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The original Neanderthal skeleton from the Neander Valley

The original Neanderthal skeleton from the Neander Valley, the type specimen, dubbed Neanderthal 1, consisted of a skull cap, two femora, three bones from the right arm, two from the left arm, part of the left ilium, fragments of a scapula, and ribs. The workers who recovered this material originally thought it to be the remains of a bear. They gave the material to amateur naturalist Johann Carl Fuhlrott, who turned the fossils over to anatomist Hermann Schaaffhausen. The discovery was jointly announced in 1857. The original Neanderthal discovery is now considered the beginning of paleoanthropology. These and other discoveries led to the idea these remains were from ancient Europeans who had played an important role in modern human origins. The bones of over 400 Neanderthals have been found since.

Text above adapted from Wikipedia.

original neanderthal
These are the bones of the original Neandertal from the Neander Valley.

Photo: Michael Hess
Source: Display, LVR-LandesMuseum Bonn.




original neanderthal
The museum has produced an excellent display of these most important discoveries.

Photo: Michael Hess
Source: Display, LVR-LandesMuseum Bonn.




original neanderthal original neanderthal


original neanderthal
The original skull of the Neanderthal.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, LVR-Landesmuseum Bonn, Germany




original neanderthal
This version shows the partial skeleton superimposed over a drawing of the complete skeleton.

Photo: G. Oleschinski

Source: http://www.rlmb.lvr.de/museum/26d559e3-00ec-4f4e-a4c3-ad3a1dd0f074.htm




neandertal

This is a reconstruction of the 1856 discovery of the Neanderthal.

It is a superb recreation from Kennis & Kennis Reconstructions.

Photo: © Neanderthal Museum/H. Neumann
Source: http://www.neanderthal.de/en/press-pictures/pictures/neanderthals/index.html

Permission: by kind permission of Dr. Bärbel Auffermann, Deputy Director of the Museum, and in charge of Exhibition Management, Press and Public Relations.




neandertal neandertal
Patrons are invited to take photos of the sculptures at the exit of the Museum.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Artist: Kennis & Kennis Reconstructions
Source and text: Facsimile, Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf




neandertal
Close up of the wonderfully true to life sculpture.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Artist: Kennis & Kennis Reconstructions
Source and text: Facsimile, Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf




neandertal



This image demonstrates that a Neanderthal might well pass for an anatomically modern human if dressed correctly.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Artist: Kennis & Kennis Reconstructions
Source: Facsimile, Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf




neandertal map



Map of Neanderthal sites, showing ancient coastlines.

Artist/cartographer: Unknown
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: LVR-Landesmuseum Bonn, Germany




Homo neanderthalensis
Homo neanderthalensis, type specimen.

Cranial vault, circa 40 000 BP

Kleine Feldhofer Grotte, Germany.

Kleine Feldhofer Grotte was a karstic limestone cave and a palaeoanthropologic site in the Neandertal Valley in western Germany. In August 1856, the Neanderthal type specimen was unearthed from the cave. Miners uncovered a skull cap and a number of skeletal bones to be labeled Neanderthal. The bones belong to at least three distinct individuals.


The cave was situated in a limestone gorge with the interior dimensions of 3 m (9.8 ft) in width by 5 m (16 ft) in length by 3 m (9.8 ft) in height, and a 1 m (3.3 ft) opening 20 m (66 ft) above the valley floor in the south wall which was 50 m (160 ft) high. The cave got its name from the nearby large farm of the Feldhof. The cave was completely destroyed during the 19th century as a result of industrial-scale limestone quarrying which widened the gorge. The location of the cave was soon forgotten and by 1900, unknown.

In 1997 a successful search for the site of the cave and its deposits yielded 24 fragments of human bone, one of which, identified as NN 13, fit exactly onto the left lateral femoral condyle of the Neanderthal 1 fossil. The 2000 excavation resulted in the recovery of thousands of artefacts. The mitochondrial DNA of two bone samples were fully sequenced, and completed in 2009.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Facsimile, Vienna Natural History Museum, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien
Additional text: Wikipedia




Pastor Neander
The Neandertal was originally called das Gesteins (the rock) , das Hundsklippe (the dog cliff) or just the Klipp. In the nineteenth century, it was renamed 'Neandertal', in memory of the well-known church music composer and Pastor Joachim Neander.

