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Ancient Egyptian culture from the 11th Dynasty to the end of the 20th Dynasty,
the New Kingdom, in 1077 BC, at the end of the reign of Ramesses XI.



Egyptian Chronology


Egyptian Chronology
      Date          Culture          Duration     
11 000 BC Jebel Sahaba  
Before 8 000 BC - Palaeolithic in Europe and Northern Asia
8 000 BC - Nominal end of the Ice Age
8 600 - 4 400 BC Nabta Playa Neolithic 4 200 years
6 100 - 5 180 BC    Qarunian (formerly known as Fayum B)     920 years
5 200 - 4 200 BC Fayum A 1 000 years
4 800 - 4 200 BC Merimde 600 years
4 600 - 4 400 BC El Omari 200 years
4 400 - 4 000 BC Badarian 400 years
4 000 - 3 300 BC Maadi 700 years
4 000 - 3 500 BC Naqada I 500 years
3 500 - 3 200 BC Naqada II 300 years
3 200 - 3 100 BC Naqada III 100 years
3 100 - 2 670 BC Early Dynastic 586 years
2 670 - 2 181 BC Old Kingdom 505 years
2 181 - 2 025 BC First Intermediate Period 156 years
2 025 - 1 700 BC Middle Kingdom 325 years
1 700 - 1 550 BC Second Intermediate Period 150 years
1 550 - 1 077 BC New Kingdom 473 years
1 077 - 664 BC Third Intermediate Period 413 years
664 - 525 BC Late Period 139 years
525 - 404 BC First Persian Period 121 years
404 - 343 BC Late Dynastic Period 61 years
343 - 332 BC Second Persian Period 11 years
332 - 305 BC Macedonian Period 27 years
305 - 30 BC Ptolemaic Period 275 years
30 BC - 395 AD Roman Period 425 years
395 AD - 640 AD Byzantine Period 245 years
640 AD - 1517 AD Islamic Period 877 years
1517 AD - 1867 AD Ottoman Period
(French Occupation 1798-1801)
350 years
1867 AD - 1914 AD Khedival Period 47 years
1914 AD - 1922 AD Sultanate under Hussein Kamel,
as a British Protectorate
8 years
1922 AD - 1953 AD Monarchy 31 years
1953 AD - Present Day Republic  


Table of dates for the history of Egypt, adapted from various sources.



First to Twentieth Dynasties
Date Dynasty Period Duration
(years)
3 100 - 2 890 BC First Dynasty Archaic/Early Dynastic Period 214
2 890 - 2 670 BC Second Dynasty Archaic/Early Dynastic Period 220
2 670 - 2 613 BC Third Dynasty Old Kingdom 57
2 613 - 2 494 BC Fourth Dynasty Old Kingdom - Golden Age 119
2 494 - 2 345 BC Fifth Dynasty Old Kingdom 149
2 345 - 2 181 BC Sixth Dynasty Old Kingdom 164
2 181 - 2 160 BC Seventh and Eighth Dynasties First Intermediate Period 21
2 160 - 2 025 BC Ninth and Tenth Dynasties First Intermediate Period 135
2 025 - 1 991 BC Eleventh Dynasty Middle Kingdom 34
1 991 - 1 802 BC Twelfth Dynasty Middle Kingdom 189
1 802 - 1 649 BC Thirteenth Dynasty
From Memphis, over Middle and Upper Egypt
Middle Kingdom 153
1 805 - 1 650 BC Fourteenth Dynasty
From Avaris, Nile Delta, over Lower Egypt
Second Intermediate Period 155
1 650 - 1 550 BC Fifteenth Dynasty
First Hyksos dynasty, ruled from Avaris,
without control of the entire land
Second Intermediate Period 100
1 649 - 1 582 BC Sixteenth Dynasty
Ruled the Theban region in Upper Egypt
The Hyksos ruled the delta
The Kingdom of Kush ruled Upper Egypt
Second Intermediate Period 67
1 580 - 1 550 BC Seventeenth Dynasty
Ruled Thebes, Hyksos ruled the delta
Second Intermediate Period / New Kingdom 30
1 543 - 1 292 BC Eighteenth Dynasty
Egypt reaches the peak of its power
New Kingdom 251
1 292 - 1 187 BC Nineteenth Dynasty
Conquests in Canaan
New Kingdom 105
1 187 - 1 077 BC Twentieth Dynasty End of the New Kingdom 110


Table of dates for the First to Twentieth Dynasties, from various sources, mostly via Wikipedia


Early Egypt timeline

Timeline for early Egypt, from 11 000 BC to 2 500 BC.

Photo: Poster, British Museum © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015







The Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

The Eleventh Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XI) is a well attested group of rulers, whose earlier members before Mentuhotep II are grouped with the four preceding dynasties to form the First Intermediate Period, while the later members are considered part of the Middle Kingdom. They all ruled from Thebes. The relative chronology of the 11th Dynasty is well established by contemporary attestations and, except for count Intef and Mentuhotep IV, by the Turin canon.


Eleventh Dynasty
Name Personal Name Consort Burial Years Dates Comments
Intef the Elder           Iry-Pat, 'the Count', probably
the same as 'Intef, son of Iku'.
Theban nomarch serving an unnamed king
Mentuhotep I Tepya Neferu I     2 134 BC - Tepy-a, 'the ancestor'
Intef I Sehertaway   El-Tarif, Thebes    - 2 118 BC Son of Mentuhotep I
Intef II Wahankh   El-Tarif, Thebes 49 2 118 BC - 2 069 BC Brother of Intef I
Intef III Nakhtnebtepnefer Iah (queen) El-Tarif, Thebes 8 2 069 BC - 2 061 BC Brother of Intef I
Nebhepetre
Mentuhotep II
Smatawy Tem, Neferu II, Ashayet
Henhenet, Kawit,
Kemsit, Sadeh
Deir el-Bahari 51 2 061 BC - 2 010 BC Son of Intef III and Iah.
Reunifies Egypt, starting the Middle Kingdom


Table of Eleventh Dynasty Rulers, adapted from various sources, including Wikipedia.


magician magician
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Hétépi, chief of the magicians.


Height 430 mm, length 183 mm, width 381 mm.

Circa 2 000 BC, the end of the 11th Dynasty.

Coniferous wood, acacia, and ficus were used in its construction.

Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Salle18, E 123
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




Standing - striding figure of Perhernefret Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Antef II


Standing figure of Antef II.

Dimensions: 370 x 122 x 186 mm.

This statue of Antef probably originated in the later Eleventh Dynasty, or at the beginning of the Twelfth Dynasty, indicated by the characteristics of the hieroglyphic and hieratic signs. The dense covering of the long mantle, the severity of the deep wig, and the arms that cross over the chest, strictly limit the structure of the body to the essentials. The hands clenched in fists once held objects. The column-like subdivided legs show Antef slightly stepping forward, the oversized feet and the bulky base are only simply shown.

The well-preserved painting shows black hair and red skin. The clothing now shows only bare limestone, but was originally painted white. The base and backposts are red with black dots as an imitation of granite. The blue-painted hieroglyphs identify his brother Inherhotep and his sister Nachti, as well as denoting him as 'the honored one at Ptah-Sokaris-Intef, born of Sat-Mechit'.

Catalog: Painted limestone,Thebes, ÄM 12485
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_2290henniferandwifesm
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Hanefer and his wife


Tomb relief: Hanefer and his wife in front of an offering table with three sons.

Circa 2 000 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, ÄM 1197
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




model brewing butchery
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Broad collar of faience beads

Late 11th Dynasty, about 2 000 BC, from Deir el-Bahri (Thebes / Luxor), funerary monument of King Mentuhotep II, tomb 3, width 240 mm, length 416 mm, diameter 183 mm

Items of jewellery, placed on the mummy, also provided magical protection. Some were personal possessions, others were made specifically for the tomb, and were often flimsy since they were not intended to be worn by the living.


An important category of funerary jewellery is that of collars. The wesekh, or 'broad' collar conferred protection on the deceased, the terminals are often in the form of falcon heads. This was found in the tomb of a female member of the court of King Mentuhotep II.

This 'wesekh' consists of five rows of beads, two semicircular terminals and seven mummiform pendants, all of glazed composition. Four of the rows are of vertically strung cylindrical beads connected only at the ends. The longer beads are in the centre of the collar, the shorter ones at the sides. The top row is of white glazed composition, the second of bright-blue, the third of white and the outermost row of purplish glazed composition. The last colour, not common until the Eighteenth Dynasty is produced from manganese oxide.

