate of burn, like a damper.

The brewing of beer was a very important part of the kitchen. Beer was the favourite drink of the Egyptian people, and even the deceased in their state of bliss could not get on without beer any more than without bread. The drink was in favour at all times of ancient Egypt.

Catalog: Saqqara, wood, ÄM 1366
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Erman (1894)




DSC00811ploughingmodelsm
Eleventh - Twelfth Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 802 BC

Ploughing


Painted wooden model of peasants ploughing. The plough is drawn by a yoke of oxen. One of the two figures of labourers is missing.

Catalog: Provenance unknown, EA51091
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




stela
Eleventh/Twelfth Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of Usekhu

Stela of the Overseer of the Cabinet, Usekhu

Circa 2 000 BC.

Catalog: limestone, Abydos, ÄS 33
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




dsc07393spoonssm


Eleventh - Twentieth Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 075 BC

Wooden ointment spoons


Catalog: Unidentified, but two of Amarna, Memphis, Theben West, ÄM 4699/4, ÄM 6761, ÄM 12760, ÄM 35431, Z 4402, Z 4404
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)








The Twelfth Dynasty

1 991 BC - 1 802 BC


Twelfth Dynasty
Name Horus (Throne) Name Consort Burial Years Dates Comments
Amenemhat I Sehetepibre Neferitatjenen Pyramid of Amenemhat I 29 1 991 BC - 1 962 BC Amenemhat I made Senusret his co-regent (around the twentieth year of his reign), and was later assassinated
Senusret I Kheperkare Neferu III Pyramid of Senusret I 45 1 971 BC - 1 926 BC Senusret was with his army fighting Libyans when his father was assassinated, and had to return quickly in order to ensure his succession
Amenemhat II Nubkhaure Kaneferu
Keminub
White Pyramid 34 1 929 BC - 1 895 BC  
Senusret II Khakheperre Khenemetneferhedjet I
Neferet II
Itaweret
Khnemet
Pyramid at El-Lahun 19 1 897 BC - 1 878 BC  
Senusret III
(also known as
Sesostris III)
Khakhaure Meretseger
Neferthenut
Khnemetneferhedjet II
Sithathoriunet
Pyramid at Dahshur 39 1 878 BC - 1 839 BC  
Amenemhat III Nimaatre Aat
Hetepi
Khnemetneferhedjet III
Black Pyramid
Pyramid at Hawara
46 1 860 BC - 1 814 BC  
Amenemhat IV Maakherure   Southern Mazghuna Pyramid
Pyramid at Hawara
9 1 815 BC - 1 806 BC  
Queen Sobekneferu Sobekkare   Northern Mazghuna Pyramid 4 1 806 BC - 1 802 BC  


Table of Twelfth Dynasty Rulers, adapted from various sources, including Wikipedia.




sphinx sphinx


sphinx
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Great sphinx found in Tanis, of granite.

Height 183 cm, length 480 cm, width 154 cm.

The sphinx is a monstrous being, with a lion's body and a king's head. It was inscribed successively with the names of the kings Amenemhat II (1 898 - 1 866 BC, 12th Dynasty), Merenptah (1 213 - 1 203 BC, 19th Dynasty) and Chechonq I (945 - 924 BC, 22nd dynasty). Archaeologists see in some details the index of a later period, the Old Kingdom (around 2 600 BC).


According to archaeologists, certain details suggest that this sphinx dates to an earlier period - the Old Kingdom (c. 2600 BC). Tanis.

This is one of the largest sphinxes outside of Egypt. It was found in 1825 among the ruins of the Temple of Amun at Tanis (the capital of Egypt during the 21st and 22nd dynasties). This impressive stone sculpture with its precise details and polished surfaces is a work of admirable craftsmanship. The recumbent lion, with tense body and outstretched claws, gives the impression of being ready to leap.

The shen hieroglyph sculpted on the plinth under each paw evokes a cartouche, confirming the royal nature of the monument. Modifications The legible inscriptions are all 'usurpations', i.e. traces of subsequent modifications to the monument. The names of Merneptah (19th Dynasty) and Sheshonq (22nd Dynasty) are legible. The original texts (traces of which are still visible in places) were deliberately erased and replaced. It is therefore impossible to date this statue with certainty, especially as the face does not resemble any known, well-documented royal portrait. In view of this uncertainty, Egyptologists are divided: some date the sphinx to the 12th Dynasty, others to the 6th or even the 4th.

Catalog: Granite, A 23, Sully, Entresol, Crypte du sphinx, Salle 338
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source and text: Original, Musée du Louvre
Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr/




IMG_6161generalnesmontusm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

General Nesmontu


Block statue of General Nesmontu.

Circa 1 950 BC.

Catalog: Anorthosite gneiss, Thebes (?), ÄS 7148
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




DSC00820servantrightsm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Female Servant


Painted wooden statue of a female servant carrying offerings, circa 1 950 BC.

Catalog: Provenance unknown, EA29595
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




IMG_6162headblockstatuesm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Block Statue


Head from a block statue.

Circa 1 900 BC.

Catalog: Granite, Sakkara (?), ÄS 5570
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




dsc07015manwalking12thdynastysm dsc07808manwalking12thdynastysm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Standing/walking man

From the reign of Senusret II, 1 897 BC - 1 878 BC.

Dimensions 102 x 29 x 40 mm

The type of standing walking figure has been documented for private individuals and kings alike since the beginning of Egyptian history, both in everyday life and in the grave equipment. This small figure, which was found in a grave right next to the mummy, represents the deceased who wanted to continue living with this replacement body in the hereafter.

The special feature of the standing walking motif is the far forward left leg, the entire sole of which touches the ground. As a result, the leg was artificially represented, giving the impression of a special dynamic, on the one hand standing stable, on the other hand actively reaching out.


( I find the proportions of this figure unusual - the head seems disproportionately large, and the calves short and thick, with a small torso and large and heavy hips and thighs.

http://www.egyptian-museum-berlin.com/c51.php describes this figure as being depicted with a permanent physical disability - Don 
)

Catalog: Wood, Abusir, mR2 and mR 3 (tomb) ÄM 16600
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07811head_1999sm


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Statue of a man

Upper part of a statue of a man, circa 1 872 BC - 1 853 BC

Catalog: Limestone, Sesostris III, VÄGM 1999/199
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




DSC06045amenemhetsm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Amenemhet II

Stela from the grave of Amenemhet II, circa 1 866 BC

12th year of rule of Amenemhet II.

The visitor to the tomb is supposed to 'animate/activate' the offerings to Amenemhet and Kern by reading the hieroglyphic inscription on the stele and by pronouncing it.

The magic of the word, which, according to the firm belief of the Egyptians, could bring about this, could also be used against a recipient of sacrifice, for anyone who has the power to give could of course also use it to take.

Catalog: Limestone, probably from Abydos
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




munich egyptian exhibits
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Female Figure

Upper half of a female figure.

Middle kingdom, 12th Dynasty, circa 1 850 BC.

Catalog: Granite, ÄS 7218
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München



DSC00821granarymodelsm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Granary


Painted wooden model of a granary, circa 1 850 BC.

The granary comprises a courtyard, silos with sliding hatches, and steps leading to an upper storey. A woman is represented in the courtyard, grinding grain on a quern, and a seated figure of the owner of the tomb is positioned on the upper level. This model was found in the same tomb as the funerary boat EA9524, shown below.

Catalog: Thebes, EA2463
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




DSC00833potteryhousesm DSC00834potteryhousesm



Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Soul Houses


(left) Pottery model building with winding staircase and turreted enclosure wall.

Dimensions: Length 418 mm, width 315 mm.

(right) Pottery model building with four arched doorways.

Dimensions: Height 112 mm, length 262 mm, width 245 mm.

The graves of the poor were often simple shafts, without a mortuary-chapel for the ritual provisioning of the dead. To supply this need a pottery offering-platter or model house was often deposited at the mouth of the shaft. The platters contain a water basin and a range of food offerings. The more elaborate 'soul houses' as shown here incorporated a house to serve as a dwelling for the spirit.

Catalog: Pottery, provenance unknown, EA32611, EA32613
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




DSC00828funeraryboatsm


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Funerary Boat


Painted wooden model of a funerary boat, circa 1 850 BC.

A number of tombs contained models of funerary boats. This one was found in the same tomb as the model granary, EA2463, shown above. The boat represents the mummy lying under a central canopy, attended by mourners and a priest. These models may have represented the funeral voyage across the Nile to the necropolis, or provided a means for the deceased to make pilgrimages to holy sites, particularly those associated with the cult of Osiris, such as Abydos and Busiris.

( The boat appears to have been sculled with the large paddles at the rear, rather than being propelled by a sail or by banks of rowers or paddlers, as in models of larger boats - Don )

Catalog: Thebes, EA9524
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




DSC00829oarsm


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Funerary Boat Oar


Close up of a painted wooden model of a funerary boat oar, circa 1 850 BC.

( note the Wedjat eyes on the oar to provide protection from harm, and the one on the bow of the ship in the image above - Don )

The Eye of Horus, also known as wadjet, wedjat or udjat, is an ancient Egyptian symbol of protection, royal power, and good health. Ancient Egyptian and Middle-Eastern sailors would frequently paint the symbol on the bows of their vessels to ensure safe sea travel.

Catalog: Thebes, EA9524
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia




DSC00827sailboatsm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Model Boat


Painted wooden model of a boat with a sail.

The netherworld was believed to have many waterways and canals, so boats were needed to allow the deceased to travel. Alternatively, there were spells in the Coffin texts and the Book of the Dead for the same purpose.

Wooden models of boats regularly appeared in burial assemblages from the end of the Old Kingdom to the mid-Twelfth Dynasty, and they occur occasionally in a few later tombs.

Often two were provided - one propelled by oars, for northward travel, the other with a sail to catch the prevailing winds from the north when travelling south. These models provide much information about Egyptian boat-building, sailing, and navigation.

Catalog: Provenance unknown, EA35292
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




dsc07810ptah_wersm dsc07084ptah_wersm


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Ptah-wer

Squatting figure of the chief steward Ptah-wer, circa 1 850 BC - 1 802 BC

Catalog: Granite, Memphis, District of the Ptah Temple, ÄM 8808
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




DSC09653torsoqueensm IMG_6217torsoqueensm


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Female Figure


Torso from the statue of a woman (Queen?). Height 295 mm.

Circa 1 800 BC

Probably from the funerary temple of Pharaoh Amenemhat III at Hawara (Fayoum)

Catalog: Limestone, ÄS 6979
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München
Additional text: Schoske & Wildung (2013)




IMG_6142crocodilesm


IMG_6143crocodilesm


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Crocodile


Cult statue of a crocodile.

Circa 1 800 BC

Catalog: Copper and electrum, Fayum (?), ÄS 7148
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




DSC09677backofwigsm IMG_6141wigsm


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Royal Headdress


Royal headdress from the figure of a sphinx.

Circa 1 800 BC.

Catalog: Copper, remains of gilding, Fayum (?), ÄS 7206
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




DSC09676officialsm DSC09676officialsm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

High Official


Standing-striding figure of a high official.

Circa 1 800 BC.

Catalog: Copper, silver, Fayum (?), ÄS 7105
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




IMG_6147amenemhatiiism DSC09678amenemhatiiism
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Pharaoh Amenemhat III


Standing-striding figure of Pharaoh Amenemhat III.