Joachim Neander (Neumann) (1650 – 31 May 1680) was a German Reformed (Calvinist) Church teacher, theologian and hymn writer whose most famous hymn was 'Praise to the Lord, the Almighty, the King of Creation' (German: 'Lobe den Herren, den mächtigen König der Ehren').

Neander wrote about 60 hymns and provided tunes for many of them. He is considered by many to be the first important German hymnist after the Reformation and is regarded as the outstanding hymn writer of the German Reformed Church.

Joachim Neander was born in Bremen, the son of a Latin teacher. His grandfather, a musician, had changed the family name from the original Neumann ('New man' in English) to the Greek form Neander following the fashion of the time. After the death of his father, he could not afford to study at a famous university. He therefore studied theology in his hometown from 1666 to 1670.


In 1671 he became a private tutor in Heidelberg, and in 1674 he became a teacher in a Latin school in Düsseldorf, one step before becoming a minister. While living there, he liked to go to the nearby valley of the Düssel river, nature being the inspiration for his poems. He also held gatherings and services in the valley, at which he gave sermons.

The Neandertal was renamed in his honor in the early 19th century, and became famous in 1856 when the remains of the Neanderthal Man were found there. In 1679, Neander became a pastor in Bremen, as his popularity with the common people had caused problems with the church administration in Düsseldorf. One year later, at the age of 30, he died of tuberculosis.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015, of a lithograph, 19th century, after a missing oil painting.
Source and text: Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf, Germany.
Additional text: Wikipedia




neandertal
View of the 'Hundsklippe' rock near Mettmann in the Duchy of Berg, (Herzogthum Berg) Watercolour, by C.Engels about 1800 - Hundsklippe, is the old name for Neandertal.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf, Germany.
Additional text: Wikipedia




neandertal
The Neander Valley

Three hikers looking at the Neander Cave.

This drawing by the Rotterdam artist Gerardus Johannes Verburgh, 1803, is the oldest known depiction of the Neander Valley with the Neander Cave. The hikers are facing west, looking downstream along the Düssel River. They are standing on top of the 'Engelskammer' or 'Rabenstein' rock formation on the right of the Düssel. The Feldhof Cave was situated on the opposite side.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf, Germany.




neandertal
The Neander Cave (in the rock)

Steel engraving by W. Cooke published by Julius Buddeus, Duesseldorf, around 1840, 20.5 x 25.5 cm

Time and time again painters of the Düsseldorf academy and the Netherlands frequented the Neander Valley during the 19th century. These artists recorded its extraordinary beauty in their works and occasionally held colourful festivals in its caves. Over 150 works of art can be attributed to the Neander Valley today. Amongst these are works by Schirmer, Koekkoek, Achenbach and de Leeuw.

Julius Buddeus was a Düsseldorf print publisher of the 1830s and 1840s.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf, Germany.
Additional text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/, https://www.zvab.com/servlet/




Neander Valley
Part of the Neander Valley, painted on site.

Friedrich Wilhelm Schreiner, 1855, oil on cardboard. The Habris Foundation supported the purchase and restoration of this painting.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf, Germany.




neandertal



Stream in the Neander Valley.

Photo: March 18, 2006, http://www.cordula.ws/, Cordula, Cordula's Web.

Permission: Creative Commons Attribution Share-alike 2.5 Generic licence.




neandertal valley



Location map.

Photo: Google Maps




original neanderthal original neanderthal




Here we see the skeleton laid out with the bones in the correct relation to each other, with red triangles indicating the extra bones found in the relatively recent excavations of 1997-2000, a wonderful addition to the specimen.

Photo: Anon.
Source: Original bones of the type specimen of Homo neanderthalensis, displayed at LVR-LandesMuseum Bonn.




original neanderthal
It is most unusual to see the complete skeleton laid out in this way. Most textbooks show an overhead shot of the cranium only.

