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Grotte de Pair-non-Pair



Discovered in 1881, the cave of Pair-non-Pair contains engravings (featuring horses, ibexes, cervidae, mammoths) which rank among the most ancient examples of art made by prehistoric man (between 33 000 and 26 000 years old). Prehistoric objects and artefacts discovered at the Pair-non-Pair Caves are on display in a special museum section.

Text above: Owner's description



Pair-non-Pair

Pair-non-Pair Entrance

Photo: unknown
Source: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grotte_de_Pair-non-Pair






Pair-non-Pair


Old postcard of the present entrance to Pair-non-Pair.

In the foreground is Pierre Macouillard, owner and guide of the cave in the 1950s.

Photo: Gil Duporge
Permission: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license




My sincere thanks to Monsieiur Gil Duporge, who brought the book Cheynier (1963) to my attention, (see the foot of this page for the photographs of the casts which were made at that time) and was so kind as to send me historical photographs of the early times at the cave.

He writes, in part:

The actors of the adventure of Pair-non-Pair were my family, the owner Baptiste Milepied then Pierre Macouillard his employee, who became his son-in-law and was my great grandfather.

When I was a child, my mother showed visitors the cave with a candleholder. It revealed these exceptional engravings, there were some magical properties of this method of discovering the cave, we do not find this wonder now with electric light, and the speed of the visit.

My brothers and I brought the visitors up to the cave through the vineyards (there was no road at the time in 1961/1968) People tipped us for some flints or shards of Gallo-Roman pottery picked up in the vineyard of my grandfather.

The Grotto is named after my family house 'Pair-Non-Pair', people parked in front of the gate of the house, which included two Gallo-Roman stones in its construction. The book Cheynier (1963) was given to my mother to thank her for her help in its production.




Pair-non-Pair


Photo of Pierre Macouillard with the candlestick that served as a light for visitors to the cave.

Photo and text: Courtesy M. Gil Duporge




Pair-non-Pair


Photo of Pierre Macouillard and Marguerite Milepied his wife, daughter of Baptiste Milepied, one of the first owners of the cave.

Pierre Macouillard was my great grandfather, and actively participated in the excavation of the cave under the direction of François Daleau.

He was the owner and guardian of the Grotto until his death in 1955.


Photo and text: Courtesy M. Gil Duporge




Pair-non-Pair


This is the present door to the cave. The original entrance was via what is called the corridor, which collapsed in the Châtelperronian, between 35 000 and 29 000 BP masking the original entrance to the cave.

The original entrance was then replaced by several secondary entrances which have since disappeared due to sedimentation. The cave was found almost completely covered by debris and sediment.

In 1881, a cow grazing in the meadow got its leg stuck in a hole. The employee of Mr. Barberin, owner of the land, discovered the cave when rescuing the cow. it had uncovered a hole in the roof of the Chamber of Engravings of Pair-non-Pair.

Photo: © Joelle
Source: http://2013bordeauxsabbatical.blogspot.com.au/2013/10/la-grotte-de-pair-non-pair-et-le.html
Text: Adapted from Wikipedia




Pair-non-Pair


Location map

Photo: Google Maps




Pair-non-Pair


Entry to the parking area at Pair-non-Pair, off a narrow road.

Photo: © Joelle
Source: http://2013bordeauxsabbatical.blogspot.com.au/2013/10/la-grotte-de-pair-non-pair-et-le.html




Pair-non-Pair


François Daleau 1870

La grotte de Pair-non-Pair was discovered in 1881 by François Daleau. The engravings, which at the time were completely covered by archaeological layers were recognised in 1896.

Pair-non-Pair was the third decorated cave discovered in the world, its authenticity was never questioned, and it became one of the major arguments for the recognition of prehistoric art.

Human occupation of the cave can be divided into the Mousterian (~80 000 BP), the Chatelperronian (~40 000 BP), the Aurignacian (~30 000 BP) and the Gravettian (~25 000 BP).

Photo: http://www.usaquitaine.com/article11122010.htm




Pair-non-Pair


François Daleau

Photograph taken on 23rd June 1901, at his property Bourg.