Circa 1 800 BC.

Catalog: Copper, gold, electrum, rock crystal, Fayum (?), ÄS 6982
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




IMG_6139asianofficialsm DSC09681asianofficialsm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Asiatic official


Head from the statue of an Asiatic official.

Circa 1 800 BC - 1 750 BC

Catalog: Limestone, ÄS 7171
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




Ankhef
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Ankhef

Painted wooden coffin and mummy (not on display in 2015) of Ankhef.

Ankhef's coffin is made of tamarisk wood. The decoration includes hieroglyphic texts requesting funerary offerings, and a pair of eyes to enable the dead man to look towards the east. Squatting figures at the ends of the coffin represent the four sons of Horus, whose duty was to protect the internal organs. Coffins of this type are among the first to include such representations of gods among their decoration.


Catalog: EA46631
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Ankhef


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Ankhef

Painted wooden coffin and mummy of Ankhef.

Catalog: EA46631
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Ankhef


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Ankhef

Painted wooden coffin lid of Ankhef, with the mummy on display in the coffin, in 2018.

Catalog: EA46631
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Ankhef
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Ankhef

The mummy on display in the coffin.

Catalog: EA46631
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Ankhef
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Ankhef

The mummy on display in the coffin.

Catalog: EA46631
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Ankhef
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Ankhef

Ankhef was a mature adult at the time of his death. His teeth were well worn, and he suffered from osteoarthritis in the spine and left hip. The mummy originally lay in the coffin on his left side, the face aligned with the eyes painted on the coffin. A wooden headrest was placed inside the coffin to support the head.

Catalog: EA46631
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Ankhef
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Ankhef

The mummy is wrapped in strips and sheets of linen and a painted cartonnage mask has been placed over the head. This presents an idealised image of the dead man and, in the fashion of the early Middle Kingdom, a beard and moustache are depicted. The soft tissues of the body have not survived, and X-rays show that the bones are in disorder.

Aged 45 or upwards, this man suffered from osteo-arthritis of the spine and the left hip. The absence of lines of arrested growth suggests a healthy childhood. All soft tissues have vanished and the disorganisation of the skeleton is due to the disappearance of the ligaments, capsules, etc.

Skull, Thorax, Spinal Column, and Abdomen - These are completely disorganised. The lower jaw has been dislocated and is almost edentulous. One of the bones of the skull is in the region of the left iliac fossa. All the ribs are dislocated but not fractured. Many of the vertebrae appear to be missing but two lumbar vertebrae are still articulated. These show evidence of osteo-arthritis with gross lipping. Many loose teeth with worn caps lie amongst the bones. No evidence of viscera, packing material, or amulets. Complete dislocation of the sacrum and pubic symphysis. Well-marked osteo-arthritic changes involve the left hip. No fractures seen.


Arms - Extended, dislocated at the shoulder and elbow joints. Hands, with extended fingers, in pubic region. No fractures seen.Legs - The bones appear healthy and are free from fractures and lines of arrested growth. Both ankles are dislocated and the right os calcis is lying free at the foot end of the coffin.The mummy, lying in a deep, rectangular wooden coffin with painted gesso including hieroglyphic text, is wrapped in fine cloth, and the head and thorax are covered by a painted cartonnage mask and breast plate. A wooden headrest is placed by the side of the head.

Catalog: EA46631
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Ankhef
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Bow and arrows, and a walking stick.

These were found on the lid of the coffin. The bow, 1691 mm long, is made from acacia. The arrows are made of reeds, and are circa 800 mm long.

Catalog: (bow and arrows) EA47570
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0



Ankhef
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Arrows

( the arrows have 'chisel' tips, and were designed specifically for hunting birds in the marshes bordering the Nile. The bindings and much of the flint tips have been covered with a glue which is light in colour - Don )

Catalog: (bow and arrows) EA47570
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0



flint points

Similar arrow tips to those above, known as trapezoid microliths, were used by ice age hunters in Denmark for hunting birds and small game.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark




Ankhef
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Ankhef

Interior of tomb 9 at Asyut. Reconstruction by Claire Thorne, based on the excavation records of David Hogarth. The coffin of Ankhef stands in a small rock-cut chamber reached by a steeply inclined shaft. Some of the offering bowls from the upper chamber are displayed in this case, as is the model grain silo which stood on the lid of one of the undecorated coffins.

The mummy of Ankhef was discovered by D.G. Hogarth in 1907, in a small rock-cut tomb (no. 9) in the necropolis of the city of Asyut. The tomb was discovered undisturbed, and contained four burials. Two of these, in plain uninscribed coffins were place end to end behind a screen of plaster, brick and stone. A third undecorated coffin lay in the area immediately behind the door of the tomb. The coffin of Ankhef was positioned at the south-east corner of the tomb, concealed by a partition made from parts of old coffins. A stick and bow and arrows lay on the lid of the coffin. Pottery vessels had been laid on the floor in front of the partition, perhaps representing Ankhef's funerary offerings.


The bodies had been searched for valuables at the time of burial, as indicated by disturbed wrappings and in the case of Ankhef the displacement of the headrest in the coffin. Evidence of theft was found in many of the undisturbed tombs in this cemetery, and was probably carried out by those responsible for the burial.

Original artwork: Claire Thorne
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Poster, British Museum © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0






dsc07613duckreceptaclesm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Vessel in the form of a duck

Middle kingdom, 12th Dynasty

Catalog: Wood, ÄM 6774
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_9956jarconvexlidsm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Calcite Canopic Jar


Jars with shallow convex lids such as this were characteristic of the Old Kingdom (late 4th to 6th Dynasties), but were still occasionally used in the Middle Kingdom.

Diameter 170 mm, height 260 mm, circa 1 985 BC - 1 795 BC.

Catalog: Calcite, Deir el-Bersha, EA35083
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_9955headliddedjarsm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Calcite Canopic Jar


Calcite Canopic Jar with painted wooden lid.

Diameter 178 mm, height 295 mm, circa 1 985 BC - 1 795 BC

Catalog: Calcite body, wooden human-headed lid coated in plaster (?), Deir el-Bersha, EA35084
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




dsc07672granarysm dsc07673granaryrearsm


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Model of a granary


Catalog: Siut, Wood, ÄM 12548
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




munich egyptian exhibits munich egyptian exhibits Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Figure of a man.

Standing-striding figure of a man. Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty, circa 1 850 BC.
Catalog: Serpentinite, ÄS 5368
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München



munich egyptian exhibits
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Sobekhotep

Seated figure of Sobekhotep and his wife. Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty, circa 1 880 BC, made of Syenite.

Syenite is a coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock with a general composition similar to that of granite, but deficient in quartz, which, if present at all, occurs in relatively small concentrations (less than 5%).

Catalog: Syenite / Fayum / GL. 99
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München
Additional text: Wikipedia




Chertihotep with a Hes-vase Chertihotep with a Hes-vase


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Chertihotep


Seated figure of the head of the estate, or steward, Chertihotep / Nemti-hotep Circa 1 850 BC

Quartzite

From the reign of Sesostris III, 1 872 BC - 1 853 BC.

Dimensions: 765 x 250 x 440 mm.

With the Middle Kingdom, a new factor affected and invigorated Egyptian art: the desire for representation. This desire is documented both in royal and private sculptures. Although most of the private statues were still created for the grave, royal permission allowed private individuals to erect statues in temples so as to be represented before the gods, but also to publicly emphasise the social position of the owner . This possibility, as well as the exact study of physiognomy and anatomy, allowed works of exceptional quality to emerge, and the perfection of the art of the Middle Kingdom was still regarded as 'Classical Art' in later times, and provided stimulating examples to follow.

In the late Twelfth Dynasty, the 'rediscovery' of the strongly personal image of the old age took place, following examples from the Old Kingdom. From now on, the human face drawn from life was central to the representations. Portraits of full individual traits emerge, although filtered through the mask of royal portraits. Thus the figure of Chertihotep, the master of the estate, also shows the characteristic features which are to be found in the royal images of this period.

Eyes, ears, the mouth with slightly bent corners, and cheek surfaces, however, are more formalistic than those of the royal models. A correct official mien, but also a healthy self-confidence characterise the facial expression. Chertihotep sits on a stool with low backrest. His body is enveloped by a close-fitting mantle, which uniquely emphasises the strictly self-contained, tension-loaded body structure of the figure and directs the main attention entirely to the fine, sensitively modeled facial features. You see a face full of plastic vitality. The waves of the wig are only slightly indicated, and lead to an almost block-like body, the contours of which are distinctly under the mantle.

The hands, too, which are held flat, are also arranged to keep the mantle closed. On the other hand, the feet, which are designed with soft, anatomically accurate and detailed lines, are quite different.

Catalog: Quartzite, el Burg el Hamam (east bank of Siut / Assiut), ÄM 15700
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




sesostris


sesostris



Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Overseer Sesostris


Stela of the chamberlain Sesostris, circa 1 976 BC - 1 794 BC

Rectangular stela, four lines of offering text and appeal to the living, with Senusert, Overseer of the antechamber, seated at table. His wife is standing behind him, and his son below the chair, his sister Renefankh and her daughter before them, and three registers of relatives, including father Antef and mother Neferyt.

1st half of Dyn. XII, formerly in G. Anastasi colln., now in Berlin, Ägyptisches Museum.

Catalog: Limestone, Abydos (?), ÄM 1188
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf




sesostris sesostris
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Pharaoh Sesostris I


Upper part of a kneeling figure of Pharaoh Sesostris / Senusret I, circa 1 950 BC.

Catalog: Gneiss, ÄM 1205
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




stela of Senusret I stela of Senusret I
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of Senusret I

Red granite stela of Senusret I, 12th Dynasty, circa 1940 BC - 1950 BC, from Philae.

The scene at the top shows the Horus-name of the king between the figures of Khnum and Satet, deities of the First Cataract region.

Round-topped red granite stela; incised detail in two registers; upper: Horus-name of Senusret I between figures of Satis and Khnum; lower: seven rows of Hieroglyphic text.

Height 1092 mm, width 648 mm

Senwosret I (circa 1965 BC - 1920 BC) carried out a very active building programme all over Egypt. This stela stood in or near a chapel in Elephantine that he erected on Egypt's southern frontier. The chapel contained statues and offering tables, as well as decorated blocks. The stela was made of a slab of granite, roughly finished on the rear, indicating it may have been set into the wall of the chapel.


The stela shows the god Khnum offering life to the Horus name of the king, with Khnum's consort Satet, standing at the left. Khnum, Satet, and their daughter Anuket were the local deities of Elephantine and the region of the First Cataract. Below are the remains of six damaged lines of hieroglyphs.

The purpose of the stela, and the whole chapel, was to stress the presence and importance of Senwosret in the Elephantine area. It also emphasized his piety and the importance of his relationship with the deities of the region.

Catalog: EA963
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): Google Arts and Culture, https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/granite-stela-of-senwosret-i/8QEaVLW6KV-dng?hl=en




egypt


egypt


egypt


egypt



Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Chancellor Nakhti


Circa 1 950 BC - 1 900 BC, at the beginning of the 12th Dynasty from the tomb of Chancellor Nakhti.

Painted wooden model of a boat.