The fifth, topmost, row is composed of a single string of bright-blue and white cylinder beads strung lengthwise. In the centre of each of the five rows is a short loop of bright-blue glazed composition disc beads. The seven bright-blue glazed composition mummiform pendants are attached to the bottom row of beads. The two bright-blue semicircular terminals are undecorated. Each has a ridge along the underside which is pierced by six holes through which the threads holding the rows of beads are knotted.

Catalog: EA40928
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_2386headsm
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Head of a statue of a man

Circa 2000 BC

Thebes

Granite.

Catalog: ÄM 254
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




inteftheeldersm
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Stele of Prince Intef

False-door shaped stele of prince Intef, nomarch of Thebes, here depicted receiving offerings from his servants.

Limestone, Height 104 cm, from Dra Abu el-Naga, proto-11th dynasty, First intermediate period. Cairo, Egyptian Museum

Catalog: Egyptian Museum CG 20009.
Photo: Gaston Maspero, 1914
Permission: Public Domain
Source: Original, Cairo Museum




beaded dress on black model beaded dress on black model beaded dress on black model


beaded dress on black model
Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1069 BC

Body of a goddess

The Egyptians used an alloy of copper and tin (bronze) which is easier to melt and harder than pure copper ore. Egyptian bronzes also contain lead, which lowers the melting temperature. Some bronzes have a black patina that highlights the gold inlays.

Gold is not uncommon in the desert, east of the Nile, in Egypt and Nubia. Electrum, a natural alloy of gold and silver also occurs. The 'black bronzes' are special alloys (copper, silver, gold) whose patina highlights the incrustations of metals in contrasting colours.

This inlay of yellow gold threads and red gold 'rivets', only visible in the full size images ( click on any image to zoom in ), imitates bead netting.

Height 12 cm.

Catalog: Sully, salle 7, E 27430
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




model of a boat
Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)

Model of a boat

This wooden model of a boat is from the Middle Kingdom, 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC.

Height 116 mm, length 503 mm, thickness 87 mm.


The decoration and the accessories for this object have disappeared.

Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Le Nil, Salle 3, E 5539
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




magic baton in ivory
Magic Baton in ivory

Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)

Carved into incisor of a hippopotamus, this stick is engraved with real or fantastic animals and demons.

On the reverse a text, shown in the reflection of the mirror below the object, is translated as: 'I bring the protection of life to the lady Mersenebès.'


Length 161 mm, width 60 mm, thickness 9 mm.

Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Les dieux et la magie, Salle 18, Vitrine 2: La magie, E 3614
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




magic baton in ivory
Magic Baton in ivory

Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)


Carved into incisor of a hippopotamus, this stick is engraved with real or fantastic animals and demons.

Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Les dieux et la magie, Salle 18, Vitrine 2: La magie, AF 6447
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




magic baton in ivory
Magic Baton in ivory

Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)


Carved into incisor of a hippopotamus, this stick is engraved with fantastic animals and demons.


Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Les dieux et la magie, Salle 18, Vitrine 2: La magie
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




magic baton element
Part of a Magic Baton

Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)


Material: Steatite, formerly enamelled.

Height 21 mm, length 62 mm, width 22 mm.


Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Les dieux et la magie, Salle 18, Vitrine 2: La magie, E 9940
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




wax figures
Two female figures in wax, used in Magic

Eleventh - Twelfth Dynasty: Circa 2 000 BC - 1 900 BC (Middle Kingdom)


Height 227 mm (upper figure).


Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Les dieux et la magie, Salle 18, Vitrine 2: La magie, (upper figure) E 27250
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




Dog devouring a man
Dog devouring a man, used in Magic

Date very uncertain, possibly: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)


Figurine of enchantment: dog devouring a man.

Wax and linen, length 71 mm, height 37 mm.


Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Les dieux et la magie, Salle 18, Vitrine 2: La magie, (upper figure) E 27079
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




bound prisoner
A bound prisoner

Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)


Statuette of enchantment: a bound prisoner.

Material: alabaster

Height 107 mm, length 46 mm, thickness 26 mm.

Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Les dieux et la magie, Salle 18, Vitrine 2: La magie, E 27691
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




Magic tablet with seven Wadjet eyes
Magic tablet

Date uncertain: 2 033 BC - 1 710 BC (Middle Kingdom)


Magic tablet with seven Wadjet eyes, in faience. The Eye of Horus is an ancient Egyptian symbol of protection, royal power and good health. The eye is personified in the goddess Wadjet

Length 92 mm, width 67 mm, thickness 14 mm.

One of the formulas of the Texts of the Sarcophagi (Coffin Texts) reads: 'on the drawing of seven Wadjet eyes, washed in beer and natron, and drunk.'


The Coffin Texts are a collection of ancient Egyptian funerary spells written on coffins and other objects beginning in the First Intermediate Period. They are partially derived from the earlier Pyramid Texts, reserved for royal use only, but contain substantial new material related to everyday desires, indicating a new target audience of common people. Ordinary Egyptians who could afford a coffin had access to these funerary spells and the pharaoh no longer had exclusive rights to an afterlife.

Catalog: Sully, Rez-de-chaussée, Les dieux et la magie, Salle 18, Vitrine 2: La magie, E 17358
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre, Wikipedia




sebekhetepi outer coffin
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Outer coffin of Sebekhetepi

This massive outer coffin of Sebekhetepi, also listed as Sobekhotep, circa 2040 BC - 1750 BC, is constructed from sycomore fig, a native Egyptian timber widely used for the making of objects for the tomb. The sparsely decorated exterior is inscribed with formulae requesting offerings from the gods Osiris and Anubis. A pair of eyes painted on the long side which faced east in the tomb enabled the dead man to look out towards the rising sun. ( note that this view shows the opposite, western side - Don ) The inner surfaces of the coffin are also painted with friezes of offerings and inscriptions.


Height 864 mm, width 635 mm, length 2038 mm.

Catalog: 41571
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




sebekhetepi outer coffin
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Outer coffin of Sebekhetepi

The outer coffin of Sebekhetepi is constructed from sycomore fig, a type of wood which was locally available. It is used extensively throughout this funerary equipment. Unlike other outer coffins, where the decoration is usually juxtaposed with the plain wood, the exterior of the Sebekhetepi's coffin is painted yellow. In ancient Egypt yellow was associated with the sun, and a substitute for gold.


The main features of the external decoration are the border in red, blue-green and white, and the wedjat eyes. These eyes were placed on one of the long sides of the coffin, which would have faced east. This was so that the deceased, placed on his side within the coffin, could watch the sun rise. The inscriptions are in pale blue, a colour often chosen for hieroglyphs, against a white background. They consist of the request for offerings from the funerary gods Osiris and Anubis, typical of the coffins of the Middle Kingdom (about 2040 BC - 1750 BC).

Catalog: 41571
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/outer-coffin-of-sebekhetepi/cAF-9XfxmLucxg?hl=en




sebekhetepi outer coffin
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Outer coffin of Sebekhetepi

The decoration of the interior is also austere. It consists of friezes of offerings, and inscriptions taken from the Coffin Texts. However, it has no maps of the Underworld, which appear on the outer coffin of Gua (also in The British Museum, see below in the section on the Twelfth Dynasty).

Catalog: 41571
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/outer-coffin-of-sebekhetepi/cAF-9XfxmLucxg?hl=en




sebekhetepi inner coffin
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Inner coffin of Sebekhetepi

Sebekhetepi's inner coffin is of finer construction than the outer case, and is constructed from the more expensive cedarwood, which was pre-eminent among imported timbers used by the Egyptians. The exterior is decorated with a pair of eyes and with inscriptions, which, like those of the outer coffin, request offerings from Osiris and Anubis. Similar texts are painted on the interior, together with images of offerings.


Height 458 mm, width 406 mm, length 1873 mm.

Catalog: 41572
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




sebekhetepi outer coffin
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Lid of the inner Coffin of Sebekhetepi

The lid of the inner coffin of Sebekhetepi, seen from above, and the end of the outer coffin.

Catalog: 41572
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum




sebekhetepi outer coffin
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Inner coffin of Sebekhetepi

Like many wealthy individuals of the Middle Kingdom (circa 2040 BC - 1750 BC), Sebekhetepi was buried in two rectangular coffins. The inner coffin was made of imported cedarwood, which was of much higher quality than that of local trees. The palm tree, the most common in Egypt, does not consist of wood as such, but coarse fibres, which are unsuitable for carpentry.