The red arrows point to recently discovered bones found during the 1997-2000 excavations at the original site, and belonging to the Neanderthal skeleton discovered in 1856.

Photo: Anon.
Source: Original bones of the type specimen of Homo neanderthalensis, displayed at LVR-LandesMuseum Bonn.




original neanderthal original neanderthal
One of the distinguishing features of a Neanderthal skull is the prominent brow ridge, very evident in these photographs.

Here we can also see the right clavicle or collar bone, displaying the double curvature characteristic of Western Neanderthals (Condemi, 2006) , which is also characteristic of anatomically modern humans.

These curvatures are associated with shoulder architecture. (Voisin 2004, Voisin 2006a, Voisin 2006b)

Photo: Anon.
Source: Original bones of the type specimen of Homo neanderthalensis, displayed at LVR-LandesMuseum Bonn.




original neanderthal original neanderthal
Here we can see clearly the characteristic occipital bun of the Neanderthals.

Occipital bun is a morphological term used to describe a prominent bulge, or projection, of the occipital bone at the back of the skull. The term is most often used in connection with scientific descriptions of classic Neanderthal crania.

While common among many of mankind's ancestors, primarily robust relatives rather than gracile, the protrusion is relatively rare in modern Homo sapiens.

Photo: Anon.
Source: Original bones of the type specimen of Homo neanderthalensis, displayed at LVR-LandesMuseum Bonn.
Text: Adapted from Wikipedia




original neanderthal original neanderthal
Another superb version of the original Neanderthal, by Atelier Manufaktur, München.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: LVR-Landesmuseum Bonn, Germany




Neanderthal


Sculpture of a male Neanderthal.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Sculptor: Atelier Élisabeth Daynès, Paris, for the Neanderthal Museum, 1996.
Source and text: Facsimile, Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf, Germany




Forbes Quarry  woman Forbes Quarry  woman
Neanderthal woman from Forbes' Quarry, Gibraltar

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Artist: Élisabeth Daynès, Paris
Source and text: Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf
Additional text: Wikipedia




Forbes Quarry
Forbes' Quarry, Gibraltar

Forbes' Quarry is located on the northern face of the Rock of Gibraltar within the Upper Rock Nature Reserve in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. The area was quarried during the 19th century to supply stone for reinforcing the fortress' military installations. In the course of the quarrying, a limestone cave was found. The second ever Neanderthal discovery was made within this cave when Captain Edmund Flint found the skull of an adult female Neanderthal in 1848.

Photo: AquilaGib
Permission: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
Text: Wikipedia




 neanderthal skull diagram
This diagram shows the important parts of the skull of a typical Neanderthal, including the occipital bun.

Some scientists suspect occipital buns might correlate with the biomechanics of running. Another theory attributes them to enlargement of the cerebellum, a region of the brain which mediates the timing of motor actions and spatial reasoning.

There are still many human populations which often exhibit occipital buns. A greater proportion of early modern Europeans had them, but prominent occipital buns even among Europeans are now relatively infrequent. They are still found fairly often among Basque, Sami and Finn individuals. Bushmen from South Africa and Australian aborigines often have occipital buns also.

Photo: Wikimedia Commons
Permission: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic licence.
Text: Adapted from Wikipedia




original neanderthal
Other defining characteristics of Neanderthals are shown here:

Großes Schultergelenk - Large shoulder joint
Großes Ellenbogengelenk - Big elbow
Kurze Unterarmknochen - Short forearm bones
Breite Hüften - Wide hips
Großes, nach außen gedrehtes Hüftgelenk - Large hip rotated towards the outside.
Kräftige Hände mit robusten Fingern und breiten Fingerkuppen - Strong hands with robust fingers and broad fingertips
Gebogene Oberschenkelknochen - Curved femur.

Photo: Anon.
Source: Display at LVR-LandesMuseum Bonn.