Twelfth Dynasty, reign of Sesostris I, Assiut, tomb no. 7. Sesostris I ( Hellenization of the original Senuosret I, or Sunusret I ) was an Egyptian ruler of the 12th dynasty .

Chancellor Nakhti's largest statue is on the first floor, in room 23.

His tomb in Assiut, in Middle Egypt, is a good example of a notable provincial burial in the Middle Kingdom, with its rectangular sarcophagus, its model tools and models of farm activities.

When French archeologists explored the necropolis of Assiut in Middle Egypt in 1903, they unearthed twenty-six tombs, twenty-one of which had escaped pillagers for nearly four millennia. The tomb they named no. 7 is Chancellor Nakhti's tomb, whose offering chapel and four burial chambers provided the largest cache of funerary furniture and equipment on the site, both in terms of quantity and quality. The finds were divided between the Cairo Museum and the Louvre Museum.

Two alcoves were dug in the stone of the chapel's north and west walls. They held two wooden statues designed for Nakhti's funerary cult. Alongside them were accessories and models designed to perpetuate the offerings that had to be provided for eternity.

The hull of this wooden model has a traditional crescent profile. Its ends end in a vertical structure. Eight rowers are led by a sounder standing at the bow whose duty it was to test the depth of water with his pole, given the many shifting sandbanks under the Nile River. The rear pivot rudders at the rear consist of two oars controlled by the helmsman. The sail and the yards were dismantled and stored on a rack above to free up room for the rowers.

Catalog: Nakhti's tomb at Assiut, Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Le Nil, Salle 336, Vitrine 2, le Nil, E 12027
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source and text: Louvre Museum, Paris, France
Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr/, https://www.louvre.fr/, http://www.marine-antique.net/Modele-reduit-de-Nakhti?lang=es, Wikipedia



bakery model bakery model


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Model of a bakery.


Workers grinding and baking.

Catalog: Achmim, wood, ÄM 10828
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07246hedgehogsm img_2612hedgehogasm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Hedgehog.


Faience, blue, dark blue; painted, circa 1 800 BC

Dimensions: 50 x 55 x 93 mm


The hedgehog has been very popular since prehistoric times because it symbolises a peaceful nature. It appears in relief in the landscape of the Old Kingdom in landscapes, appears in the Middle Kingdom often as a small figure in grave goods, and is then represented again in the tomb paintings of the New Kingdom. Scaraboids and vessels are also preserved in hedgehog form, but the hedgehog has no religious significance.

Catalog: ÄM 10250
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: O. Anger




dsc07247shrewsm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Shrew

Figurine of a shrew, circa 1 800 BC

Catalog: Faience, ÄM 14976
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




munich egyptian exhibits
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Female Figure

Bust of a female figure.

Middle Kingdom, circa 1 800 BC.

Catalog: Syenite, ÄS 1561
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München



dsc07703ostrichesandibexsm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Hunting scene

Fragment of a relief, a hunting scene with ostriches and ibexes.

Catalog: Sandstone, ÄM 14593
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




hippopotamus
12th Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Sitting hippopotamus with open mouth and small resting hippopotamus


Faience, circa 1800 BC.

Catalog: ÄM 13890, ÄM 13892
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




offerings model
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Offering Bearers


Model of a group of offering bearers, circa 1 800 BC.

Catalog: Wood, VÄGM 1980/10
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Coffin of Gua


Coffin of Gua


Coffin of Gua
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Coffin of Gua


Eastern side of the rectangular wooden inner coffin of Gua.

Exterior: recessed and painted Hieroglyphic text and eye-panel. Interior: painted text and representations of offerings on walls. Painted plan of Underworld on floor. Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30840
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Coffin of Gua


Inner coffin.

Length 2249 mm. The lid of the inner coffin has been lost.

Part of the head-end wall is fragmentary, as shown in this image.

For fragment M4/DD/8:

Length 275 mm, width 50 mm , depth 70 mm, weight 174 grams.

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30840
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua Coffin of Gua


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Coffin of Gua


Western side of the rectangular wooden outer coffin of Gua.

Length 2605 mm, width 920 mm.

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30839
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua Coffin of Gua
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Coffin of Gua


The north facing head of the rectangular wooden outer coffin of Gua.

( note in particular the small pair of eyes painted on the inside of the coffin at the place where the mummy inside the inner coffin would have been placed on its left side so that it could look to the east. The small pair of eyes here would serve at the very least as a reminder for those preparing the burial of which way around to place the inner coffin, which had a matching pair of eyes on the outside, as above - Don )


Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30839
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Coffin of Gua


Wedjat eyes at the North Eastern end of the outer coffin. The coffin was oriented so that these eyes could magically look out to see the sunrise.

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30839
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Coffin of Gua


North Eastern corner of the outer coffin.

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30839
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Coffin of Gua


Northern end of the outer coffin. This side was damaged.

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30839
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua Coffin of Gua
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Coffin of Gua


Southern interior end of the outer coffin. ( note that the BM catalog does not seem to have an image of this - Don )

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30839
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua Coffin of Gua


Coffin of Gua


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Coffin of Gua


Interior walls of the rectangular wooden outer coffin of Gua, looking from the northern, head end.

Eastern wall shown in the left hand image, western on the right and below.

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30839
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




The coffins of Gua
The outer and inner coffins are made from large pieces of cedar wood. This imported timber was of superior quality to the native Egyptian woods, and its use for the main components of the coffin was a sign of the high status of the owner.

The coffins are similarly decorated. A pair of eyes on the east side enabled the dead man to look towards the rising sun. The horizontal and vertical inscriptions on the exterior request offerings and invoke the protection of various gods. The omission of a plastered or painted background allowed the distinctive grain of the costly cedarwood to be displayed.

The inner sides of the coffins symbolically represent the walls of the tomb, and are densely covered with religious inscriptions and images. Below an offering formula in coloured hieroglyphs comes a frieze of objects to equip the deceased for the afterlife. A large painted false door on the east side acted as a magical portal to enable Gua's spirit to pass in and out. The remaining areas contain extracts from the Coffin Texts.

These assisted Gua in his passage to the afterlife, and included a self-contained composition known as the Book of Two Ways. The texts of the outer coffin include one of the earliest known examples of the spell to activate shabtis, the funerary figurines.
Text above from a poster at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Coffin of Gua models
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Servant of Gua


Painted and gessoed wooden female figure with basket of loaves and meat on head.

This statuette is made from a native timber, probably tamarisk, and represents a servant carrying food offerings for the owner of the tomb. The basket on her head is filled with loaves and cakes, and the head and foreleg of an ox. In her right hand she probably carried a bird, now lost.

Height 380 mm.

Catalog: Wood and painted gesso, believed to be from the tomb of Gua, EA30716
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua model
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Statue of Gua himself


Although this figure is uninscribed, the pose and the costume and the use of an expensive wood, imported cedar, indicate that it represents the owner of the tomb, in this case Gua himself. In smaller Middle Kingdom tombs, without funerary chapels, statuettes of this type placed inside the coffin served as the vehicle by which the ka of the deceased could receive food and drink.

Wooden tomb statue of a man. The arms, fronts of the feet, and base were made separately. Both of the fists were drilled to hold implements now lost, probably a 'sekhem' sceptre in the right hand, possibly another baton or a rolled cloth in the left. Though the statue may have been entirely painted, all that survives is black on the hair, black and white on the eyes, and white on the finger- and toenails. The nipples were indicated by the inlaying of tiny bits of darker wood. His short curly hairdo was particularly popular during the Eleventh and early Twelfth Dynasties, for both men and women. His long kilt may be meant to indicate maturity here, despite the youthful hairstyle and body.

Circa 1 985 BC - 1 878 BC, height 340 mm, length of plinth 136 mm, width 105 mm.

Catalog: Believed to be from the tomb of Gua, EA30715
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua headrest
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Ivory headrest


The majority of headrests which have been found in tombs were made of wood or stone. Ivory specimens such as this one are very rare, and its fragility suggests that it was probably made specifically for the tomb. The two sides of the central support are carved in the shape of the Tit (the girdle of Isis) which symbolises the protection of the goddess.

Ivory head-rest. Open-work shaft in the form of two tjet-symbols ('Isis knots').


Height 155 mm, length 184 mm, width 67 mm, weight 545 grams.

Circa 1 985 BC - 1 878 BC,

Catalog: Believed to be from the tomb of Gua, EA30727
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua butchering model Coffin of Gua butchering model


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Model of butchering


Wooden model of butchers preparing meat for the deceased with seven figures, painted red, black and white.

The group shows two slaughtered oxen which are being cut up by men with large knives. The leg of one ox is on the butchers block, were it is being jointed.

Width 254 mm, length: 435 mm.

Circa 1 985 BC - 1 878 BC,

Catalog: Believed to be from the tomb of Gua, EA30718
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Model boat


Model boat


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Model boat


This painted wooden model boat carries, besides its owner, a crew of six oarsmen, a pilot, and a group of five soldiers. Shields and staves are also stored amidships. The post in the centre of the hull may have been substituted for an original mast. The paddles and steering oar have also been lost. The construction of the model illustrates the selection of different woods by the carpenter according to the task in hand.

The cloaked statuette of the owner, the most prestigious in the group, is carefully carved from cedar wood, as are the two posts and one of the staves - small components for which a wood with fine grain was required. All other figures, and the hull of the craft, are made from the less expensive and more coarsely grained indigenous sycomore.

This is a wooden model boat with paddlers and soldiers. The hull is narrow and shallow with a sheer-line curving sharply upwards at the stern, where there is a raised block notched for the steering-oar. The hull is painted red and the deck white with the usual deck-plan in red, though owing to the fading of the paint it is not possible to record the details with certainty. There may have been six pairs of spaces, but whether there was a mast-space remains doubtful. The deck has been hollowed from the original block of wood to leave gunwales on each side, but is so steeply cambered that amidships the longitudinal centre-line of the deck is above the level of the gunwales, which merge into the fore- and after-decks.

These decks are slightly raised and not cambered. In the case of the after-deck the line of the gunwales is continued by shallow grooves cut in the deck. The fore-deck may once have been painted red all over, and had a centre strip of which there remain only the mark where it once lay and a single peg-hole. About 13 mm to 25 mm has been lost from the bows. The after-deck also was once painted red all over. There is no mast or rigging; whether it was lost or originally non-existent is not clear. The place where a mast would normally stand is taken by a stout wooden post. There is a steering-post aft. The post is painted red and is circular in section on a square base and grooved at the top.

Amidships, where normally a mast would stand, is a second steering-post which certainly is misplaced; it is possible that the maker of the model substituted this post for the mast, perhaps because he was out of stock of masts. This second post is octagonal on a square base. The two side faces of the octagon are rounded off at the top of the post, which is deeply grooved. It is painted white on the shaft, red at the top, and white in the groove. At the foot the white paint has been partly overlaid with red. On either side of the steering-block the stern is pierced by two holes of uncertain purpose which may possibly have held lashings to hold the steering-oar in the notch.