The decoration on the exterior of this coffin is cut into the wood, and painted. The inscriptions running down the centre of the lid and around the top of the case are written in blue on a white band. The edges of the lid and corners of the case are decorated with long striped bands separated by perpendicular short bands in the same colours. The large wedjat eyes on one side are similarly in blue against a white background, surrounded by a multicoloured border. These enabled the mummy, placed on its side so it faces the wedjat eyes, to see out of the coffin. The inside of the coffin is decorated with representations of offerings.

Catalog: EA41572
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/outer-coffin-of-sebekhetepi/cAF-9XfxmLucxg?hl=en




sebekhetepi sandals sebekhetepi sandals
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Sandals of Sebekhetepi

These sandals, 253 mm long, were found lying on the lid of the inner coffin, above the feet of the corpse. They are made of cedar wood with leather straps, coated with white plaster.

This delicate constructional technique shows that they could not have been worn in life, and hence were made specifically for the tomb.


Catalog: 41578
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right) © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card, British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




sebekhetepi headrest
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Headrest of Sebekhetepi

Headrest found in the tomb of Sebekhetepi. It is constructed of sycomore fig, and is made of three parts joined together.

Catalog: 41579
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card, British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




sebekhetepi linen
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Linen sheet of Sebekhetepi

This large fringed sheet of linen was probably originally part of the household linen of Sebekhetepi's family. Linen items were sometimes included in burials, for use in the Afterlife. The fact that these are often threadbare and darned suggests that they had been heavily used before being placed in the tomb.

Few examples of textiles have been found in a domestic setting; most come from burials, either for use in the Afterlife, or torn up and used as wrappings on the mummy. Fragments of cloth can provide a great deal of information. Some bandages have been torn from loincloths, tunics and other items of clothing. One individual was even wrapped in a torn-up sail.


Catalog: 41580
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: http://www.bmimages.com/results.asp?image=00032897001, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




sebekhetepi linen
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Linen sheet of Sebekhetepi

The fabric is woven of relatively coarse threads, which would not have been suitable for most items of clothing or ritual cloth. The cloth used in temples and for the garments of the king were of the finest weave.

The fringe is sewn on to the fabric, rather than being the loose warp threads, which are hemmed. The brown discolouration is probably staining from the cellulose in the flax plant, which bonded the fibres together so that it could be spun into thread.

Width 105 cm, length 137 cm.


Catalog: 41580
Photo: Google Arts and Culture Project, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Text: http://www.bmimages.com/results.asp?image=00032897001, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




model brewing butchery
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Wooden model from the tomb of Sebekhetepi

Painted wooden model representing baking, brewing, and butchery, from the tomb of Sebekhetepi at Beni Hasan, Middle Kingdom, 2125-1795 BC.

A group of wooden servant figures, originally dressed in miniature linen garments, are shown engaged in the preparation of food and drink for the deceased. A man pounds grain in a mortar, while a squatting woman tends the bread oven, and a second woman grinds grain on a quern.


Catalog: EA41576
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


model brewing butchery
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Wooden model from the tomb of Sebekhetepi

One man strains mash into a vat to make beer, while another carries two jars suspended from a yoke. Lastly, a butcher slaughters a trussed ox with a knife.


Catalog: EA41576
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




model brewing butchery
Eleventh Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 991 BC

Wooden model from the tomb of Sebekhetepi

Six figures engaged in brewing and butchering from tomb 723 of Sebekhetepi at Beni Hasan, Middle Kingdom, 2125-1795 BC.

From the Middle Kingdom period.


Dimensions 496 mm x 243 mm.

Catalog: EA41576
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0








The Twelfth Dynasty

1 991 BC - 1 802 BC


Twelfth Dynasty
Name Horus (Throne) Name Consort Burial Years Dates Comments
Amenemhat I Sehetepibre Neferitatjenen Pyramid of Amenemhat I 29 1 991 BC - 1 962 BC Amenemhat I made Senusret his co-regent (around the twentieth year of his reign), and was later assassinated
Senusret I Kheperkare Neferu III Pyramid of Senusret I 45 1 971 BC - 1 926 BC Senusret was with his army fighting Libyans when his father was assassinated, and had to return quickly in order to ensure his succession
Amenemhat II Nubkhaure Kaneferu
Keminub
White Pyramid 34 1 929 BC - 1 895 BC  
Senusret II Khakheperre Khenemetneferhedjet I
Neferet II
Itaweret
Khnemet
Pyramid at El-Lahun 19 1 897 BC - 1 878 BC  
Senusret III
(also known as
Sesostris III)
Khakhaure Meretseger
Neferthenut
Khnemetneferhedjet II
Sithathoriunet
Pyramid at Dahshur 39 1 878 BC - 1 839 BC  
Amenemhat III Nimaatre Aat
Hetepi
Khnemetneferhedjet III
Black Pyramid
Pyramid at Hawara
46 1 860 BC - 1 814 BC  
Amenemhat IV Maakherure   Southern Mazghuna Pyramid
Pyramid at Hawara
9 1 815 BC - 1 806 BC  
Queen Sobekneferu Sobekkare   Northern Mazghuna Pyramid 4 1 806 BC - 1 802 BC  


Table of Twelfth Dynasty Rulers, adapted from various sources, including Wikipedia.




Ankhef
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Ankhef

Painted wooden coffin and mummy (not on display) of Ankhef.

Ankhef's coffin is made of tamarisk wood. The decoration includes hieroglyphic texts requesting funerary offerings, and a pair of eyes to enable the dead man to look towards the east. Squatting figures at the ends of the coffin represent the four sons of Horus, whose duty was to protect the internal organs. Coffins of this type are among the first to include such representations of gods among their decoration.


Catalog: EA46631
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Ankhef
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Ankhef

Ankhef was a mature adult at the time of his death. His teeth were well worn, and he suffered from osteoarthritis in the spine and left hip. The mummy originally lay in the coffin on his left side, the face aligned with the eyes painted on the coffin. A wooden headrest was placed inside the coffin to support the head.

Catalog: EA46631
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Ankhef
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Ankhef

The mummy is wrapped in strips and sheets of linen and a painted cartonnage mask has been placed over the head. This presents an idealised image of the dead man and, in the fashion of the early Middle Kingdom, a beard and moustache are depicted. The soft tissues of the body have not survived, and X-rays show that the bones are in disorder.

Aged 45 or upwards, this man suffered from osteo-arthritis of the spine and the left hip. The absence of lines of arrested growth suggests a healthy childhood. All soft tissues have vanished and the disorganisation of the skeleton is due to the disappearance of the ligaments, capsules, etc.

Skull, Thorax, Spinal Column, and Abdomen - These are completely disorganised. The lower jaw has been dislocated and is almost edentulous. One of the bones of the skull is in the region of the left iliac fossa. All the ribs are dislocated but not fractured. Many of the vertebrae appear to be missing but two lumbar vertebrae are still articulated. These show evidence of osteo-arthritis with gross lipping. Many loose teeth with worn caps lie amongst the bones. No evidence of viscera, packing material, or amulets. Complete dislocation of the sacrum and pubic symphysis. Well-marked osteo-arthritic changes involve the left hip. No fractures seen.


Arms - Extended, dislocated at the shoulder and elbow joints. Hands, with extended fingers, in pubic region. No fractures seen.Legs - The bones appear healthy and are free from fractures and lines of arrested growth. Both ankles are dislocated and the right os calcis is lying free at the foot end of the coffin.The mummy, lying in a deep, rectangular wooden coffin with painted gesso including hieroglyphic text, is wrapped in fine cloth, and the head and thorax are covered by a painted cartonnage mask and breast plate. A wooden headrest is placed by the side of the head.

Catalog: EA46631
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Ankhef
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Bow and arrows, and a walking stick.

These were found on the lid of the coffin. The bow, 1691 mm long, is made from acacia. The arrows are made of reeds, and are circa 800 mm long.