A leader in the development of scientific methods of excavation and the recording of archaeological sites, François Daleau's notebooks carefully document all his comments on the stratigraphy of the layers, and the distribution of the objects found there.

He bequeathed thousands of flint tools, faunal remains, ornaments, and worked bones to the city of Bordeaux in 1927 and the 'Daleau Collection' remains a major part of the treasures of the Musée d'Aquitaine, and is still studied today.

Photo: Unknown
Permission: Public Domain
Source: Wikipedia




Pair-non-Pair

François Daleau's journal notes of his excavations at Pair-non-Pair.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Facsimile, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux

Pair-non-Pair


This Mousterian racloir is the one described in the journal entry above.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux


Pair-non-Pair excavation Pair-non-Pair excavation


Plan and elevation of the 1881 excavation by François Daleau.

Photo: Leroi-Gourhan (1984)




Pair-non-Pair lamp


Lamp from Pair-non-Pair.

Photo: Marie Gachet
Source: http://www.usaquitaine.com/article11122010.htm




flute

Flute with three holes, made from the bone of a bird's wing, from Pair-non-Pair.

Photo: http://www.hominides.com/html/lieux/musee-aquitaine-prehistoire-bordeaux.php
Source: original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine




Pair-non-Pair
Engraved bear rib from Pair-non-Pair.

Age: Aurignacian or Gravettian
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair-non-Pair

Engraved horse metatarsal from Pair-non-Pair.

Age: Aurignacian or Gravettian
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair-non-Pair
Reindeer metacarpal engraved and treated with ochre.

Age: Aurignacian or Gravettian
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair-non-Pair
'Headband' in ivory from Pair-non-Pair, above the reindeer metacarpal. Its actual use remains unknown.

Age: Aurignacian or Gravettian
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux


Pair-non-Pair
Decorated bone lissoir, a polisher and stretcher used in the preparation of hides.

Age: Aurignacian or Gravettian
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair-non-Pair
Carved spear point.

Age: Aurignacian or Gravettian
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair-non-Pair carved ribs
Carved ribs.

Age: Aurignacian or Gravettian
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




mammoth ivory

Lissoirs from Pair-non-Pair and Cap Blanc.

(left) Bone lissoir from Pair-non-Pair, 60.1060.4, Daleau collection.

(centre) Bone lissoir from Pair-non-Pair, 60.1060.5, Daleau collection.

(right) Reindeer antler lissoir from Cap Blanc, 61.3.306.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Catalog: 60.1060.4, 60.1060.5, 61.3.306
Source: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




magdalenian  teeth

Carnivore tooth, possibly of a cave lion, Pair-non-Pair.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




aurignacain or gravettian  teeth
Hyena canine and incisor teeth from Pair-non-Pair.

Age: Aurignacian or Gravettian.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Catalog: 60.1050.59 and 60.1060.150
Source and text: Original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




aurignacain or gravettian  teeth
Pierced fox canine teeth from Pair-non-Pair, Prignac-et-Marcamps and Les Jean-Blancs, Bayac.

Age: Aurignacian or Gravettian or Solutrean.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Catalog: 60.1048.67 and 60.476.191
Source and text: Original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




aurignacain or gravettian tooth
Pierced lynx canine tooth from Pair-non-Pair.

Age: Aurignacian or Gravettian.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Catalog: 60.1060.157
Source and text: Original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




recent Palaeolithic and gravettian tooth
Pierced horse incisor teeth from Pair-non-Pair and Les Jean-Blancs, Bayac.

Age: Recent Palaeolithic and Gravettian.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Catalog: 60.1046.124 and 60.476.198
Source and text: Original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




recent Palaeolithic and gravettian tooth
Pierced Megaceros canine tooth from Pair-non-Pair.

Age: Recent Palaeolithic.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Catalog: 60.1060.25
Source and text: Original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




The Mousterian flint tools from Pair-non-Pair shown in the images immediately below include:

• Racloirs - a type of side scraper distinctive of Mousterian assemblages. It is created from a flint flake and looks like a large scraper. As well as being used for scraping hides and bark, it may also have been used as a knife. Racloirs are most associated with the Neanderthal Mousterian industry.