There is another small hole on the starboard side of the after-deck which may once have held a peg for the helmsman, and there are others on the main deck with the stumps of pegs in them, though it is not clear what purpose they served. Amidships is a curious erection made of two long shields which are painted to represent oxhide with the stitching on the edges marked by black spots. The straight edges at the bottom rest against the gunwales and the rounded tops lean inwards on a thick post of circular section which rises a little above them. Each shield has two holes in it, perhaps for holding a thong for carrying. The post is painted to represent a covering of oxhide with two rows of stitching on the after side, with red on the top. It rises from a wooden object shaped like a small boat with a raised central portion. Around the flat surface of this object are nine holes with short wooden sticks in them, and there is one more in the raised portion. It shows traces of red paint on a white base and the posts were red with black tips, though but little paint now survives.

In the stern is a hole for the peg which once secured the figure of the missing helmsman. Forward of the steering-post is a group of five soldiers, of whom the aftermost is facing to larboard (left) while the other four look in the general direction of the stern. They carry a small shield on the left arm, which is sharply bent at the elbow with the fist close to the shoulder; the right arm of the aftermost soldier is missing. The middle figure on the larboard side holds his left arm straight down with the hand a little in front of the leg; it holds a thin straight object which may be intended either for a staff or a javelin. His opposite number on the starboard side has a short straight piece of wood in his right hand.

These men wear black wigs and white skirts extending just below the knee and white tunics covering their sides and meeting on the chest and back, though only on the aftermost figure is this garment indicated clearly; on the others the white paint partly has fallen away, leaving the red skin-colour beneath.

Between the curious erection amidships and the 'mast' is a seated figure of some dignity and most careful workmanship. It represents a squatting man covered completely except for his head in a long white cloak concealing his arms and wearing a short black wig. Despite the fact that this figure is on a smaller scale than the soldiers and crew, its fine execution and the all-enveloping cloak, as well as the squatting attitude, indicate that this is the owner of the vessel. His unwarlike garb and attitude, as well as the smallness of the squad of soldiers, suggest that the latter are merely an escort of armed retainers accompanying a magnate on his travels, and that this is not a war-boat. The relatively small size and the fine work of the figure of the owner show that it was carved independently by a skilled and sensitive craftsman, whereas the personnel of the boat give the impression of being just good-quality stock figures.

Forward of the 'mast' sit three pairs of paddlers with their handless arms sloping out and down at an angle of 45°-50°. The attitude is rather that of rowers, but the fact that the figures face forward indicates that they are paddlers - unless the maker of the model has blundered. The figures are red with black wigs and white skirts, but the legs are cut off below the knee, as if to suggest that the lower parts of the legs are hidden within the hull. In the bows stands the pilot with his arms stretched down and slightly forward and his legs slightly apart, facing to starboard (right). The features of the crew are only roughly indicated, but all of them, escort as well as paddlers, have their eyes painted on.

Length 1392 mm, depth 76 mm, width 222 mm.

Circa 1 985 BC - 1 878 BC.

Catalog: Believed to be from the tomb of Gua, EA35293
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Coffin of Gua


On the left, the the south facing foot of the rectangular wooden outer coffin of Gua.

On the right, Gua's canopic chest.

Wooden canopic chest of Gua of cubical shape with lid. Base supported on two wooden bars. Interior divided at low level by wooden partitions into four compartments for jars. Exterior has blue painted border at edges of box and lid. Sunk relief blue-painted hieroglyphic inscriptions on all external surfaces. Two crossing lines of text on lid. Sides have a horizontal line at the top and a vertical line down the middle. The chest contained four calcite canopic jars with painted wooden stoppers, each in the form of a human headed deity. Pale beige faces with black details and blue-painted wigs. Jars vary in shape from narrow to shouldered. Three retain remains of linen packages inside.

Height 530 mm, depth 550 mm, width 530 mm.

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30839, EA30838
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Canopic chest containing four jars


The internal organs of Gua's body were placed in four calcite jars with lids of painted wood. These in turn were stored in the tomb inside a cubic cedarwood chest, divided internally into four compartments. Three of the four jars retain their original contents. These consist of resin soaked linen packages, at least one of which contains the remains of an unidentified soft tissue.


The Canopic chests of this period closely resemble the rectangular coffins in form, construction and decoration. Symbolically, they served as coffins for the internal organs, which were preserved and wrapped as though they were miniature versions of the mummy. Divine protection for Gua's viscera is assured in the inscriptions on the four faces of the chest. These describe him as 'revered' by the four sons of Horus, and also by Isis, Nephthys, Neith, and Selkis. These four goddesses were believed to protect the sons of Horus, as a further assurance of the safety of the vulnerable organs.

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30838
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Canopic jars of  Gua Canopic jars of  Gua


Canopic jars of  Gua
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Canopic jar and lids


Canopic lids from the canopic chest of Gua.

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30838
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Canopic jars of  Gua Canopic jars of  Gua Canopic jars of  Gua


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Canopic Jars


Canopic jars to go with the lids above, from the canopic chest of Gua, as well as another complete jar and lid inside the chest.

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30838
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0






The Book of Two Ways
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

The Book of Two Ways - Map of the Netherworld

The Book of Two Ways

The rectangular wooden coffins from Bersha are a major source for the Coffin Texts, the main body of funerary literature used between about 2 000 BC and 1 600 BC. They are particularly notable for a distinct composition known to Egyptologists as the Book of Two Ways. The use of this text had probably spread to Bersha from the Residence cemeteries of Dahsur and Lisht.

This is a guide to the afterlife for the deceased, and includes the earliest known map of the netherworld. The map was usually painted on the floor of the coffin. The accompanying texts describe the inhabitants of the netherworld and provide instructions on how to avoid dangers and obstacles on the journey to the afterlife. Different versions of the Book of Two Ways were in use simultaneously, but the maps generally presented two paths consisting of earth and water.

In the version painted on the outer and inner coffins of Gua, the main goal of the deceased is to join the sun god Ra.





Mummification - Preserving the Body

poster on embalming poster on embalming


1. Washing - As soon as possible after death, the body was taken to the Tent of Purification, located close to the banks of the Nile, and was washed in a solution of natron in water.

2. Removal of internal organs - The brain was extracted via the nose, using a metal rod. A stone knife was used to make an incision in the left flank, through which the organs of the chest and abdomen, except for the heart, were removed. The organs were separately preserved.


poster on embalming poster on embalming


3. Drying - The chest and abdominal cavities were packed with bags of natron, a naturally-occurring compound of salts which absorbs fluids. Natron powder was packed around, beneath and on top of the body, which was left covered for about 40 days.

4. Packing - The skull was often plugged with linen or filled with resin and the chest cavity packed with woodshavings, linen, earth, or occasionally lichen. Sand, linen or mud was inserted under the skin to restore substance to the features.


poster on embalming poster on embalming


5. Anointing - The skin was coated with liquid plant resin to exclude moisture from the body.

6. - Wrapping - during wrapping the embalmers placed the limbs in the prescribed positions, and the body was wrapped in sheets and strips of linen, while prayers and magical spells were recited. Steps 4, 5, and 6 took another 30 days, making 70 days for the whole process.

Credits for the six photos and text above:
Photo: Poster, British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Poster, British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0






Mummification - Methods and Belief Systems

The ancient Egyptians believed that preserving the body was crucial if the deceased was to have life after death. There are few records of how mummification was done. What is known is based mainly on accounts by Classical authors, and studies of the mummies themselves. The panels above explain the procedure as it was carried out in about 1 000 BC, the high point of Egyptian embalming.

After death, the body was taken to the ibu, or Tent of Purification, to be washed in a solution of natron in water (1). The antiseptic natron helped delay decomposition. Embalming took place at or near the tomb in the wabet (Place of Purification) or Per-nefer (House of Rejuvenation).

First, the internal organs were removed (2), the parts of the body which decayed most rapidly. The brain was usually extracted via the nose, and discarded. The other organs were removed through an incision in the left flank, and were set aside. Often these were interred separately in special Canopic containers. The heart remained, as it would be important in the judgement of the dead person before the gods.

The body was then dried out, to eliminate the possibility of bacterial activity and decay (3). The torso was filled with bags of natron and loose natron powder was packed around the corpse. It was left for about 40 days. This is the minimum time required for dessication of a body using this method.

After drying, the skull and chest cavities were filled (4). During the Twenty First Dynasty, and at other times, the liver, lungs, stomach and intestines were replaced inside the body, wrapped in separate linen packages. The body would have lost virtually all its fat, leaving the skin loose and wrinkled. Sometimes sand, linen or mud was inserted under the skin of the face and limbs to restore the shrunken features.

Resin was applied to the surface of the body (5), to exclude moisture and perhaps to confer divine status on the dead person. Before wrapping, artificial eyes were placed in the sockets, and finger and toe covers of gold or silver were put on. During wrapping (6) amulets, jewellery and sometimes a rolled funerary papyrus were placed on the body. As the mummy was wrapped in linen cloth, prayers and magical spells were recited. Steps four, five and six as in the diagrams above took another thirty days, making a total of seventy days for the whole process.
Text above: Poster, British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0



Physician Physician Physician


Physician
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Physician


Seated figure of the physician Sesheshen-sa-Hathor.

Granodiorite, circa 1 880 BC.

Catalog: Ezbet Rushdi, ÄS 5361 and ÄS 7212
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




Mentuhotep with a Hes-vase Inemakhet
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Treasurer Mentuhotep and Inemakhet


Striding / standing figures of Mentuhotep with a Hes-vase and Inemakhet. Circa 1 950 BC - 1 910 BC

Wood, from Thebes and Abusir

( The statue of Inemakhet on the right is one of the most delightful portraits I have seen from Ancient Egypt. The sculptor has achieved a level of spontaneity and insight into character usually only achieved in modern times with a digital camera. Click and click again to zoom in - Don )

Catalog: ÄM 4650 and ÄM 16202
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018, 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_2779modelboatsm


img_2779modelboatsm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Treasurer Mentuhotep


Coffins of Treasurer Mentuhotep. The three-part coffin ensemble of the house or goods governor Mentuhotep from the 12th Dynasty was found on December 6, 1823 together with the grave goods in his grave in Assasif intact. Unfortunately, the outer coffin fell victim to World War II.

( There are other missing objects in Berlin museums, such as the Palaeolithic 'Berlin Venus' which were taken by the Russians as war booty. Perhaps this was also taken. The Egyptian and other collections were never actually bombed in WWII so far as I can find out - Don )


The painted middle coffin is a wooden box casket typical of the Middle Kingdom, and the outer surface is decorated with a pair of eyes.

The inner coffin, ÄM 11, is decorated on both the inner and outer surfaces.

The middle coffin, ÄM 10, is decorated, and primed with white. Dimensions of the middle coffin: 2200 x 630 x 760 mm.

Also typical for its time of origin is the decoration scheme, which corresponds to the view of the coffin as a dwelling-house of the deceased for eternity. The vertical and horizontal inscription ribbons divide the outer sides into several image fields in which the motif of Egyptian palace facades is depicted. In the right field of the left longitudinal side, a pair of so-called Udjat eyes are also visible. They were based on the time-typical lateral position of the mummy in the coffin. Thus, the pair of eyes not only represents the connection of the deceased with the outside world, but it also serves for the magical protection of the dead.

The insides of the coffin are also decorated. Beneath the hieroglyphic sacrificial formula you can see the depictions of different furniture, clothes, food, drinks, etc. placed on the tables. With the help of these representations, everything that could be enjoyed in earthly life should be made available to the dead in the hereafter. The underlying sayings belong to the so-called coffin texts. These are proverbs referring to the transformation of the deceased into a new and eternal existence in the hereafter.