( the arrows have 'chisel' tips, and were designed specifically for hunting birds in the marshes bordering the Nile - Don )

Catalog: (bow and arrows) EA47570
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0



flint points

Similar arrow tips to those above, known as trapezoid microliths, were used by ice age hunters in Denmark for hunting birds and small game.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark




Ankhef
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Ankhef

Interior of tomb 9 at Asyut. Reconstruction by Claire Thorne, based on the excavation records of David Hogarth. The coffin of Ankhef stands in a small rock-cut chamber reached by a steeply inclined shaft. Some of the offering bowls from the upper chamber are displayed in this case, as is the model grain silo which stood on the lid of one of the undecorated coffins.

The mummy of Ankhef was discovered by D.G. Hogarth in 1907, in a small rock-cut tomb (no. 9) in the necropolis of the city of Asyut. The tomb was discovered undisturbed, and contained four burials. Two of these, in plain uninscribed coffins were place end to end behind a screen of plaster, brick and stone. A third undecorated coffin lay in the area immediately behind the door of the tomb. The coffin of Ankhef was positioned at the south-east corner of the tomb, concealed by a partition made from parts of old coffins. A stick and bow and arrows lay on the lid of the coffin. Pottery vessels had been laid on the floor in front of the partition, perhaps representing Ankhef's funerary offerings.


The bodies had been searched for valuables at the time of burial, as indicated by disturbed werappings and in the case of Ankhef the displacement of the headrest in the coffin. Evidence of theft was found in many of the undisturbed tombs in this cemetery, and was probably carried out by those responsible for the burial.

Original artwork: Claire Thorne
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Poster, British Museum © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0






Chertihotep with a Hes-vase
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Chertihotep


Seated figure of the head of the estate, Chertihotep. Circa 1 850 BC

Quartzite

Dimensions: 765 x 250 x 440 mm

With the Middle Kingdom, a new factor affected and invigorated Egyptian art: the desire for representation. This desire is documented both in royal and private sculptures. Although most of the private statues were still created for the grave, royal permission allowed private individuals to erect statues in temples so as to be represented before the gods, but also to publicly emphasise the social position of the owner . This possibility, as well as the exact study of physiognomy and anatomy, allowed works of exceptional quality to emerge, and the perfection of the art of the Middle Kingdom was still regarded as 'Classical Art' in later times, and provided stimulating examples to follow.

In the late Twelfth Dynasty, the 'rediscovery' of the strongly personal image of the old age took place, following examples from the Old Kingdom. From now on, the human face drawn from life was central to the representations. Portraits of full individual traits emerge, although filtered through the mask of royal portraits. Thus the figure of Chertihotep, the master of the estate, also shows the characteristic features which are to be found in the royal images of this period.


Eyes, ears, the mouth with slightly bent corners, and cheek surfaces, however, are more formalistic than those of the royal models. A correct official mien, but also a healthy self-confidence characterise the facial expression. Chertihotep sits on a stool with low backrest. His body is enveloped by a close-fitting mantle, which uniquely emphasises the strictly self-contained, tension-loaded body structure of the figure and directs the main attention entirely to the fine, sensitively modeled facial features. You see a face full of plastic vitality. The waves of the wig are only slightly indicated, and lead to an almost block-like body, the contours of which are distinctly under the mantle.

The hands, too, which are held flat, are also arranged to keep the mantle closed. On the other hand, the feet, which are designed with soft, anatomically accurate and detailed lines, are quite different.

Catalog: el Burg el Hamam (east bank of Siut / Assiut), ÄM 15700
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




sesostris


sesostris



Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Sesostris


Stela of the chamberlain Sesostris, circa 1 976 BC - 1 794 BC

Rectangular stela, four lines of offering text and appeal to the living, with Senusert, Overseer of the antechamber, seated at table. His wife is standing behind him, and his son below the chair, his sister Renefankh and her daughter before them, and three registers of relatives, including father Antef and mother Neferyt.

1st half of Dyn. XII, formerly in G. Anastasi colln., now in Berlin, Ägyptisches Museum.

Catalog: Limestone, Abydos (?), ÄM 1188
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf




stela of Senusret I stela of Senusret I
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of Senusret I

Red granite stela of Senusret I, 12th Dynasty, circa 1940 BC - 1950 BC, from Philae.

The scene at the top shows the Horus-name of the king between the figures of Khnum and Satet, deities of the First Cataract region.

Round-topped red granite stela; incised detail in two registers; upper: Horus-name of Senusret I between figures of Satis and Khnum; lower: seven rows of Hieroglyphic text.

Height 1092 mm, width 648 mm

Senwosret I (circa 1965 BC - 1920 BC) carried out a very active building programme all over Egypt. This stela stood in or near a chapel in Elephantine that he erected on Egypt's southern frontier. The chapel contained statues and offering tables, as well as decorated blocks. The stela was made of a slab of granite, roughly finished on the rear, indicating it may have been set into the wall of the chapel.


The stela shows the god Khnum offering life to the Horus name of the king, with Khnum's consort Satet, standing at the left. Khnum, Satet, and their daughter Anuket were the local deities of Elephantine and the region of the First Cataract. Below are the remains of six damaged lines of hieroglyphs.

The purpose of the stela, and the whole chapel, was to stress the presence and importance of Senwosret in the Elephantine area. It also emphasized his piety and the importance of his relationship with the deities of the region.

Catalog: EA963
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): Google Arts and Culture, https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/granite-stela-of-senwosret-i/8QEaVLW6KV-dng?hl=en




Coffin of Gua
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Coffin of Gua


Eastern side of the rectangular wooden outer-coffin of Gua.

Exterior: recessed and painted Hieroglyphic text and eye-panel. Interior: painted text and representations of offerings on walls. Painted plan of Underworld on floor. Part of head-end wall fragmentary.

Length 2605 mm, width 920 mm


For fragment M4/DD/8:

Length 275 mm, width 50 mm , depth 70 mm, weight 174 grams.

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30839
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Coffin of Gua


Western side of the rectangular wooden outer-coffin of Gua.

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30839
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua Coffin of Gua
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Coffin of Gua


The north facing head of the rectangular wooden outer-coffin of Gua.

( note in particular the small pair of eyes painted on the inside of the coffin at the place where the mummy would have been placed on its left side so that it could look to the east. It would serve at the very least as a reminder for those preparing the burial of which way around to place the mummy - Don )

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30839
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua Coffin of Gua
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Coffin of Gua


Interior walls of the rectangular wooden outer-coffin of Gua, looking from the northern, head end.

Eastern wall shown in the left hand image, Western on the right.

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30839
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




The coffins of Gua
The outer and inner coffins are made from large pieces of cedar wood. This imported timber was of superior quality to the native Egyptian woods, and its use for the main components of the coffin was a sign of the high status of the owner.

The coffins are similarly decorated. A pair of eyes on the east side enabled the dead man to look towards the rising sun. The horizontal and vertical inscriptions on the exterior request offerings and invoke the protection of various gods. The omission of a plastered or painted background allowed the distinctive grain of the costly cedarwood to be displayed.

The inner sides of the coffins symbolically represent the walls of the tomb, and are densely covered with religious inscriptions and images. Below an offering formula in coloured hieroglyphs comes a frieze of objects to equip the deceased for the afterlife. A large painted false door on the east side acted as a magical portal to enable Gua's spirit to pass in and out. The remaining areas contain extracts from the Coffin Texts.

These assisted Gua in his passage to the afterlife, and included a self-contained composition known as the Book of Two Ways. The texts of the outer coffin include one of the earliest known examples of the spell to activate shabtis, the funerary figurines.
Text above from a poster at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Coffin of Gua models
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Servant of Gua


Painted and gessoed wooden female figure with basket of loaves and meat on head.

This statuette is made from a native timber, probably tamarisk, and represents a servant carrying food offerings for the owner of the tomb. The basket on her head is filled with loaves and cakes, and the head and foreleg of an ox. In her right hand she probably carried a bird, now lost.

Height 380 mm.

Catalog: Believed to be from the tomb of Gua, EA30716
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua model
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Statue of Gua himself


Although this figure is uninscribed, the pose and the costume and the use of an expensive wood, imported cedar, indicate that it represents the owner of the tomb, in this case Gua himself. In smaller Middle Kingdom tombs, without funerary chapels, statuettes of this type placed inside the coffin served as the vehicle by which the ka of the deceased could receive food and drink.