• Mousterian points - the Levallois technique involving the striking of flakes from a prepared core.

• Grattoirs (scrapers) on flakes retouched at one end.

• Bifaces - hand axes in the Mousterian tradition.

Note that the individual tools were not named in the display case. The identifications below are my interpretations of their functions.

Pair-non-Pair tools Pair-non-Pair tools
Mousterian flint tools from Pair-non-Pair.

Two racloirs.

On the right, Catalog: 60.1045.7

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair-non-Pair tools Pair-non-Pair tools
Mousterian flint tools from Pair-non-Pair.

Biface at left, racloir at the top right, point at bottom right.

Biface catalog: 60.1045.2.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair-non-Pair tools Pair-non-Pair tools
Mousterian flint tools from Pair-non-Pair.

Two biface hand axes.

Biface at right: Catalog: 60.1045.1

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair-non-Pair tools
Mousterian flint tools from Pair-non-Pair.

Three points.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair-non-Pair tools
Mousterian flint tools from Pair-non-Pair.

From left to right, a grattoir, a combination grattoir and racloir, and a racloir.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair-non-Pair tools
Mousterian retoucher in bone, used for striking flakes from flint to create specific tools.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair non pair tools

Châtelperronian flint points and knives from Pair non Pair.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair non pair tools

Aurignacian tools from Pair non Pair.

Keeled scrapers, scrapers on blades, blades.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair non pair tools

Gravettian tools from Pair non Pair.

Points, microgravettes, scrapers, burins, retouched blades.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair-non-Pair visitors centre


Visitors Centre

Photo: http://www.usaquitaine.com/article11122010.htm




Pair-non-Pair old entrance


Excavation of the corridor in 1897.

Photo: Th. Amtmann, 1897 - Musée d'ethnographie, Bordeaux
Source: http://www.usaquitaine.com/article11122010.htm




There were two major periods of occupation of the cave.

The cave was occupied for 60 000 years, including the time of the carving of the engravings. Seven layers of occupations were distinguished by François Daleau.

At 80 000 BP it was first occupied by Neanderthals. 40 000 years ago the first part of the cave, the 'Corridor' collapsed, greatly reducing the sheltered area.

At this point modern man gained access using another entry. The engravings are dated to between 35 000 BP, to 22 000 BP. They are attributed to the Aurignacian. Researchers have identified 46 prints, of which only about a dozen are faithfully preserved because of sedimentation in the cave.

The animals which are shown on the walls are not those they hunted. They hunted and consumed mainly reindeer, which is not a species represented in the engravings.

A few traces of ochre indicate that the engravings may originally have been coloured. Of the animals identified, 11 are Ibex, 6 are Horses, 4 are Aurochs, 4 are Deer, and there are 4 mammoths, and one Megaloceros engraving.

Text above: http://www.hominides.com/html/lieux/grotte-pair-non-pair.php

Pair-non-Pair Pair-non-Pair





Plan of Pair-non-Pair

Photo: unknown
Source: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grotte_de_Pair-non-Pair




Pair-non-Pair plan





Plan of the cave as it exists now.

Note that the wall and door to the cave has been moved to the entrance to the Salle des Gravures.

Photo: Dubourg et al. (1996)




Pair-non-Pair


This is the entrance to Pair-non-Pair used by the artists who carved the engravings.

Photo: © Joelle
Source: http://2013bordeauxsabbatical.blogspot.com.au/2013/10/la-grotte-de-pair-non-pair-et-le.html




Pair-non-Pair


Another view of the entrance to Pair-non-Pair used by the artists who carved the engravings.

Photo: http://alexdebordeaux.wordpress.com/2011/06/17/




Pair-non-Pair pendant

Pendant in the shape of a cowrie, Pair-non-Pair cave

Prignac-et-Marcamps (Gironde). Gravettian, around 25000 B.P. Ivory. Inv. 60.1060.33.