Neanderthal human differences

Neanderthals - Modern Humans Features

Photo: Poster, Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf, Germany
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015 Source and text: Poster, Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf, Germany

Neanderthals - Modern Humans Features
No. Neanderthals Modern Humans
1 Pronounced supraorbital torus, a continuous
projecting shelf of bone above the eyes
Separate eyebrow ridges over each
eye only, more marked in males
2 Receding forehead High frontal bone
3 Cranial vault flat and elongated High vault
4 Flattened occipital region, the lower back of the skull Rounded occipital region
5 Small mastoid process, the back part of the temporal
bone, below and behind the ear
Large mastoid process
6 Gap behind the wisdom tooth No gap behind the wisdom tooth
7 Receding chin Protruding chin
8 No canine fossa Canine fossa present (shallow depression
above the root of the canine tooth)
9 Long and pointed face with a broad nose Short flat face with a thin nose
10 Large joints of the upper leg bone Smaller joints of the upper leg bone
11 Large joints of the upper leg bone Smaller joints of the upper leg bone
12 Short and curved shaft of the upper leg bone,
with thick bone
Long and straight shaft of the upper leg bone,
with thin bone
13 Short and robust finger bones Less robust finger bones
14 Robust hand bones Gracile hand bones


Table above adapted from a poster at the Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf, Germany


Neander Valley



Tools from the Neander valley, of Neanderthals, discovered in the 1997 and 2000 excavations.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf, Germany.




The Discovery

A mere 16 bones made up the mysterious finding discovered by workmen clearing Feldhof Cave in August 1856. They were immediately identified as human remains by Johann Carl Fuhlrott, the first person to examine them. Little is known about the circumstances surrounding the finding. The skeleton is said to have been lying on its back and buried 60 cm deep in the cave's clay with the head pointing towards its entrance.

We know today that bones of the species found in the Neander Valley had already been discovered before 1856, in Belgium and Gibraltar. These fossils however were largely ignored. The Neanderthal discovery became famous because it coincided with Charles Darwin's pioneering work 'On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection'. This groundbreaking book was published in England three years after the Neanderthal discovery. Following Darwin's theory, the recent find was soon cited as crucial evidence that humans too had evolved from primitive ancestors.

Neander valley excavations



Blueprint of the archaeological excavations of 1997 and 2000.

A stone quarry and junkyard - structures dating back to former land utilisation - have been plotted as well. The archaeologists filled the cave's clay into sacks to elutriate it (separate out the artefacts by washing in water) and sift through it for further findings.

Photo: Unknown
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Poster, Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf, Germany.




Neander valley excavations



Aerial shot of the dig. Here we can see the bagged dirt ready for removal to the laboratory for further sifting and analysis, to find bones and tools not found in the initial dig. This is now standard practice in archaeological excavations.

Photo: Unknown
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Poster, Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf, Germany.




neandertal

This is a delightful photograph from the Neanderthal Museum in Mettmann, Germany.

Photo: © Neanderthal Museum/H. Neumann

Source: http://www.neanderthal.de/en/press-pictures/pictures/neanderthals/index.html

Permission: by kind permission of Dr. Bärbel Auffermann, Deputy Director of the Museum, and in charge of Exhibition Management, Press and Public Relations.




original neanderthal original neanderthal

The skeleton lacks the skull below the eye sockets, as well as the jaw. I find this strange, as jaws, and especially teeth, are often very well preserved in cases of this type.

Photo: Anon.
Source: Original bones of the type specimen of Homo neanderthalensis, displayed at LVR-LandesMuseum Bonn.




neandertal

The original set of bones discovered in 1856.

Photo: © Neanderthal Museum/S. Pietrek

Source: http://www.neanderthal.de/en/press-pictures/pictures/neanderthals/index.html

Permission: by kind permission of Dr. Bärbel Auffermann, Deputy Director of the Museum, and in charge of Exhibition Management, Press and Public Relations.




original neanderthal original neanderthal


original neanderthal original neanderthal

Various views of the skull and nearby bones from above.