Wooden tomb statue of a man. The arms, fronts of the feet, and base were made separately. Both of the fists were drilled to hold implements now lost, probably a 'sekhem' sceptre in the right hand, possibly another baton or a rolled cloth in the left. Though the statue may have been entirely painted, all that survives is black on the hair, black and white on the eyes, and white on the finger- and toenails. The nipples were indicated by the inlaying of tiny bits of darker wood. His short curly hairdo was particularly popular during the Eleventh and early Twelfth Dynasties, for both men and women. His long kilt may be meant to indicate maturity here, despite the youthful hairstyle and body.

Circa 1 985 BC - 1 878 BC, height 340 mm, length of plinth 136 mm, width 105 mm.

Catalog: Believed to be from the tomb of Gua, EA30715
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua headrest
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Ivory headrest


The majority of headrests which have been found in tombs were made of wood or stone. Ivory specimens such as this one are very rare, and its fragility suggests that it was probably made specifically for the tomb. The two sides of the central support are carved in the shape of the Tit (the girdle of Isis) which symbolises the protection of the goddess.

Ivory head-rest. Open-work shaft in the form of two tjet-symbols ('Isis knots').


Height 155 mm, length 184 mm, width 67 mm, weight 545 grams.

Circa 1 985 BC - 1 878 BC,

Catalog: Believed to be from the tomb of Gua, EA30727
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua butchering model
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Model of butchering


Wooden model of butchers preparing meat for the deceased with seven figures, painted red, black and white.

The group shows two slaughtered oxen which are being cut up by men with large knives. The leg of one ox is on the butchers block, were it is being jointed.

Width 254 mm, length: 435 mm.

Circa 1 985 BC - 1 878 BC,

Catalog: Believed to be from the tomb of Gua, EA30718
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Model boat



Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Model boat


This painted wooden model boat carries, besides its owner, a crew of six oarsmen, a pilot, and a group of five soldiers. Shields and staves are also stored amidships. The post in the centre of the hull may have been substituted for an original mast. The paddles and steering oar have also been lost. The construction of the model illustrates the selection of different woods by the carpenter according to the task in hand.

The cloaked statuette of the owner, the most prestigious in the group, is carefully carved from cedar wood, as are the two posts and one of the staves - small components for which a wood with fine grain was required. All other figures, and the hull of the craft, are made from the less expensive and more coarsely grained indigenous sycomore.

This is a wooden model boat with paddlers and soldiers. The hull is narrow and shallow with a sheer-line curving sharply upwards at the stern, where there is a raised block notched for the steering-oar. The hull is painted red and the deck white with the usual deck-plan in red, though owing to the fading of the paint it is not possible to record the details with certainty. There may have been six pairs of spaces, but whether there was a mast-space remains doubtful. The deck has been hollowed from the original block of wood to leave gunwales on each side, but is so steeply cambered that amidships the longitudinal centre-line of the deck is above the level of the gunwales, which merge into the fore- and after-decks.

These decks are slightly raised and not cambered. In the case of the after-deck the line of the gunwales is continued by shallow grooves cut in the deck. The fore-deck may once have been painted red all over, and had a centre strip of which there remain only the mark where it once lay and a single peg-hole. About 13 mm to 25 mm has been lost from the bows. The after-deck also was once painted red all over. There is no mast or rigging; whether it was lost or originally non-existent is not clear. The place where a mast would normally stand is taken by a stout wooden post. There is a steering-post aft. The post is painted red and is circular in section on a square base and grooved at the top.

Amidships, where normally a mast would stand, is a second steering-post which certainly is misplaced; it is possible that the maker of the model substituted this post for the mast, perhaps because he was out of stock of masts. This second post is octagonal on a square base. The two side faces of the octagon are rounded off at the top of the post, which is deeply grooved. It is painted white on the shaft, red at the top, and white in the groove. At the foot the white paint has been partly overlaid with red. On either side of the steering-block the stern is pierced by two holes of uncertain purpose which may possibly have held lashings to hold the steering-oar in the notch.

There is another small hole on the starboard side of the after-deck which may once have held a peg for the helmsman, and there are others on the main deck with the stumps of pegs in them, though it is not clear what purpose they served. Amidships is a curious erection made of two long shields which are painted to represent oxhide with the stitching on the edges marked by black spots. The straight edges at the bottom rest against the gunwales and the rounded tops lean inwards on a thick post of circular section which rises a little above them. Each shield has two holes in it, perhaps for holding a thong for carrying. The post is painted to represent a covering of oxhide with two rows of stitching on the after side, with red on the top. It rises from a wooden object shaped like a small boat with a raised central portion. Around the flat surface of this object are nine holes with short wooden sticks in them, and there is one more in the raised portion. It shows traces of red paint on a white base and the posts were red with black tips, though but little paint now survives.

In the stern is a hole for the peg which once secured the figure of the missing helmsman. Forward of the steering-post is a group of five soldiers, of whom the aftermost is facing to larboard (left) while the other four look in the general direction of the stern. They carry a small shield on the left arm, which is sharply bent at the elbow with the fist close to the shoulder; the right arm of the aftermost soldier is missing. The middle figure on the larboard side holds his left arm straight down with the hand a little in front of the leg; it holds a thin straight object which may be intended either for a staff or a javelin. His opposite number on the starboard side has a short straight piece of wood in his right hand.

These men wear black wigs and white skirts extending just below the knee and white tunics covering their sides and meeting on the chest and back, though only on the aftermost figure is this garment indicated clearly; on the others the white paint partly has fallen away, leaving the red skin-colour beneath.

Between the curious erection amidships and the 'mast' is a seated figure of some dignity and most careful workmanship. It represents a squatting man covered completely except for his head in a long white cloak concealing his arms and wearing a short black wig. Despite the fact that this figure is on a smaller scale than the soldiers and crew, its fine execution and the all-enveloping cloak, as well as the squatting attitude, indicate that this is the owner of the vessel. His unwarlike garb and attitude, as well as the smallness of the squad of soldiers, suggest that the latter are merely an escort of armed retainers accompanying a magnate on his travels, and that this is not a war-boat. The relatively small size and the fine work of the figure of the owner show that it was carved independently by a skilled and sensitive craftsman, whereas the personnel of the boat give the impression of being just good-quality stock figures.

Forward of the 'mast' sit three pairs of paddlers with their handless arms sloping out and down at an angle of 45°-50°. The attitude is rather that of rowers, but the fact that the figures face forward indicates that they are paddlers - unless the maker of the model has blundered. The figures are red with black wigs and white skirts, but the legs are cut off below the knee, as if to suggest that the lower parts of the legs are hidden within the hull. In the bows stands the pilot with his arms stretched down and slightly forward and his legs slightly apart, facing to starboard (right). The features of the crew are only roughly indicated, but all of them, escort as well as paddlers, have their eyes painted on.

Length 1392 mm, depth 76 mm, width 222 mm.

Circa 1 985 BC - 1 878 BC.

Catalog: Believed to be from the tomb of Gua, EA35293
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Coffin of Gua


On the left, the the south facing foot of the rectangular wooden outer-coffin of Gua.

On the right, Gua's canopic chest.

Wooden canopic chest of Gua of cubical shape with lid. Base supported on two wooden bars. Interior divided at low level by wooden partitions into four compartments for jars. Exterior has blue painted border at edges of box and lid. Sunk relief blue-painted hieroglyphic inscriptions on all external surfaces. Two crossing lines of text on lid. Sides have a horizontal line at the top and a vertical line down the middle. The chest contained four calcite canopic jars with painted wooden stoppers, each in the form of a human headed deity. Pale beige faces with black details and blue-painted wigs. Jars vary in shape from narrow to shouldered. Three retain remains of linen packages inside.

Height 530 mm, depth 550 mm, width 530 mm.

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30839, EA30838
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Coffin of Gua
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Canopic chest containing four jars


The internal organs of Gua's body were placed in four calcite jars with lids of painted wood. These in turn were stored in the tomb inside a cubic cedarwood chest, divided internally into four compartments. Three of the four jars retain their original contents. These consist of resin soaked linen packages, at least one of which contains the remains of an unidentified soft tissue.


The Canopic chests of this period closely resemble the rectangular coffins in form, construction and decoration. Symbolically, they served as coffins for the internal organs, which were preserved and wrapped as though they were miniature versions of the mummy. Divine protection for Gua's viscera is assured in the inscriptions on the four faces of the chest. These describe him as 'revered' by the four sons of Horus, and also by Isis, Nephthys, Neith, and Selkis. These four goddesses were believed to protect the sons of Horus, as a further assurance of the safety of the vulnerable organs.