This ivory pendant is in the shape of a cowrie, an animal characteristic of tropical climates. Its Gravettian creator copied fossils present in the Aquitainian subsoil. Prehistoric people made personal ornaments, pendants and beads from shells and fossils. The scarcity of fossilised cowries must have made this type of shell very valuable, which inspired the craftsman to make a copy from mammoth ivory. The suspension ring is broken, which may explain why such an object of personal decoration was abandoned in the cave of Pair-non-Pair.

This is currently the only known European example of the prehistoric reproduction of a fossilised cowrie.

Photo and text: http://www.musee-aquitaine-bordeaux.fr/en/article/pendant-shape-cowrie-pair-non-pair-cave


pendant

Another view of the ivory pendant in the shape of a cowrie shell, Cypraeidae, from Pair-non-Pair.

Photo: http://www.hominides.com/html/lieux/musee-aquitaine-prehistoire-bordeaux.php
Source: original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine




Vulva, Pair-non-Pair Vulva, Pair-non-Pair
Engraved vulva from Pair-non-Pair.

Material: Reindeer antler
Age: Recent Palaeolithic
Catalog: 60.1070.2
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair-non-Pair


Plan of the engravings.

2-15: First panel on the right wall.
16-19: Second panel, known as Agnus Dei
23-24: Mammoth
26-31: Third Panel
38: Small isolated mammoth
49-56: Large panel on the left wall

Photo: Delluc et al. (1997)




Pair-non-Pair



First panel on the right wall, figures 2 to 15.

Photo: Delluc et al. (1997)




Pair-non-Pair




Agnus Dei panel, figures 16 to 19, 23 and 24.

Photo: Delluc et al. (1997)




Pair-non-Pair




Third panel, on the right wall. Figures 26 to 31, on the edge of the panel is the mammoth 23-24.

Photo: Delluc et al. (1997)




Pair-non-Pair




Large Panel on the left wall, figures 49 to 56.

Photo: Delluc et al. (1997)




Pair-non-Pair


Mammoth engraving.

Photo: unknown
Source: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grotte_de_Pair-non-Pair




Pair-non-Pair Pair-non-Pair
Looking towards the Galerie Nord and the far end of the cave.

Ibex (left wall, 49) and Horse (right wall, 'Agnus Dei', 16)

Photo (left): Heinrich Wendel (© The Wendel Collection, Neanderthal Museum)
Photo (right): http://www.tripadvisor.com.au/Attraction_Review-g1939236-d2397775-Reviews-Grotte_de_Pair_non_Pair-Prignac_Et_Marcamps_Gironde_Aquitaine.html




Pair-non-Pair


Ibex engraving.

Photo: Heinrich Wendel (© The Wendel Collection, Neanderthal Museum)




Pair-non-Pair


Horse engraving.

Photo: Heinrich Wendel (© The Wendel Collection, Neanderthal Museum)




Pair-non-PairPair-non-Pair


Bison engraving.

Photo: Heinrich Wendel (© The Wendel Collection, Neanderthal Museum)




Pair-non-Pair


Horse engraving.

Photo: Heinrich Wendel (© The Wendel Collection, Neanderthal Museum)




Pair-non-Pair horse engraving


Engraving of a horse looking over its shoulder.

Photo: http://www.usaquitaine.com/article11122010.htm




Pair-non-Pair Pair-non-Pair


Megaloceros and Ibex engraving.

Photo: Heinrich Wendel (© The Wendel Collection, Neanderthal Museum)




Pair-non-Pair


Horse engraving, as above. It is known as Agnus Dei, or Lamb of God.

Photo: Heinrich Wendel (© The Wendel Collection, Neanderthal Museum)




Pair-non-Pair
This is the traditional interpretation of the Agnus Dei horse engraving. David et Malvesin-Fabre (1950) decided to investigate the engraving using artificial light, set up in various ways, to bring out any extra lines of engraving, invisible when the engraving is lit from straight ahead.

They found that there was evidence that the engraving was actually of two animals, a horse and an ibex, facing in opposite directions. They write:

We decided to undertake a careful study which revealed other imperfections: the rump is not that of a horse, the tail is very short, and the legs do not resemble those of a horse but rather those of an ibex. Together with these findings, we also noticed that this engraving is eye catching because it is just opposite the current entrance to the cave, and this is where it receives direct light which gives it the classic appearance on arrival in the cave. We therefore tried several differing lighting setups using artificial light. A photograph was made for each lighting mode.