Catalog: Thebes West, Tomb of Mentuhotep, Painted Wood, ÄM 10, ÄM 11
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: I. Liao after: Germer, R., The Mystery of the Mummies, Eternal Life on the Nile, 2nd extended edition, Munich / New York 1998, pp. 137ff.




dsc06873_mentuhotep_coffinsm


idsc06872mentuhotep_coffinsm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Treasurer Mentuhotep


Coffins of Treasurer Mentuhotep.

Catalog: Thebes West, Tomb of Mentuhotep, Painted Wood, ÄM 10, ÄM 11
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc06864modelboatgood_mentuhotepsm model


dsc06866modelboatcloseupsm model
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Treasurer Mentuhotep


Mentuhotep was an official and treasurer under the 12th dynasty pharaoh Senusret I. Mentuhotep is one of the best attested officials of the Middle Kingdom period. There is a series of statues found at Karnak, showing him as a scribe. On these he has been given the title of overseer of all royal works, which would suggest that he was involved in overseeing the construction of the temple at Karnak.


At el-Lisht he had a large tomb next to the pyramid of Senusret I. When it was found it was badly damaged, but there are remains of high quality reliefs and fragments of statues. The burial chamber still contained two sarcophagi, one smashed and the other one well preserved, made of granite and with brightly painted interiors.

Dimensions, including rudder: 1410 x 360 x 600 mm.

This ship from the tomb of Treasurer Mentuhotep is a travel boat, which - as the stowed mast shows - is on the ride downstream. The hull is painted green, the deck white with red stripes, which would probably reflect the beam construction. The mast and the two yards normally would rest amidships on the white support post made for them. Mentuhotep sits in the cabin behind it, ( not readily visible in this image - Don ) almost mummified in a white coat, on which his title and name are written. A stone anchor is stored in the prow.

On the outside of the yellow-painted cabin, black lines seem to indicate lacing. The shield of the Mentuhotep is painted on one side. The crew consists of 16 oarsmen, a pilot at the bow and a steersman at the helm. One servant grinds grain, another kneads dough.

( note that in the closeup we can see that the models in the boat have both arms capable of movement. Obviously the models were made in bulk, though for a specific role such as a rower or a grinder of grain or helmsman on board the vessel, but the final adjustment of the arms was able to be accomplished with ease. The ingenious design and construction of the rudder is also interesting, providing the ability to ride up out of the way without damage if an obstruction was encountered, such as a sand bank or a snag, but being also capable of fine adjustment with the long lever provided for the steersman. Note also that the actual boat itself must have had more robust connections for that of the rudder pole to the support pole in the back of the boat, as well as that of the rudder pole to the stern of the boat, than are shown in this model. These connections may have been in the form of thick, robust 'dowels', with a large amount of 'play' or 'slop', but with strong cordage to keep everything together - Don )

Catalog: Thebes West, Tomb of Mentuhotep, Stuccoed, Painted Wood, ÄM 12
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc06865servantsm model
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Treasurer Mentuhotep


An offering bearer from the tomb of Mentuhotep, holding a Hes-vase.

Catalog: Thebes West, Tomb of Mentuhotep, Painted Wood, ÄM 22
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




dsc07574sesostrisiiism dsc07573sesostrisiiism
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Senusret III / Sesostris III


Head of a statue of the Pharoah Senusret III / Sesostris III

1 875 BC - 1 840 BC

Senusret III is well known for his distinctive statues which are almost immediately recognisable as his. On them, the king is depicted at different ages, and in particular on the aged ones he sports a strikingly somber expression: the eyes are protruding from hollow eyesockets with pouches and lines under them, the mouth and lips have a grimace of bitterness, and the ears are enormous and protruding forwards. In sharp contrast with the even-exaggerated realism of the head and regardless of its age, the rest of the body is idealised as forever young and muscular in a more classical pharaonic fashion.


Senusret III cleared a navigable canal through the first cataract. He also relentlessly pushed his kingdom's expansion into Nubia (from 1866 to 1863 BC) where he erected massive river forts including Buhen, Semna and Toshka at Uronarti.

Catalog: Thebes/Karnak (?), pink granite, ÄM 9529
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia




sphinx sphinx
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Pharaoh Senusret III, Khakaure, also known as Sesostris III.


Head from a sphinx of the pharaoh Sesostris III with youthful features.

Granite , circa 1870 BC.

Catalog: Granite, ÄS 7110
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




sphinx sphinx
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Pharaoh Senusret III, Khakaure, also known as Sesostris III.


Head from a statue of the pharaoh Sesostris III with aged features.

Quartzite , circa 1 850 BC.

Catalog: Quartzite, ÄS 4857
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, Musée du Louvre
Additional text: http://cartelfr.louvre.fr/




munich egyptian exhibits munich egyptian exhibits


munich egyptian exhibits munich egyptian exhibits



Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Lids from Canopic Jars


This set of figurative lids from viscera jars stylistically references the portraits of the 12th Dynasty. Its quality attests to the creative energy of that era, permeating almost every medium.

Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty circa 1850 BC

Limestone / ÄS 7128 - 7131

Donated by the Friends Group of the Egyptian Museums of München.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Munich Museum



dsc06608amenenhatiiism dsc06607amenemhatiiism dsc06607amenemhatiiism


Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Pharaoh Amenemhat III / Amenemhet III


Praying statue of Pharoah Amenemhat III, circa 1 840 BC - 1 800 BC.

Amenemhet III brought Egypt to a peak of economic prosperity by completing a system to regulate the inflow of water into Lake Moeris, in the Al-Fayyūm depression southwest of Cairo. The resulting stabilisation of the water level also drained some of the marshes that had surrounded the old lake. As part of this great work, the labyrinth described by the Greek historian Herodotus was probably built nearby, south of one of Amenemhet's pyramids at Hawara, in Al-Fayyūm.

To celebrate the reclamation of 153 600 acres (62 200 hectares) of land for agricultural use, Amenemhet erected two colossi of himself nearby, also described by Herodotus. Amenemhet worked the turquoise mines at Sinai with unprecedented intensity.

Catalog: Dolerite, Memphis, ÄM 1121
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin
Additional text: Encyclopedia Brittanica, Wikipedia



dsc06612amenemhatiiism
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Pharaoh Amenemhat III / Amenemhet III


Head of a statue of Pharoah Amenemhat III, circa 1 840 BC.

He is portrayed here wearing the king's head cloth, the Nemes.

Height 23 cm, width 20 cm, depth 17 cm

Catalog: Grey Granite, ÄM 17551
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin
Additional text: http://www.egyptian-museum-berlin.com/c42.php



dsc06614amenemhatiiism
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Pharaoh Amenemhat III / Amenemhet III


Head of a statue of Pharoah Amenemhat III, circa 1 820 BC.

He is portrayed here wearing the king's head cloth, the Nemes.

Catalog: Quartzite, ÄM 11348
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin
Additional text: http://www.egyptian-museum-berlin.com/c42.php



dsc06616amenemhatiiism
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Pharaoh Amenemhat III / Amenemhet III


Head of a statue of Pharoah Amenemhat III, circa 1 830 BC.

He is portrayed here wearing the Hedjet, the crown of Upper (Southern) Egypt.

It is also known as the White Crown. No crowns are known to have been found in any archeological digs. Some Egyptologists have speculated that the Hedjet was made out of leather, felt, or some other fabric. Another possibility is that it was woven like a basket using plant fibre., as the deshret (red crown) is known to have been.

Height 27 cm.

Catalog: Granite, ÄM 17950
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin
Additional text: Wikipedia



green head
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Pharaoh Amenemhat III


Upper half of a seated figure of Pharaoh Amenemhat III.

Ophicalcite, ophiolite or verde antique, the material of which this sculpture is made, is a serpentinite breccia popular since ancient times as a decorative facing stone. It is a dark, dull green, white-mottled (or white-veined) serpentine, mixed with calcite, dolomite, or magnesite, which takes a high polish.

Catalog: Fayum (?), ÄS 6762
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




sphinx sphinx


sphinx
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Pharaoh Amenemhat III


Maned sphinx of Pharaoh Amenemhat III.

Catalog: Limestone, ÄS 7132
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




Pakhetemhat
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Statuette of the woman Pakhetemhat.

Found during excavations at Antinoe, in the tomb of Pakhetemhat.

The cedar used in the statuette was imported to Egypt from the coasts of Syria and Lebanon, this trade occurring from 3 000 BC onwards.

Circa 1 900 BC.

Height 310 mm, width 70 mm, depth 147 mm.

Catalog: E 20576
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




munich egyptian exhibits
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Sobeki

Stela of the Nomarch Sobeki

One characteristic of Middle Kingdom relief is clearly defined shapes. This is what allows the rows of family members on this stele to appear as a continuation of the hieroglyphs from the biographical inscription.

Middle Kingdom, circa 1 900 BC.

Catalog: Limestone / Abydos / Gl. WAF 31.
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




The art of the Third Intermediate Period (1070 - 655 BC)

In the period following the collapse of the New Kingdom - when the land was divided between a semi-independent state under Libyan rule in Lower Egypt and the 'Amun Theocracy' in Upper Egypt - art production was greatly reduced: the tombs were nno longer decorated and only a few temples were built and embellished with reliefs.

Instead, another medium gained prominence - painting. As early as the end of the New Kingdom, coffins and papyri started to replace tomb walls as bearers fo depictions.

Yet the images no longer illustrated the daily life of the artisans and farmers, or the feasts of affluent Egyptians, but instead showed events in the Afterlife. They illustrate the afterlife guides, such as the Book of the Dead or the Amduat, and show the deceased offering and praying before the gods. The style ties directly into the art of the late New Kingdom (Ramesside Period), as is readily apparent from the slim proportions of the body and the diaphonous costume of the deceased.

hes jar
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Hes-vase

A Hes-vase is a tall, slim, ritual vessel for libations.

( This appears to have been thrown in clay on a wheel, and fired to earthenware temperatures - Don )

Qurna, the site where this was found, is located on the West Bank of the River Nile opposite the modern city of Luxor in Egypt near the Theban Hills.

Catalog: Ceramic, Qurna, ÄS 5876, ÄS 4122
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




falcon god
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Falcon God

Limestone head of Horus, the falcon god, depicted here with human ears. The rest of the body is lost.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




Sopdu god
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Sopdu God

Quartzite head of the god Sopdu.

Circa 1 950 BC - 1 900 BC

Catalog: ÄS 7106
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




dsc06937tetusm dsc07571tetu_bsm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Tetu

Praying statue of Tetu.

Circa 1850 BC.

Catalog: Granite, Heliopolis, ÄM 8432
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf






Models

In the Middle Kingdom, wooden models made up a number of individual figures, and depicting workshops, breweries, bakeries, slaughterhouses, ships, granaries and houses, accompanied the deceased in his tomb. They replaced the servant statuettes as well as the corresponding two dimensional images of the relief-decorated Old Kingdom tombs and were meant to guarantee the deceased's provisioning in foodstuffs and all objects of daily life.

Text above: © Ägyptischen Museum München

tomb models
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Cattle and cowherds.

Circa 1 950 BC

Catalog: ÄS 7144
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia


tomb models
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Figures from various models.

Circa 1 900 BC

Catalog: ÄS 1565, ÄS 1566, ÄS 425,
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia


tomb models
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Figures from a granary model.