Catalog: Deir el-Bersha, EA30838
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0






The Book of Two Ways
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

The Book of Two Ways - Map of the Netherworld

The Book of Two Ways

The rectangular wooden coffins from Bersha are a major source for the Coffin Texts, the main body of funerary literature used between about 2 000 BC and 1 600 BC. They are particularly notable for a distinct composition known to Egyptologists as the Book of Two Ways. The use of this text had probably spread to Bersha from the Residence cemeteries of Dahsur and Lisht.

This is a guide to the afterlife for the deceased, and includes the earliest known map of the netherworld. The map was usually painted on the floor of the coffin. The accompanying texts describe the inhabitants of the netherworld and provide instructions on how to avoid dangers and obstacles on the journey to the afterlife. Different versions of the Book of Two Ways were in use simultaneously, but the maps generally presented two paths consisting of earth and water.

In the version painted on the outer and inner coffins of Gua, the main goal of the deceased is to join the sun god Ra.





Mummification - Preserving the Body

poster on embalming poster on embalming


1. Washing - As soon as possible after death, the body was taken to the Tent of Purification, located close to the banks of the Nile, and was washed in a solution of natron in water.

2. Removal of internal organs - The brain was extracted via the nose, using a metal rod. A stone knife was used to make an incision in the left flank, through which the organs of the chest and abdomen, except for the heart, were removed. The organs were separately preserved.


poster on embalming poster on embalming


3. Drying - The chest and abdominal cavities were packed with bags of natron, a naturally-occurring compound of salts which absorbs fluids. Natron powder was packed around, beneath and on top of the body, which was left covered for about 40 days.

4. Packing - The skull was often plugged with linen or filled with resin and the chest cavity packed with woodshavings, linen, earth, or occasionally lichen. Sand, linen or mud was inserted under the skin to restore substance to the features.


poster on embalming poster on embalming


5. Anointing - The skin was coated with liquid plant resin to exclude moisture from the body.

6. - Wrapping - during wrapping the embalmers placed the limbs in the prescribed positions, and the body was wrapped in sheets and strips of linen, while prayers and magical spells were recited. Steps 4, 5, and 6 took another 30 days, making 70 days for the whole process.

Credits for the six photos and text above:
Photo: Poster, British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Poster, British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0






Mummification - Methods and Belief Systems

The ancient Egyptians believed that preserving the body was crucial if the deceased was to have life after death. There are few records of how mummification was done. What is known is based mainly on accounts by Classical authors, and studies of the mummies themselves. The panels above explain the procedure as it was carried out in about 1 000 BC, the high point of Egyptian embalming.

After death, the body was taken to the ibu, or Tent of Purification, to be washed in a solution of natron in water (1). The antiseptic natron helped delay decomposition. Embalming took place at or near the tomb in the wabet (Place of Purification) or Per-nefer (House of Rejuvenation).

First, the internal organs were removed (2), the parts of the body which decayed most rapidly. The brain was usually extracted via the nose, and discarded. The other organs were removed through an incision in the left flank, and were set aside. Often these were interred separately in special Canopic containers. The heart remained, as it would be important in the judgement of the dead person before the gods.

The body was then dried out, to eliminate the possibility of bacterial activity and decay (3). The torso was filled with bags of natron and loose natron powder was packed around the corpse. It was left for about 40 days. This is the minimum time required for dessication of a body using this method.

After drying, the skull and chest cavities were filled (4). During the Twenty First Dynasty, and at other times, the liver, lungs, stomach and intestines were replaced inside the body, wrapped in separate linen packages. The body would have lost virtually all its fat, leaving the skin loose and wrinkled. Sometimes sand, linen or mud was inserted under the skin of the face and limbs to restore the shrunken features.

Resin was applied to the surface of the body (5), to exclude moisture and perhaps to confer divine status on the dead person. Before wrapping, artificial eyes were placed in the sockets, and finger and toe covers of gold or silver were put on. During wrapping (6) amulets, jewellery and sometimes a rolled funerary papyrus were placed on the body. As the mummy was wrapped in linen cloth, prayers and magical spells were recited. Steps four, five and six as in the diagrams above took another thirty days, making a total of seventy days for the whole process.
Text above: Poster, British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0



Physician Physician Physician


Physician
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Physician


Seated figure of the physician Sesheshen-sa-Hathor.

Granodiorite, circa 1 880 BC.

Catalog: Ezbet Rushdi, ÄS 5361 and ÄS 7212
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




img_2388sesostrissm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Senusret III / Sesostris III


Head of a statue of the Pharoah Senusret III / Sesostris III

1 875 BC - 1 840 BC

Senusret III is well known for his distinctive statues which are almost immediately recognisable as his. On them, the king is depicted at different ages, and in particular on the aged ones he sports a strikingly somber expression: the eyes are protruding from hollow eyesockets with pouches and lines under them, the mouth and lips have a grimace of bitterness, and the ears are enormous and protruding forwards. In sharp contrast with the even-exaggerated realism of the head and regardless of its age, the rest of the body is idealised as forever young and muscular in a more classical pharaonic fashion.

Senusret III cleared a navigable canal through the first cataract. He also relentlessly pushed his kingdom's expansion into Nubia (from 1866 to 1863 BC) where he erected massive river forts including Buhen, Semna and Toshka at Uronarti.


Catalog: Thebes/Karnak (?), pink granite, ÄM 9529
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia




sphinx sphinx
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Pharaoh Senusret III, Khakaure, also known as Sesostris III.


Head from a sphinx of the pharaoh Sesostris III with youthful features.

Granite , circa 1870 BC.

Catalog: Granite, ÄS 7110
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




sphinx sphinx
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Pharaoh Senusret III, Khakaure, also known as Sesostris III.


Head from a statue of the pharaoh Sesostris III with aged features.

Quartzite , circa 1850 BC.

Catalog: Quartzite, ÄS 4857
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




green head
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Pharaoh Amenemhat III


Upper half of a seated figure of Pharaoh Amenemhat III.

Ophicalcite, ophiolite or verde antique, the material of which this sculpture is made, is a serpentinite breccia popular since ancient times as a decorative facing stone. It is a dark, dull green, white-mottled (or white-veined) serpentine, mixed with calcite, dolomite, or magnesite, which takes a high polish.

Catalog: Fayum (?), ÄS 6762
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




sphinx sphinx


sphinx
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Pharaoh Amenemhat III


Maned sphinx of Pharaoh Amenemhat III.

Catalog: Limestone, ÄS 7132
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




Pakhetemhat
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Statuette of the woman Pakhetemhat.

Found during excavations at Antinoe, in the tomb of Pakhetemhat.

The cedar used in the statuette was imported to Egypt from the coasts of Syria and Lebanon, this trade occurring from 3 000 BC onwards.

Circa 1 900 BC.

Height 310 mm, width 70 mm, depth 147 mm.

Catalog: E 20576
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




hes jar
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Hes-vase

A Hes-vase is a tall, slim, ritual vessel for libations.

( This appears to have been thrown in clay on a wheel, and fired to earthenware temperatures - Don )

Qurna, the site where this was found, is located on the West Bank of the River Nile opposite the modern city of Luxor in Egypt near the Theban Hills.

Catalog: Ceramic, Qurna, ÄS 5876, ÄS 4122
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




falcon god
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Falcon God

Limestone head of Horus, the falcon god, depicted here with human ears. The rest of the body is lost.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




Sopdu god
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Sopdu God

Quartzite head of the god Sopdu.

Circa 1 950 BC - 1 900 BC

Catalog: ÄS 7106
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




img_2390tetusm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Tetu

Praying statue of Tetu.

Circa 1850 BC.

Catalog: Granite, Heliopolis, ÄM 8432
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf






Models

In the Middle Kingdom, wooden models made up a number of individual figures, and depicting workshops, breweries, bakeries, slaughterhouses, ships, granaries and houses, accompanied the deceased in his tomb. They replaced the servant statuettes as well as the corresponding two dimensional images of the relief-decorated Old Kingdom tombs and were meant to guarantee the deceased's provisioning in foodstuffs and all objects of daily life.

Text above: © Ägyptischen Museum München

tomb models
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Cattle and cowherds.

Circa 1 950 BC

Catalog: ÄS 7144
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia


tomb models
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Figures from various models.