Photo and adapted text: David et Malvesin-Fabre (1950)


Pair-non-Pair

Following these tests we came to the following conclusions:

The neck and head do not belong to the same drawing as the body. The latter continues in the other direction to the lowered head of an ibex whose horns are clearly indicated. This head is perfectly connected with the neck in the position of a grazing animal. It is the line of the neck that Daleau noticed, delineating the neck of the equine animal, according to his interpretation.

It is clear to us that the ibex is a pregnant, which explains the moderate development of the horns, since it is a female.


Photo and adapted text: David et Malvesin-Fabre (1950)



(note that in my opinion, if the writers, David et Malvesin-Fabre (1950) are correct, someone has, at a later date, come through and added extra grooves to link the two animals into the familiar and iconic shape. The writers ignore the clear and distinct lines joining the head and body of the 'horse' - Don )



Pair-non-Pair


Pair-non-Pair cave (Marcamps, Gironde).

Engraved panel with ibex (27), red deer (28) and giant deer (29).

Photo and text: Jaubert (2008)




Pair-non-Pair megaloceros


Megaloceros antlers (facsimile) on the wall of the Visitors Centre at Pair-non-Pair.

Photo: http://tice33.ac-bordeaux.fr/




Pair-non-Pair


Ibex engraving.

Photo: Heinrich Wendel (© The Wendel Collection, Neanderthal Museum)




Pair-non-Pair ibex





This photo and drawing notes the discovery of a new unpublished (inédit) Ibex.

Photo: Dubourg et al. (1996)




Pair-non-Pair ibex





Closeup of the new unpublished Ibex.

Photo: Dubourg et al. (1996)




Pair-non-Pair ibex





Arrangement of Ibexes at Pair-non-Pair.

Photo: Dubourg et al. (1996)




Pair-non-Pair ibex





The two styles of Ibex representation at Pair-non-Pair.

Photo: Dubourg et al. (1996)




Dubourg et al. (1996) state that at Pair-non-Pair there are at present:

10 Ibex (plus one doubtful)
5 Horses (plus one doubtful)
4 Cervids (three Deer and one Megaceros)
3 Bovids (plus one doubtful)

Pair-non-Pair


Wall carved by water when the cave was originally formed.

Photo: Heinrich Wendel (© The Wendel Collection, Neanderthal Museum)




flint

Flint tools from the Aurignacian from Pair-non-Pair.

Photo: http://www.hominides.com/html/lieux/musee-aquitaine-prehistoire-bordeaux.php
Source: original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine




flint nucleus and flakes

Gravettian flint core and flakes from Pair-non-Pair.

Length 138mm, width 115 mm, thickness 75mm

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Catalog: 60.1060.1
Source and text: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




flint nucleus and flakes flint nucleus and flakes

Cores reassembled with the blades struck from them.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




flint nucleus and flakes

Core reassembled with the blades struck from it.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Catalog: 60.1046.21
Source and text: Original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




flint nucleus and flakes flint nucleus and flakes

Cores reassembled with the blades struck from them.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




flint nucleus and flakes

Jasper core with a blade struck from it on the far side of the image. This was reassembled by François Daleau.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Catalog: 60.1060.36
Source and text: Original, Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




mammoth ivory

Mammoth ivory flakes from Pair-non-Pair.

Photo: http://www.hominides.com/html/lieux/musee-aquitaine-prehistoire-bordeaux.php
Source: original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine




ochre

Red and yellow ochre dating to the Gravettian from Pair-non-Pair.

Photo: http://www.hominides.com/html/lieux/musee-aquitaine-prehistoire-bordeaux.php
Source: original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine




Pair-non-Pair ochre Pair-non-Pair ochre


Pair-non-Pair ochre Pair-non-Pair ochre

Ochre from Pair-non-Pair, Prignac-et-Marcamps

Age: Gravettian
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




plaquette

Schist plate with traces of ochre from being used as a palette.