Circa 1 900 BC

Catalog: ÄS 7258, ÄS 7259
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




Stelae of the Middle Kingdom

A stela's main function was to perpetuate the memory of the deceased in image and text. Next to formulaic prayers, stelae texts could also contain biographical notes on the donor, who was usually shown beside members of his family. Gods appear on stelae for the first time in the Middle Kingdom; the first to be depicted in a small pictorial section at the top of the stela were Osiris, god of resurrection and Lord of the Netherworld, and Anubis, the deceased's guide, in the form of a jackal. In their content and appearance, some Middle Kingdom stelae represent a continuation of the Old Kingdom false-door stelae.

stela
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of Nofret

Stela of Nofret in the shape of a false-door stela.

Circa 1 900 BC.

Catalog: limestone, Memphis (?), GL 41
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




img_2316sm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of the high treasurer Ichernofret.

Circa 1860 BC.

Catalog: Abydos, Limestone, ÄM 1204
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




stela
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of Iuseneb

Stela of Iuseneb, steward of the Fruit Cellar.

( note that the figures on this stela have been considerably deepened, with the base left unsmoothed after the chiselling. It may be that the figures were designed to be filled with, perhaps, faience, which was never done, or has disappeared since manufacture - Don )

Circa 1 900 BC.

Catalog: limestone, ÄS 36
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




dsc07452stelanofretsm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of Nofret

Stela of Nofret with her mother, her husband (?) and her grandmother.

12th Dynasty circa 1850 BC.

Catalog: Abydos (?), pink granite, ÄM 7280
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




stela
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of Debi

Stela of Debi with his family, end of the 12th Dynasty.

Catalog: limestone, Memphis, GL WAF 21
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




stela
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of Nefernay

Stela of Nefernay with his nurse and family, end of the 12th Dynasty.

Catalog: limestone, Memphis, GL WAF 34
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




Family Group
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Family Group


Statue-group of cloaked man with family, from Thebes.

Circa 1 900 BC

Catalog: ÄM 4435
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf




dsc00353redwarecanopicnolidsm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Wahka


Redware Canopic jar of Wahka, 12th Dynasty, reign of Amenemhat III, 1 860 BC - 1 814 BC. Probably from the tomb of the governor Wahka II at Qaw el-Kebir. The inscription invokes the god Duamutef, whose protection is represented by the arms carved in the sides of the jar. The hands grasp the Ankh (sign of life) and the Was-sceptre, symbolising his authority. There is a column of Hieroglyphic text, but no lid.

Height 286 mm.

Catalog: Redware pottery, Tomb of the Governor Wahka II at Qaw el-Kebir (?), EA58780
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




dsc07801standingmansm dsc07800standingwomansm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Striding and standing man and woman


Circa 1 950 BC - 1 900 BC

Wood, from Meir and West Thebes (?)

Catalog: ÄM 21611 and ÄM 9536
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Sepi coffin
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Cedarwood coffin of the army commander Sepi.

Middle to late 12th Dynasty, about 1850 BC - 1800 BC. From Deir el-Bersha, probably from the forecourt of the tomb of Djehutyhotep.

Sepi, like the physician Gua, was probably a member of the entourage of the governor Djehutyhotep.


The east side of his coffin is decorated with a pair of eyes to enable the deceased to see, and a false-door motif to allow the spirit to leave and re-enter the coffin. Inscriptions assure the provision of offerings and the protection of deities. The interior is undecorated.

Width 520 mm, length 2130 mm, height 785 mm.

Catalog: EA55315
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




flint dagger
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Flint dagger blade, Middle Kingdom, circa 1900 BC - 1800 BC, from Buhen.


The haft was attached to a handle by adhesive, traces of which remain.

( note that this item could well be the head of a spear or javelin, rather than a dagger - Don )

Catalog: EA65771
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Stela
Twelfth Dynasty or later: 1 991 BC - 1 200 BC

Stelae

Four stelae with prayers asking the gods - Anubis or Osiris - to let sacrifices offered to them benefit the dead person as well. Such prayers always begin with the same words.

A: Kaj sacrificing to the butler Ip and his father Sobek-nacht.
Limestone, Middle Kingdom, 1991 - 1785 BC.

B: The 'Chariot fighter at the garrison of Pharaoh', Inay, and his mother Duat-tawy sitting at a well-provided offering table.
Limestone, New Kingdom, 1550-1200 BC.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark




munich egyptian exhibits
Twelfth - Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 639 BC

Family Group

Middle Kingdom, 12th - 13th dynasty, 1 800 BC - 1 700 BC.

Catalog: Serpentinite, ÄS 2831
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München



DSC06044stelessm
Twelfth - Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 639 BC

Redi-en-ef-en-i

Stele from the grave of Redi-en-ef-en-i, circa 1 700 BC.

The text of this stele says that the god Min (right) will be given by the 'Great Chief of the city (named) Redi-en-ef-en-i', who worships him, an 'offering consisting of bread and beer, beef and poultry, alabaster and linen as well as incense and royal ointment'. The stela was donated to the deceased 'by his brother, who (always) keeps his name alive'.

( note that the god Min is depicted as having an erection - Don )

Catalog: Limestone, painted
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




Family Group
Twelfth - Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 639 BC

Family Group


Seated figure of the beer brewer Renef-seneb-dag and his daughter Daget.

Circa 1 850 BC - 1 750 BC.

Dimensions: 335 x 105 x 193 mm

The group shows a man on a piece of seating furniture with a short backrest, on the right side of which is a much smaller woman. His upper arms are close to the body, while his forearms and outstretched hands rest on his thighs. The upper ends of his calf-length apron are knotted underneath his chest. The striking head is dominated by a hairless, angular skull with very large, protruding ears. The face shows a serious, albeit confident expression, which is mainly determined by the mouth area.

To the right of him is a standing female figure in a simple ankle-length strap dress with long hair, of which two strands lie on the chest, up to knee height. With her left hand she embraces the man's calf - even if this gesture is only hinted at.


Without the inscription, which is located on both sides of the seat, a clear identification of the people would be almost impossible. This inscription shows that the seat figure is the brewer Renef-seneb-dag together with his daughter Daget. The man is called 'loved by his master, who is justified in his heart, a man of feast, loved by the myrrh, united with the 'beautiful day' [the feast]. In a sacrificial formula, he asks the cataract gods Chnum, Satis and Anukis for cool water that comes from one of the Nile springs on Elephantine. This mention in particular makes it very likely that the statuette on the island was placed in the first cataract in one of the sanctuaries there.
(Jana Helmbold-Doyé)

Catalog: ÄM 10115
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_4132tombreliefsm
Twelfth - Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 639 BC

Dedu-Sobek


Stele of Dedu-Sobek

Depicted is Dedu-Sobek and his wife Luef-Seneb in front of a sacrificial table. The text contains a funeral prayer to Osiris of Abydos.

Circa 1 991 BC - 1 650 BC

Catalog: Sandstone, Inv. H 413
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe Germany




DSC06171number13sm DSC06171number13sm


Twelfth - Twentieth Dynasties: circa 1 991 BC - 1 077 BC

Bronze axes

Bronze utility axes

Origin unknown. Middle and New Kingdom, 2nd millennium BC

Catalog: Bronze, Inv. Nr. 1950.155; 1935.200.322
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover




DSC06172ceremonialaxesm DSC06173ceremonialaxesm


Twelfth - Twentieth Dynasties: circa 1 991 BC - 1 077 BC

Bronze axes

Bronze ceremonial axes

Origin unknown. Middle and New Kingdom, 2nd millennium BC

Catalog: Bronze, Inv. Nr. 1935.200.98, 1935.200.323
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover








The Thirteenth Dynasty

1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Ruled from Memphis, over Middle and Upper Egypt, contemporaneous with the Fourteenth Dynasty, which ruled from Avaris in the Nile Delta over Middle and Upper Egypt.


Thirteenth Dynasty
Name Horus
(Throne)
Name
Consort Burial Years Dates Comments
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep           Referred to by some
as Sebekhotep I
Sonbef           Perhaps a son of Amenemhat IV
and brother of
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep.
Nerikare            
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V         1 796 BC - 1 793 BC Dates according to Egyptologists
Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker
Ameny Qemau            
Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef           Perhaps identical with
King Sehotepibre in the Turin Canon
Iufni           Known only from the Turin canon
Seankhibre Ameny-Intef-Amenemhat VI            
Semenkare Nebnuni            
Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy            
Sewadjkare I           Known only from the Turin canon
Nedjemibre            
Khaankhre Sobekhotep II            
Renseneb Amenemhat            
Hor Awybre   Nubhotepi Buried in Dahshur near
the pyramid of Amenemhet III
     
Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw           Possibly a son of
Hor Awybre.
Djedkheperew           Possibly a brother of
Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw.
Sedjefakare Kay-Amenemhet VII            
Khutawyre Wegaf            
Userkare Khendjer   Seneb(henas?) Pyramid of Khendjer,
South Saqqara
    May also have borne
the name Nimaatre
Smenkhkare Imyremeshaw   Aya(ly?)        
Sehetepkare Intef   Aya(ly?)        
Seth Meribre            
Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III   Senebhenas
Neni
       
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I   Senebsen Perhaps buried at Abydos.      
Menwadjre Sihathor           Ephemeral coregent with his
brother Neferhotep I.
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV   Tjan Perhaps buried at Abdydos:
S 10 (Abydos).
    Brother of Neferhotep I
and Sihathor.
Merhotepre Sobekhotep V   Nubkhaes?        
Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI            
Wahibre Ibiau            
Merneferre Ay     Built a pyramid whose
location is unknown,
possibly near Memphis.
23   Reigned 23 years, the longest
reign of the dynasty. Last king
to be attested in both
Lower and Upper Egypt.


Table of Thirteenth Dynasty Rulers, adapted from various sources, including Wikipedia.




The Sothic cycle or Canicular period is a period of 1,461 Egyptian civil years of 365 days each or 1,460 Julian years averaging 365¼ days each. During a Sothic cycle, the 365-day year loses enough time that the start of its year once again coincides with the heliacal rising of the star Sirius on 19 July in the Julian calendar. It is an important aspect of Egyptology, particularly with regard to reconstructions of the Egyptian calendar and its history. Astronomical records of this displacement may have been responsible for the later establishment of the more accurate Julian and Alexandrian calendars.

Above text from Wikipedia

Fortress in Nubia
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

The Buhen Fortress

Buhen was an ancient Egyptian settlement situated on the West bank of the Nile below (to the North of) the Second Cataract. On the East bank, across the river, was located the ancient settlement of Wadi Halfa.

Photo: Franck Monnier (Bakha)
Permission: GNU Free Documentation License
Text: Wikipedia




Egyptian Fortresses in occupied Nubia

The series of fortresses built by the 12th Dynasty conquerors of Lower Nubia stretched from Elephantine to the new southern frontier at Semna. They include some of the most sophisticated examples of military architecture known from the ancient world. The mud brick fortresses were situated on the banks and islands of the Nile. No two were identical but standard features included defensive ditches, ramparts, bastions and massive gates with wooden drawbridges. Within the walls stood barracks, work- shops, administrative quarters and temples.