Circa 1 900 BC

Catalog: ÄS 1565, ÄS 1566, ÄS 425,
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia


tomb models
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Figures from a granary model.

Circa 1 900 BC

Catalog: ÄS 7258, ÄS 7259
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




Stelae of the Middle Kingdom

A stela's main function was to perpetuate the memory of the deceased in image and text. Next to formulaic prayers, stelae texts could also contain biographical notes on the donor, who was usually shown beside members of his family. Gods appear on stelae for the first time in the Middle Kingdom; the first to be depicted in a small pictorial section at the top of the stela were Osiris, god of resurrection and Lord of the Netherworld, and Anubis, the deceased's guide, in the form of a jackal. In their content and appearance, some Middle Kingdom stelae represent a continuation of the Old Kingdom false-door stelae.

stela
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of Nofret

Stela of Nofret in the shape of a false-door stela.

Circa 1 900 BC.

Catalog: limestone, Memphis (?), GL 41
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




img_2314sm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of Nofret

Stela of Nofret with her mother, her husband (?) and her grandmother.

12th Dynasty circa 1850 BC.

Catalog: Abydos (?), pink granite, ÄM 7280
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_2316sm
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of the high treasurer Ichernofret.

Circa 1860 BC.

Catalog: Abydos, Limestone, ÄM 1204
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




stela
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of Iuseneb

Stela of Iuseneb, steward of the Fruit Cellar.

( note that the figures on this stela have been considerably deepened, with the base left unsmoothed after the chiselling. It may be that the figures were designed to be filled with, perhaps, faience, which was never done, or has disappeared since manufacture - Don )

Circa 1 900 BC.

Catalog: limestone, ÄS 36
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




stela
Eleventh/Twelfth Dynasty: 2 025 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of Usekhu

Stela of the Overseer of the Cabinet, Usekhu

Circa 2 000 BC.

Catalog: limestone, Abydos, ÄS 33
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




stela
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of Debi

Stela of Debi with his family, end of the 12th Dynasty.

Catalog: limestone, Memphis, GL WAF 21
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




stela
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Stela of Nefernay

Stela of Nefernay with his nurse and family, end of the 12th Dynasty.

Catalog: limestone, Memphis, GL WAF 34
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München, Wikipedia




Family Group
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Family Group


Statue-group of cloaked man with family, from Thebes.

Circa 1 900 BC

Catalog: ÄM 4435
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf




Striding Man Woman
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Striding and standing man and woman


Circa 1 950 BC - 1 900 BC

Wood, from Meir and West Thebes (?)

Catalog: ÄM 21611 and ÄM 9536
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Mentuhotep with a Hes-vase Inemakhet
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Mentuhotep and Inemakhet


Striding / standing figures of Mentuhotep with a Hes-vase and Inemakhet. Circa 1 950 BC - 1 910 BC

Wood, from Thebes and Abusir

( The statue of Inemakhet on the right is one of the most delightful portraits I have seen from Ancient Egypt. The sculptor has achieved a level of spontaneity and insight into character usually only achieved in modern times with a digital camera. Click and click again to zoom in - Don )

Catalog: ÄM 16202 and ÄM 4650
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Sepi coffin
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Cedarwood coffin of the army commander Sepi.

Middle to late 12th Dynasty, about 1850 BC - 1800 BC. From Deir el-Bersha, probably from the forecourt of the tomb of Djehutyhotep.

Sepi, like the physician Gua, was probably a member of the entourage of the governor Djehutyhotep.


The east side of his coffin is decorated with a pair of eyes to enable the deceased to see, and a false-door motif to allow the spirit to leave and re-enter the coffin. Inscriptions assure the provision of offerings and the protection of deities. The interior is undecorated.

Width 520 mm, length 2130 mm, height 785 mm.

Catalog: EA55315
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




flint dagger
Twelfth Dynasty: 1 991 BC - 1 802 BC

Flint dagger blade, Middle Kingdom, circa 1900 BC - 1800 BC, from Buhen.


The haft was attached to a handle by adhesive, traces of which remain.

( note that this item could well be the head of a spear or javelin, rather than a dagger - Don )

Catalog: EA65771
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Stela
Twelfth Dynasty or later: 1 991 BC - 1 200 BC

Stelae

Four stelae with prayers asking the gods - Anubis or Osiris - to let sacrifices offered to them benefit the dead person as well. Such prayers always begin with the same words.

A: Kaj sacrificing to the butler Ip and his father Sobek-nacht.
Limestone, Middle Kingdom, 1991 - 1785 BC.

B: The 'Chariot fighter at the garrison of Pharaoh', Inay, and his mother Duat-tawy sitting at a well-provided offering table.
Limestone, New Kingdom, 1550-1200 BC.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark








The Thirteenth Dynasty

1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Ruled from Memphis, over Middle and Upper Egypt, contemporaneous with the Fourteenth Dynasty, which ruled from Avaris in the Nile Delta over Middle and Upper Egypt.


Thirteenth Dynasty
Name Horus
(Throne)
Name
Consort Burial Years Dates Comments
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep           Referred to by some
as Sebekhotep I
Sonbef           Perhaps a son of Amenemhat IV
and brother of
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep.
Nerikare            
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V         1 796 BC - 1 793 BC Dates according to Egyptologists
Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker
Ameny Qemau            
Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef           Perhaps identical with
King Sehotepibre in the Turin Canon
Iufni           Known only from the Turin canon
Seankhibre Ameny-Intef-Amenemhat VI            
Semenkare Nebnuni            
Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy            
Sewadjkare I           Known only from the Turin canon
Nedjemibre            
Khaankhre Sobekhotep II            
Renseneb Amenemhat            
Hor Awybre   Nubhotepi Buried in Dahshur near
the pyramid of Amenemhet III
     
Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw           Possibly a son of
Hor Awybre.
Djedkheperew           Possibly a brother of
Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw.
Sedjefakare Kay-Amenemhet VII            
Khutawyre Wegaf            
Userkare Khendjer   Seneb(henas?) Pyramid of Khendjer,
South Saqqara
    May also have borne
the name Nimaatre
Smenkhkare Imyremeshaw   Aya(ly?)        
Sehetepkare Intef   Aya(ly?)        
Seth Meribre            
Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III   Senebhenas
Neni
       
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I   Senebsen Perhaps buried at Abydos.      
Menwadjre Sihathor           Ephemeral coregent with his
brother Neferhotep I.
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV   Tjan Perhaps buried at Abdydos:
S 10 (Abydos).
    Brother of Neferhotep I
and Sihathor.
Merhotepre Sobekhotep V   Nubkhaes?        
Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI            
Wahibre Ibiau            
Merneferre Ay     Built a pyramid whose
location is unknown,
possibly near Memphis.
23   Reigned 23 years, the longest
reign of the dynasty. Last king
to be attested in both
Lower and Upper Egypt.


Table of Thirteenth Dynasty Rulers, adapted from various sources, including Wikipedia.




The Sothic cycle or Canicular period is a period of 1,461 Egyptian civil years of 365 days each or 1,460 Julian years averaging 365¼ days each. During a Sothic cycle, the 365-day year loses enough time that the start of its year once again coincides with the heliacal rising of the star Sirius on 19 July in the Julian calendar. It is an important aspect of Egyptology, particularly with regard to reconstructions of the Egyptian calendar and its history. Astronomical records of this displacement may have been responsible for the later establishment of the more accurate Julian and Alexandrian calendars.

Above text from Wikipedia

Fortress in Nubia
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

The Buhen Fortress

Buhen was an ancient Egyptian settlement situated on the West bank of the Nile below (to the North of) the Second Cataract. On the East bank, across the river, was located the ancient settlement of Wadi Halfa.

Photo: Franck Monnier (Bakha)
Permission: GNU Free Documentation License
Text: Wikipedia




Egyptian Fortresses in occupied Nubia

The series of fortresses built by the 12th Dynasty conquerors of Lower Nubia stretched from Elephantine to the new southern frontier at Semna. They include some of the most sophisticated examples of military architecture known from the ancient world. The mud brick fortresses were situated on the banks and islands of the Nile. No two were identical but standard features included defensive ditches, ramparts, bastions and massive gates with wooden drawbridges. Within the walls stood barracks, work- shops, administrative quarters and temples.