Photo: Anon.
Source: Original bones of the type specimen of Homo neanderthalensis, displayed at LVR-LandesMuseum Bonn.




original neanderthal
The occipital bone joins the parietal bones along the lambdoidal suture. It forms the back of the skull and the base of the cranium.

The lambdoidal suture, outlining the occipital bun is particularly obvious in this photograph of the back of the skull.

Photo: Anon.
Source: Original bones of the type specimen of Homo neanderthalensis, displayed at LVR-LandesMuseum Bonn.




original neanderthal Greek Letter Lambda
(left) This diagram shows the lambdoidal suture and the occipital bone clearly, viewed from the rear.

(right) The capital and lower case forms of the Greek letter Lambda, which inspired the name of the lambdoidal suture - alone it is the upper case Lambda, and in combination with the sagittal suture forms the lower case lambda.

Photo: http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap2/skeletalsystem/skeleton/axial/skull/features/skull_sutures/tutorial.html




original neanderthal
This photo shows, to the left of the photo, the top of the right femur, with its ball joint which would have fitted into a socket in the pelvis.

Photo: Anon.
Source: Original bones of the type specimen of Homo neanderthalensis, displayed at LVR-LandesMuseum Bonn.




original neanderthal original neanderthal
The left femur, with part of the socket into which it fits in the hip.

The red triangles point to extra bones from the left hand of the original specimen which were found recently in the 1997 - 2000 excavations in the original site in the Neander Valley.

It must have been exciting for the discoverers to find so many extra bones from possibly the most important skeleton in the history of anthropology!

Photo: Anon.
Source: Original bones of the type specimen of Homo neanderthalensis, displayed at LVR-LandesMuseum Bonn.




neandershole
The cave in the Neander Valley, 1835

Source: Adapted from the book 'Wanderungen zur Neandershöhle - Eine topographische Skizze von Erkrath an der Düssel', published in 1835 Arnz & Comp. Verlag Düsseldorf. The book was launched in 1956 on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Rhineland Regional Council in cooperation with the Nature Protection Society Neanderthal again. A facsimile is available under ISBN 3-92205-519-2 .

The creator of the lithograph is not known, but it was probably one of the publishing houses or the self-appointed artist Bongard.

Permission: Public Domain




 Neanderthal skull fragment
Skull fragment of an early Neanderthal.

160 000 BP

Ochtendung, Kreis Mayen-Koblenz

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Facsimile, LVR-Landesmuseum Bonn, Germany
On loan from: Generaldirektion Kulturelles Erbe Rheinland-Pfalz.




erectus



Neanderthals were very thick set and strong.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Sculptor: Unknown, but probably Atelier Élisabeth Daynès, Paris, for the Neanderthal Museum, 1996.
Source: Facsimile, Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, near Düsseldorf, Germany




Some additional information about Neanderthal/Neandertal

Michael Hess

The Neandertal is a valley about 10 km east of Duesseldorf named after the 17th century poet Joachim Neander who liked this lovely valley very much.

So, it became Neander's Tal. 'Tal' means 'valley' and one might note that the scientific name is (usually) written with 'th'. The reason is that around the year 1900 there was a reform of German orthography and many words written with 'th' like Thurm (tower), Thuere (door) lost their 'h'. Interestingly not the word Thron (= throne). The reason is that at that time Germany had an Emperor, William II, and he did not want to sit on a throne without 'h', so it remained in place by higher order. However, if you want to visit that site today and the nice museum there, you have to look for 'Neandertal' - without 'h'. In 'neanderthal man' it remained by scientific consequence or tradition.

The Neandertal in former times was a lovely valley with forests, meadows and a creek much loved by artist who came from the nearby Duesseldorf to paint the landscape-it was the romantic age of the 19th century. The name of the creek is 'Duessel' and consequently the name of the village at the junction of the creek with the Rhine was called Duesseldorf, no longer a 'Dorf' (= village) these days. However, this area east of Duesseldorf is rich in limestone because there is a Devonian coral reef, 400 million years old, and the limestone was – and is – very popular in building trade, so there was a stone quarry. At a site called Kleine Feldhofer Grotte (cave) some quarry workers found weird bones and thought they might belong to a bear or – the Napoleon War was not long ago – they were bones of some rheumatic soldier of the beaten Napoleon army. It was C. Fuhlrott, the local high school teacher who immediately realised the importance of the bones, the calotte (uppermost and thickest portion of the skull, which may persist as a bony remnant of the skull for the longest time) of a skull and some other bones. A street in Wuppertal is named after Fuhlrott.