Egyptian troops were stationed in the fortresses as garrisons. Their role was to control the movements of the local population and to protect the annexed territory against possible attack. The fortresses also functioned as bases for gold mining and copper smelting operations and were collection points for trade goods and raw materials. When Egypt lost control over Lower Nubia during the 13th Dynasty, most of the forts were abandoned. A few were captured by Kushites, Nubians from Kerma, when they advanced from Upper Nubia to take over the lands vacated by the Egyptians.

Text above: Poster at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Report from Nubia
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

The Semna Despatches

Circa 1 780 BC.

The Semna Despatches are part of a hieratic papyrus containing copies of reports by the commanders of Egyptian forts in Lower Nubia, sent to an official at Thebes. It reports the tracking by garrison troops of a group of thirty two Nubians and three asses.

From the Ramesseum, Thebes.


Catalog: EA10752, EA10753
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Shabti of Amun Iwy
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Shabti of Amun Iwy


Gilded steatite shabti of the priest of Amun Iwy.

Circa 1 795 - 1 650 BC

From Abydos Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0,




stone panel
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Pharaoh Sebekhotep I

Part of a chapel constructed by Sebekhotep I.

Circa 1770 BC.

The text makes an allusion to the myth of the eye of Horus.

Height 110 cm, width 32 cm, thickness 26 cm.

Catalog: limestone, Abydos, Sully Rez-de-chaussée Le temple Salle 12, C9, C10.
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




DSC09688AS7172Amenemhatsm
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Pharaoh Amenemhat V

Head of a statue of Pharaoh Amenemhat V (?) with a khat headdress.

Second interim period around 1750 BC.

Catalog: ÄS 7172
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München
Additional text: Wikipedia




amenemhatvviennasm
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Pharaoh Amenemhat V

Head of a statue of Sekhemkare Amenemhat V of Egypt's 13th dynasty, in green slate, from Elephantine.

Upper part now in Vienna, Kunshistorisches Museum, 37, and lower part in Aswan, Aswan Museum, 1318

Photo and text: https://www.khm.at/
Source: Original, Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien
Additional text: Wikipedia




Statue
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Hori

Seated figure of the governor Hori with inscription of a prayer to Ptah-Sokar-Osiris.

1 750 BC - 1 700 BC

Catalog: ÄM 34407
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




219 dsc07056_10269unknownofficersm

squatting figure squatting figure


squatting figure
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Figure


Upper part of a squatting figure.

Limestone, circa 1 750 BC.

Catalog: ÄS 4869
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




striding figure
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Figure


Standing-striding figure of a man wearing a long kilt.

Basalt, circa 1 750 BC.

Catalog: GL 14
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




chapelle

Chapel and statue of Senwosret, Thirteenth Dynasty

Limestone and gabbro.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre



chapelle chapelle
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Chapel of Senwosret

Chapel of Senwosret, servant of the vizier. Circa 1780 -1700 BC 13th Dynasty

Reduced chapel model, decorated as were tombs of individuals in the Old Kingdom, (2700 - 2200 BC)

Dimensions of the centre panel are 54 cm x 44 cm, and it features the motif of protective eyes flanked by the jackal god Wepwawet. Below, Senwosret receives offerings from family members and servants.


chapelle
C 17, left hand panel: Meeting in honour of Senwosret: distracted by musicians and dancers, the guests drink and breathe the fragrance of flowers. Above, Senwosret receives food offerings, amongst which is a live ox.

C 16, centre panel: At the bottom, after the party. An offering formula promises to Senwosret the food 'which heaven gives, which the earth produces and which the gods make live.'

C18, right hand panel: Above, a hunter followed by two gazelles carries a small one in his arms. An ox is slaughtered. In the marshes, Senwosret harpoons fish and hunts birds with a throwing stick. In the middle, harvesting and transporting grain. Below, Senwosret and his wife supervise the work of the fields, the brewer of beer, the jars and the silos. To the right, the coffin is transported by water.



Catalog: Sully Rez-de-chaussée Crypte d'Osiris Salle 13 Vitrine 10: La chapelle d'un particulier à Abydos, C16, c17, c18
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre, http://metmuseum.org/




 Statue of Senwosret
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Statue of Senwosret

Servant of the Vizier, height 532 mm, width 165 mm, depth 282 mm

Made of Gabbro, found in the interior of the chapel.

Catalog: Sully Rez-de-chaussée Crypte d'Osiris Salle 13 Vitrine 10: La chapelle d'un particulier à Abydos, A48
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre, http://metmuseum.org/




 dsc06605sobekhotep_vsm
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Sobekhotep V

Kneeling figure of Sobekhotep V with ointment vessels.

Circa 1 750 BC - 1 700 BC

Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI (also known as Sobekhotep V) was an Egyptian king of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologist Kim Ryholt he was the thirty-first pharaoh of the dynasty, while Darrell Baker believes instead that he was its thirtieth ruler. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath and Detlef Franke see him as the twenty-fifth king of the dynasty.

Catalog: Granite, ÄM 10645
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin
Additional text: Wikipedia




IMG_6136khetysm DSC09686khetysm


Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Khety


Seated figure of Khety.

Circa 1 700 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, ÄS 7903
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




 dsc06660crystalsm  dsc06660crystalsm
Thirteenth - Fifteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 550 BC

Circa 1 700 BC - 1 601 BC

Hexagonal prism of rock crystal with hieroglyphs.

Catalog: ÄM 4424
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin








The Fourteenth Dynasty

1 725 BC - 1 650 BC

The Fourteenth Dynasty ruled from Avaris in the Nile Delta over Middle and Upper Egypt, contemporaneously with the Thirteenth Dynasty, which ruled from Memphis, over Middle and Upper Egypt,

The following is a truncated list from that in Wikipedia. The names of the kings and their dates of rule are not known with any certainty.


Fourteenth Dynasty
Name Dates Comments
Yakbim Skehaenre 1 805 BC - 1 780 BC or after 1 650 BC Chronological position is contested, may be a vassal of the 15th Dynasty
Ya'ammu Nubwoserre 1 780 BC - 1 770 BC Chronological position is contested
Qareh Khawoserre 1 770 BC - 1 760 BC Chronological position is contested
'Ammu Ahotepre 1 760 BC - 1 745 BC or after 1 650 BC Chronological position is contested, may be a vassal of the 15th Dynasty
Sheshi Maaibre 1 745 BC - 1 705 BC or after 1 650 BC Attested by over 300 scarab-seals, possibly married to Queen Tati who was
a Kushite. Chronological position is contested, may be a vassal of
the 15th Dynasty
Nehesy Aasehre 1 705 BC Best attested king of the Dynasty, he left his name
on two monuments at Avaris. His name means 'The Nubian'
Khakherewre 1 705 BC  
Nebefawre 1 704 BC Turin Canon: reigned 1 year, 5 months, 15 days
Sehebre   Turin Canon: reigned 3 years
Merdjefare ending 1 699 BC Attested by a single stela from Saft el-Hinna, in the delta
Sewadjkare III   Turin Canon: reigned 1 year
Nebdjefare ending 1 694 BC  
...webenre ending 1 690 BC  
Truncated, lack of reliable data
Nebsenre   Attested by a jar bearing his prenomen. At least 5 months of reign
Truncated, lack of reliable data
Sekheperenre   With Nehesy, Nebsenre and Merdjefare, only undisputed king
known from contemporary sources.
Truncated, lack of reliable data
Babnum ...kare    
Truncated, lack of reliable data
Apophis I    
Truncated, lack of reliable data


Table of Fourteenth Dynasty Rulers, truncated, adapted from Wikipedia.








The Fifteenth Dynasty

1 650 BC - 1 550 BC

The Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt was the first Hyksos dynasty, ruled from Avaris, without control of the entire land. The Hyksos preferred to stay in northern Egypt since they infiltrated from the north-east. The names and order of kings is uncertain. The Turin King list indicates that there were six Hyksos kings, with an obscure Khamudi listed as the final king of the Fifteenth Dynasty. Only five are listed here.


Fifteenth Dynasty
Name Dates Comments
Salitis 1 650 BC -  
Sakir-Har   Named as an early Hyksos king on a doorjamb found at Avaris. Regnal order uncertain.
Khyan    
Apophis 1 590 BC - 1 550 BC  
Khamudi 1 550 BC - 1 540 BC  


Table of Fifteenth Dynasty Rulers.




dsc07569sebeknihotep
The Fifteenth Dynasty: 1 650 BC - 1 550 BC

Sebeknihotep

Seated figure of Sebeknihotep.

Circa 1640 - 1600 BC (on the card at the museum)

( note that since the location is unknown, this sculpture could just as easily be assigned to the contemporaneous Sixteenth Dynasty. Note also that the online catalog at https://smb.museum-digital.de assigns this piece to the 12th Dynasty, on stylistic grounds - Don )

This roughly hewn seated statuette shows a man sitting on a stool, dressed in a three-part apron and with his hands stretched flat on his knees. Part of the base plate and three toes of the left foot of the statuette have been repaired in modern times. The man's right arm is no longer preserved above the elbow up to the palm. The face of the subject is dominated by large, almond-shaped eyes that stand out due to their black design and are delimited above by brow arches, which are also black.


The nose flares out in broad wings, whereas the mouth is rather narrow and not emphasised. The face is framed by a shoulder-length, smooth hairstyle, which is painted blue. We can note also the oversized ears that are so characteristic of the Middle Kingdom.

On the right side of the stool is a four-column hieroglyphic inscription that was filled with blue paint and contains a formula for sacrifice. In it, the sitter asks the 'great god' to make a sacrifice of bread, beer, beef and poultry for his continued existence in the hereafter. The text also mentions the man's name 'Sobeknihotep'.

The statuette was donated to the museum. The exact place of origin and the context of the find are unknown. However, based on the inscription and other comparative examples, it can be assumed that the statuette was placed in a private grave. The eyes, which appear very large, are typical for the beginning of the 12th dynasty and thus to the beginning of the Middle Kingdom, since these are a characteristic of the First Intermediate Period. In terms of craftsmanship, due to the coarser surface treatment and simpler design, this object was produced in a provincial workshop.

(Jessica Jancziak)

Height x width x depth 270 x 95 x 160 mm, weight 2.86 kg.

Catalog: Painted limestone, ÄM 12546
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, https://smb.museum-digital.de, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




IMG_6137senetiatjusm
The Fifteenth Dynasty: 1 650 BC - 1 550 BC

Senet-iatju


Seated figure of Senet-iatju.

Circa 1 600 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, ÄS 7122
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




DSC06176daggerssm DSC06177daggersm


The Fifteenth Dynasty: 1 650 BC - 1 550 BC

Daggers


Bronze daggers with gilding, and using ebony and ivory.

Catalog: Bronze, ebony, ivory, gilding, Inv. Nr. 1935.200.96
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source and text: Original, Museum August Kestner, Hannover








The Sixteenth Dynasty: 1 649 BC - 1 582 BC

The Sixteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XVI) was a dynasty of pharaohs that ruled the Theban region in Upper Egypt for 70 years.

The continuing war against Dynasty XV dominated the short-lived 16th dynasty. The armies of the 15th dynasty, winning town after town from their southern enemies, continually encroached on the 16th dynasty territory, eventually threatening and then conquering Thebes itself. In his study of the second intermediate period, the egyptologist Kim Ryholt has suggested that Dedumose I sued for a truce in the latter years of the dynasty, but one of his predecessors, Nebiryraw I, may have been more successful and seems to have enjoyed a period of peace in his reign.