Length 210 mm, width 140 mm, thickness 18 mm.

Recent Palaeolithic
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




scapula

Bovid left scapula from Pair-non-Pair, decorated with ochre.

Photo: http://www.hominides.com/html/lieux/musee-aquitaine-prehistoire-bordeaux.php
Source: original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine




Pair-non-Pair palette scapula

Bovid left scapula used as a palette for ochre.

From Pair-non-Pair, Prignac-et-Marcamps

Age: Gravettian
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair-non-Pair palette scapula Pair-non-Pair palette scapula

Scapula in two pieces, formerly used as a palette for ochre.

From Pair-non-Pair, Prignac-et-Marcamps

Age: Recent Palaeolithic
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




teeth

Pierced bison or aurochs teeth from Pair-non-Pair and Les Jean-Blancs, Bayac.

Recent Palaeolithic and Solutrean.

Catalog: 60.1060.154 and 60.476.193

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, display at Musée d'Aquitaine à Bordeaux




Pair-non-Pair plan




Plan of the Grotte de Pair-non-Pair at the level of the engravings.

Photo and text: Cheynier (1963)




Pair-non-Pair plan




L'Abbé Breuil at the entrance to la grotte de Pair-non-Pair, getting his acetylene lamps ready for use.

Photo: By R. L. Doize, from the Musée de l'homme collections
Source and text: Cheynier (1963)








According to Cheynier (1963), there are 59 animals represented at Pair-non-Pair, as a result of the painstaking work of Abbé Breuil. Dalcau had deciphered only 18. There are 14 horses, 12 bovids, 8 ibex, 5 mammoths, and 5 bears. Of deer, there are only one deer, one red deer, and one megaceros, as well as a feline and a rhinoceros.



plate1bull




Cast 1, Number 3: Bison or bull, one metre.

Photo and text: Cheynier (1963)




plate2




Cast 2, Number 5: Ibex, 56 cm, Horse 120 cm.

Photo and text: Cheynier (1963)




plate3




Cast 3, Number 7: Horse 120 cm.

Photo and text: Cheynier (1963)




plate4




Cast 4, Number 6: Horse 100 cm.

Photo and text: Cheynier (1963)




plate5




Cast 5, Number 10: A beautifully posed ibex, 40 cm.

Photo and text: Cheynier (1963)




plate6




Cast 6, Number 12: 20 cm

Photo and text: Cheynier (1963)




plate7




Cast 7, Number 13: Large ibex, 80 cm.

Photo and text: Cheynier (1963)




plate8




Cast 8, Number 16: Agnus Déi, height 190 cm.

Photo and text: Cheynier (1963)




plate8




Cast 10, Number 49

Photo and text: Cheynier (1963)









References

  1. Cheynier A., 1963: La caverne de Pair - non-Pair (Gironde). Fouilles de François Daleau, Documents et industries étudiés et dessinés par le docteur André Cheynier, Préf. Raoul Cousté. Cheynier (Dr André) éd. & Abbé Breuil, Edité par Bordeaux, Société archéologique (Documents d'Aquitaine, II), 1963
  2. David P., Malvesin-Fabre G., 1950: Une interprétation nouvelle pour une gravure de Pair-non-Pair, Bulletin de la Société préhistorique de France, tome 47, no. 3-4, 1950. pp. 139-141.
  3. Delluc B., Delluc G., 1997: Dix observations graphiques sur la grotte ornée de Pair-Non-Pair (Prignac-et-Marcamps, Gironde), Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française, 1997, tome 94, N. 1. pp. 41-50.
  4. Dubourg C., Martinez M., Aujoulat N., Bouvier J., Brassie S., 1996: Une nouvelle gravure pariétale dans la grotte de Pair-non-Pair ( Prignac et Marcamps, Gironde), Paléo, N. 8,1996. pp. 293-297.
  5. Jaubert J., 2008: L'art pariétal gravettien en France: éléments pour un bilan chronologique, Paléo, 20 | 2008, 439-474.
  6. Leroi-Gourhan A., 1984: in L’art des cavernes, 1984, 155





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