The bones were not found in situ – which means they were not found in their natural, undisturbed position, therefore, an exact dating of the remains is not yet accomplished. The age is assumed to be 40 000 to 100 000 years (neopleistocean, Weichsel-glacial). The huge limestone rock that housed the cave where the bones were found is long gone – completely gone. The original site is now a meadow with marks and information one can obtain from tables and earphone that can be borrowed at the near-by Neandertal Museum. The photos show how the original site looks today. Geographical coordinates: 51°13'38.93'' North, 6°56'43.22'' East.

Imagine a huge rock with the cave entrance about 20 metres high above the present ground level. So, the original site is really gone. The more surprising is it that a recent careful revision of the area (1998) resulted in the discovery of the (lost) original location and the identification of the sites that were called 'Kleine Feldhofer Grotte' and 'Feldhofer Kirche' early in the 19th century. The two archeologists Juergen Tissen and Ralf Schmitz were even able to identify the rubble from these sites and detected some missing parts of the historical 1856 discovery: 20 parts including a molar, ribs, vertebrae, toe-bones. They even found a coin-sized bone splinter that fits exactly into the 1856 left knee joint.

There is also hope that some new stone artefacts from the site will provide additional information about the age of the skeleton.

In those days of Neanderthal man, the lovely valley must have looked entirely different, like a tundra with the ice of the glaciers only a few hundred or even less kilometres to the north. About 20 000 years ago the glaciers reached their most southern position about the latitude of Essen, 50 km to the north. On the left (western) bank of the Rhine one can still see the left-overs of this glacial: the terminal moraines between Xanten and Sonsbeck. These were the times when the river Thames was a tributary stream of the Rhine, large parts of what is now the North Sea were dry land and the British Islands were an integral part of the continent that could be reached without wetting one's feet. It is hard to believe that there was ice hundreds of metres high not far away…



neanderthal cave site now



The entrance gate to the original site (about 500 m west of the museum down the road).

Photo: Michael Hess




Neander

The entrance gate to the original Neanderthal site. The site itself was completely removed by quarrying for limestone.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015




neanderthal cave site now



South-west view of the site coming from the entrance to the clearing.

Photo: Michael Hess




neanderthal cave site now



South-east view (opposite direction, towards the entrance). The original site was in the middle of the clearing where the stakes are.

Photo: Michael Hess




neanderthal cave site now



The concrete cross marks the spot where the cave used to be. The poles represent finds made.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015




neanderthal cave site now



Nothing now remains of the limestone which once covered the area, and in which the original cave had been.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015




neanderthal cave site now



Up river in the Düssel valley as it looks now, close to the museum not far from where a herd of Wisents are pastured.

Photo: Michael Hess




neanderthal cave site now



'walk through time' near the museum.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015




Neander river

The Düssel, the river through the Neander Valley.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015




Neander river Neander river

The Düssel, the river through the Neander Valley.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015








References


  1. Condemi, S., 2006: Continuity and Discontinuity in the Peopling of Europe, One Hundred Fifty Years of Neanderthal Study Volume 1Springer, 2006
  2. Voisin, J., 2004: Clavicule: approche architecturale de l’épaule et réflexions sur le statut systématique des néandertaliens, Comptes Rendus Palevol, 3, 133–142.
  3. Voisin, J., 2006a: Krapina and other Neanderthal clavicles: A peculiar morphology? Periodicum Biologorum, 108, 331–339.
  4. Voisin, J., 2006b: The clavicle, a neglected bone; morphology and relation to arm movements and shoulder architecture in Primates. The Anatomical Record, Part A, 288A, 944–953




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