Famine, which had plagued Upper Egypt during late 13th Dynasty and the 14th Dynasty, also blighted the 16th Dynasty, most evidently during and after the reign of Neferhotep III.




Sixteenth Dynasty
Name Years Dates Comments
Unknown 1 1 649 BC - 1 648 BC Name lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon
Sekhemre-sementawi Djehuti 3 1 648 BC - 1 645 BC  
Sekhemre-seusertawi Sobekhotep VIII 16 1 645 BC - 1 629 BC  
Sekhemre-seankhtawi Neferhotep III 1 1 629 BC - 1 628 BC  
Seankhenre Mentuhotepi 1 1 628 BC - 1 627 BC  
Sewadjenre Nebiryraw I 26 1 627 BC - 1 601 BC  
Nebiriau II 1 1 601 BC  
Semenre 1 1 601 BC - 1 600 BC  
Seuserenre Bebiankh 2 1 600 BC - 1 588 BC  
Sekhemre Shedwaset 1 1 588 BC  
Unknown 6 1 588 BC - 1 582 BC Five kings lost in a lacuna of the Turin Canon.


Additional kings are classified as belonging to this dynasty per Kim Ryholt but their chronological position is uncertain. They may correspond to the last five lost kings on the Turin canon:


Additional Kings of the Sixteenth Dynasty
Name Dates Comments
Djedhotepre Dedumose I   May have tried to sue the Hyksos for peace.
Djedneferre Dedumose II    
Djedankhre Montemsaf    
Merankhre Mentuhotep VI    
Seneferibre Senusret IV   Left a colossal statue of himself in Karnak.


Table of Sixteenth Dynasty Rulers.




DSC00596crownsm DSC00597auraeusoncrownsm


Sixteenth Dynasty: 1 649 BC - 1 582 BC

Royal Diadem


Egyptian royal jewellery is extremely rare. This diadem displays two cobras rather than one, which suggests that it belonged to a queen. It is most probably from the burial of Queen Montuhotep, the wife of King Djehuty, in Thebes.

The burial was found intact by locals between 1822 and 1825. The queen's body and coffin are now lost, but copies of the coffin's decoration were made in 1832 and are now in the British Museum and the Bodleian Library, Oxford.
Silver was so rare that it was deemed more valuable than gold. The cobras are made of silver with a higher gold and copper content than the rest of the diadem. The basketwork design on the headband was worked by displacing the metal (chasing). The details on the cobras and streamers are early examples of metal engraving.

Catalog: Circa the start of the 16th Dynasty, probably from Western Thebes, cemetery of Dra Abu el-Naga. al-Sabah Collection, 2017, AESLoan.1
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

dsc00351ceramicjarsm
Sixteenth Dynasty: 1 649 BC - 1 582 BC

Painted pottery Canopic jar of Senebhenaef.


The body of the pottery canopic jar has been painted to imitate wood, and there is a panel of Hieroglyphic text.

Height 280 mm.

Catalog: Painted ceramic, Abydos, EA32709, EA32710
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0








The Seventeenth Dynasty

1 580 BC - 1 550 BC

The Seventeenth Dynasty's mainly Theban rulers are contemporary with the Hyksos of the Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt and succeed the Sixteenth Dynasty, also based in Thebes. In March 2012, French archeologists examining a limestone door in the Amun-Ra temple in Luxor discovered hieroglyphs with the name Senakhtenre, the first evidence of this king dating to his lifetime.

King Nebmaatre may have been a ruler of the early 17th dynasty.

The last two kings of the dynasty opposed the Hyksos rule over Egypt and initiated a war that would rid Egypt of the Hyksos kings and began a period of unified rule, the New Kingdom.

Kamose, the second son of Seqenenre Tao and last king of the Seventeenth Dynasty, was the brother of Ahmose I – the first king of the Eighteenth Dynasty.


Seventeenth Dynasty
Name Horus (Throne) Name Consort Burial Years Dates Comments
Rahotep Sekhemre-wahkhaw     1 circa 1 585 BC  
Sobekemsaf I Sekhemre-wadjkhaw Nubemhat   7    
Sobekemsaf II Sekhemre-shedtawy Nubkhaes Robbed during the reign of Ramesses IX      
Intef / Antef Sekhemre-wepmaat   Dra' Abu el-Naga'?      
Intef / Antef VI Nubkheperre Sobekemsaf Dra' Abu el-Naga'      
Intef / Antef Sekhemre-heruhermaat Haankhes        
Ahmose Senakhtenre Tetisheri   1    
Tao Seqenenre Ahmose
Inhapy
Sitdjehuti
Ahhotep I
  4 circa 1 560 BC  
Kamose Wadjkheperre Ahhotep II?   5 1 555 BC - 1 550 BC  


Table of Seventeenth Dynasty Rulers.






DSC00602antefsm nubkheperra intef nubkheperra intef


Seventeenth Dynasty: 1 580 BC - 1 550 BC

King Intef / King Antef Nubkheperre / King Antef VI


King Intef Nubkheperre (there were three kings with the name Intef in this dynasty) was an Egyptian king of the Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt at Thebes / Luxor during the Second Intermediate Period, from 1582 BC to 1570 BC when Egypt was divided by rival dynasties including the Hyksos in Lower Egypt.

This is a sycomore fig wood Rishi anthropoid coffin of King Antef VI. Rishi coffins are funerary coffins adorned with a feather design. The lid of the coffin is covered with gold leaf on a base of gesso. The king is represented wearing a royal headcloth (nemes) of unusually large proportions. A uraeus serpent was originally attached to the brow, but it is now missing and only the socket is visible. A false beard, originally fitted to the chin, is also lost, although the painted beard-straps survive on each side of the face.

The king's mummified body is covered with a feather design (rishi in Arabic) symbolising the protective wings of the funerary goddesses Isis and Nephthys.

The face itself was originally gilded, and the eyes are made from black and white stone. On the upper body is a collar with falcon-head terminals, and a winged figure (now mostly destroyed) occupied the middle of the breast. The sides of the headdress and most of the body of the coffin-lid are covered with a design of stylised feathers, although the areas at the sides of the feet have a different motif, consisting of spherical and barrel shaped beads arranged in a net-pattern.

Catalog: EA6652
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia




nubkheperra intef nubkheperra intef nubkheperra intef


In the centre of the lid, from the collar to the level of the ankles is a single line of hieroglyphic text. The exterior of the coffin-case is painted a uniform blue and bears no decoration apart from a stylised representation of the queue of the king's wig in the centre of the back. On the base of the foot are figures of the goddesses Isis and Nephthys raising their hands in a gesture of lamentation.

A column of inscription between them contains their speech. The interior surfaces of both lid and case are thickly coated with a dark, shiny resinous substance. The mummy was apparently placed inside the coffin before this substance was dry, as substantial portions of the outer linen wrappings adhere to the inner surface of the case. Some of these fragments of the linen shroud bear funerary texts on behalf of King Intef, written in black ink (other sections, removed from the coffin in the 19th century, are EA10706). Several insects, identified as Dermestes beetles, are also visible, having become trapped in the sticky coating of the interior.

Among the inscriptions on the coffin is the hieroglyphic sign for an owl ('m'), which has been intentionally drawn without legs - such a symbolic 'disabling' of a potentially harmful creature was a common feature of Egyptian script in the Second Intermediate Period.

Length: 1932 mm.

Catalog: EA6652
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia




nubkheperra intef nubkheperra intef


Necklace and crown from the burial of King Intef Nubkheperre , 1635 BC.

This Ancient Egyptian 17th dynasty inlaid diadem or crown, composed of silver with gold uraeus (serpent) ( out of focus at the back of this photo - Don ), and glass or faience inlays, is traditionally associated with the burial of the 17th dynasty Theban king Nubkheperre Intef. It is today in the collection of the Leiden Museum (or Rijksmuseum van Oudheden) in the Netherlands where its registration number is No. AO. 11a.

This rare crown, 18 cm in diameter, was found in Dra' Abu el-Naga' on the West Bank of the Nile at Thebes / Luxor presumably from Intef Nubkheperre's royal tomb in the early days of Egyptology when record keeping was weak to non-existent. Nevertheless, this beautiful object was an important find from a time during the Second Intermediate Period when Egypt was divided into two between the Hyksos controlled north and the Theban dominated South.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Text: Wikipedia


DSC00592ringsm
Seventeenth Dynasty: 1 580 BC - 1 550 BC

King Antef / Intef VI


Gold ring naming King Antef / Intef VI, 17th Dynasty.

The ring is set with a scarab of lapis lazuli, a prized material that was mined in Afghanistan and reached Egypt through trade, via the Near East.


The ring is from the burial of Antef's wife, Queen Sobekemsaf. She was not buried close to her husband in Thebes, but near her blood relatives in the provincial town of Edfu. Her paternal line held the local governorship.

( thus we can deduce that the king identified on the museum card as Intef VI is also known as King Intef Nubkheperre, whose wife is listed as Sobekemsaf, and whose coffin is shown above - Don )

Catalog: Gold, lapis lazuli, EA57698
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




nubkheperra intef serpent nubkheperra intef serpent
Uraeus (serpent), gold, associated with the crown above, and shown here attached to it.

Photo: © http://www.rmo.nl/collectie/zoeken?object=AO+11a-2
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.




scarab amulet
Seventeenth Dynasty: 1 580 BC - 1 550 BC

King Sebekemsaf II


Green jasper and gold heart-scarab of King Sebekemsaf II, (also identified as Sobekemsaf II) 17th Dynasty, about 1590 BC.

This amulet, in the form of a scarab beetle with a human face ( inverted in this photo - Don ), was intended to ensure that the deceased passed safely through the judgement which could establish whether or not he was deserving of eternal life.


This is the earliest known heart scarab made for a king. Carved from green jasper, it is in the form of a scarab beetle, but has a human face. Heart scarabs were placed on the chest of the deceased to help them pass safely through the judgement that would decide whether or not they deserved eternal life.

The gold mount is inscribed with an early version of Chapter 30B of the Book of the Dead, the magical text intended to prevent the heart from testifying against its owner. It is carved from green jasper, set in a gold mount, and is the earliest known example of such an amulet made for a king.

The human-headed jasper scarab is inset into a cloison in a hollow sheet gold plinth with a rounded back end. The rim of the cloison itself has been inset with an undulating strip of sheet gold to give the effect of granulation.


scarab amulet
The insect's legs, splayed out on the plinth's top, are made from individual sheet gold strips with roughly incised markings representing hairs.

The crudely formed hieroglyphs incised around the plinth, and in five horizontal rows across the underside, come from Chapter 30B of the Book of the Dead: 'Spell for preventing the heart from opposing the deceased'. In the inscription the legs of the birds are missing, a common feature in earlier magical texts to prevent them attacking the dead person.

Catalog: Western Thebes, Dra Abu el-Naga, EA7876

Photo (upper): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (lower, at left) © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




 gilded mask
Gilded plaster mummy-mask

17th or early 18th Dynasty, circa 1600 BC - 1500 BC, from Rifeh.

Mummy-masks with very small faces and feathered decorations on the headdress were characteristic of the period before the beginning of the New Kingdom.

Catalog: EA69151
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0









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