Egyptian troops were stationed in the fortresses as garrisons. Their role was to control the movements of the local population and to protect the annexed territory against possible attack. The fortresses also functioned as bases for gold mining and copper smelting operations and were collection points for trade goods and raw materials. When Egypt lost control over Lower Nubia during the 13th Dynasty, most of the forts were abandoned. A few were captured by Kushites, Nubians from Kerma, when they advanced from Upper Nubia to take over the lands vacated by the Egyptians.

Text above: Poster at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Report from Nubia
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

The Semna Despatches

Circa 1 780 BC.

The Semna Despatches are part of a hieratic papyrus containing copies of reports by the commanders of Egyptian forts in Lower Nubia, sent to an official at Thebes. It reports the tracking by garrison troops of a group of thirty two Nubians and three asses.

From the Ramesseum, Thebes.


Catalog: EA10752, EA10753
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Shabti of Amun Iwy
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Shabti of Amun Iwy


Gilded steatite shabti of the priest of Amun Iwy.

Circa 1 795 - 1 650 BC

From Abydos Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0,




stone panel
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Pharaoh Sebekhotep I

Part of a chapel constructed by Sebekhotep I.

Circa 1770 BC.

The text makes an allusion to the myth of the eye of Horus.

Height 110 cm, width 32 cm, thickness 26 cm.

Catalog: limestone, Abydos, Sully Rez-de-chaussée Le temple Salle 12, C9, C10.
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre




img_6135amenemhatvsm
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Pharaoh Amenemhat V

Head of a statue of Pharaoh Amenemhat V (?) with a khat headdress.

Second interim period around 1750 BC

Catalog: ÄS 7172
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München
Additional text: Wikipedia




amenemhatvviennasm
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Pharaoh Amenemhat V

Head of a statue of Sekhemkare Amenemhat V of Egypt's 13th dynasty, in green slate, from Elephantine.

Upper part now in Vienna, Kunshistorisches Museum, 37, and lower part in Aswan, Aswan Museum, 1318

Photo and text: https://www.khm.at/
Source: Original, Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien
Additional text: Wikipedia




Statue
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Hori

Seated figure of the governor Hori with inscription of a prayer to Ptah-Sokar-Osiris.

1 750 BC - 1 700 BC

Catalog: ÄM 34407
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




squatting figure squatting figure


squatting figure
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Figure


Upper part of a squatting figure.

Limestone, circa 1 750 BC.

Catalog: ÄS 4869
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




striding figure
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Figure


Standing-striding figure of a man wearing a long kilt.

Basalt, circa 1 750 BC.

Catalog: GL 14
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Ägyptischen Museum München
Text: © Ägyptischen Museum München




chapelle

Chapel and statue of Senwosret, Thirteenth Dynasty

Limestone and gabbro.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre



chapelle chapelle
Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Chapel of Senwosret

Chapel of Senwosret, servant of the vizier. Circa 1780 -1700 BC 13th Dynasty

Reduced chapel model, decorated as were tombs of individuals in the Old Kingdom, (2700 - 2200 BC)

Dimensions of the centre panel are 54 cm x 44 cm, and it features the motif of protective eyes flanked by the jackal god Wepwawet. Below, Senwosret receives offerings from family members and servants.


chapelle
C 17, left hand panel: Meeting in honour of Senwosret: distracted by musicians and dancers, the guests drink and breathe the fragrance of flowers. Above, Senwosret receives food offerings, amongst which is a live ox.

C 16, centre panel: At the bottom, after the party. An offering formula promises to Senwosret the food 'which heaven gives, which the earth produces and which the gods make live.'

C18, right hand panel: Above, a hunter followed by two gazelles carries a small one in his arms. An ox is slaughtered. In the marshes, Senwosret harpoons fish and hunts birds with a throwing stick. In the middle, harvesting and transporting grain. Below, Senwosret and his wife supervise the work of the fields, the brewer of beer, the jars and the silos. To the right, the coffin is transported by water.



Catalog: Sully Rez-de-chaussée Crypte d'Osiris Salle 13 Vitrine 10: La chapelle d'un particulier à Abydos, C16, c17, c18
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre, http://metmuseum.org/




 Statue of Senwosret

Thirteenth Dynasty: 1 803 BC - 1 639 BC

Statue of Senwosret

Servant of the Vizier, height 532 mm, width 165 mm, depth 282 mm

Made of Gabbro, found in the interior of the chapel.

Catalog: Sully Rez-de-chaussée Crypte d'Osiris Salle 13 Vitrine 10: La chapelle d'un particulier à Abydos, A48
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: © Musée du Louvre, http://metmuseum.org/








The Fourteenth Dynasty

1 725 BC - 1 650 BC

The Fourteenth Dynasty ruled from Avaris in the Nile Delta over Middle and Upper Egypt, contemporaneously with the Thirteenth Dynasty, which ruled from Memphis, over Middle and Upper Egypt,

The following is a truncated list from that in Wikipedia. The names of the kings and their dates of rule are not known with any certainty.


Fourteenth Dynasty
Name Dates Comments
Yakbim Skehaenre 1 805 BC - 1 780 BC or after 1 650 BC Chronological position is contested, may be a vassal of the 15th Dynasty
Ya'ammu Nubwoserre 1 780 BC - 1 770 BC Chronological position is contested
Qareh Khawoserre 1 770 BC - 1 760 BC Chronological position is contested
'Ammu Ahotepre 1 760 BC - 1 745 BC or after 1 650 BC Chronological position is contested, may be a vassal of the 15th Dynasty
Sheshi Maaibre 1 745 BC - 1 705 BC or after 1 650 BC Attested by over 300 scarab-seals, possibly married to Queen Tati who was
a Kushite. Chronological position is contested, may be a vassal of
the 15th Dynasty
Nehesy Aasehre 1 705 BC Best attested king of the Dynasty, he left his name
on two monuments at Avaris. His name means 'The Nubian'
Khakherewre 1 705 BC  
Nebefawre 1 704 BC Turin Canon: reigned 1 year, 5 months, 15 days
Sehebre   Turin Canon: reigned 3 years
Merdjefare ending 1 699 BC Attested by a single stela from Saft el-Hinna, in the delta
Sewadjkare III   Turin Canon: reigned 1 year
Nebdjefare ending 1 694 BC  
...webenre ending 1 690 BC  
Truncated, lack of reliable data
Nebsenre   Attested by a jar bearing his prenomen. At least 5 months of reign
Truncated, lack of reliable data
Sekheperenre   With Nehesy, Nebsenre and Merdjefare, only undisputed king
known from contemporary sources.
Truncated, lack of reliable data
Babnum ...kare    
Truncated, lack of reliable data
Apophis I    
Truncated, lack of reliable data


Table of Fourteenth Dynasty Rulers, truncated, adapted from Wikipedia.








The Fifteenth Dynasty

1 650 BC - 1 550 BC

The Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt was the first Hyksos dynasty, ruled from Avaris, without control of the entire land. The Hyksos preferred to stay in northern Egypt since they infiltrated from the north-east. The names and order of kings is uncertain. The Turin King list indicates that there were six Hyksos kings, with an obscure Khamudi listed as the final king of the Fifteenth Dynasty. Only five are listed here.


Fifteenth Dynasty
Name Dates Comments
Salitis 1 650 BC -  
Sakir-Har   Named as an early Hyksos king on a doorjamb found at Avaris. Regnal order uncertain.
Khyan    
Apophis 1 590 BC - 1 550 BC  
Khamudi 1 550 BC - 1 540 BC  


Table of Fifteenth Dynasty Rulers.








The Sixteenth Dynasty

1 649 BC - 1 582 BC

The Sixteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XVI) was a dynasty of pharaohs that ruled the Theban region in Upper Egypt for 70 years.

The continuing war against Dynasty XV dominated the short-lived 16th dynasty. The armies of the 15th dynasty, winning town after town from their southern enemies, continually encroached on the 16th dynasty territory, eventually threatening and then conquering Thebes itself. In his study of the second intermediate period, the egyptologist Kim Ryholt has suggested that Dedumose I sued for a truce in the latter years of the dynasty, but one of his predecessors, Nebiryraw I, may have been more successful and seems to have enjoyed a period of peace in his reign.

Famine, which had plagued Upper Egypt during late 13th Dynasty and the 14th Dynasty, also blighted the 16th Dynasty, most evidently during and after the reign of Neferhotep III.




Sixteenth Dynasty
Name Years Dates Comments
Unknown 1 1 649 BC - 1 648 BC Name lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon
Sekhemre-sementawi Djehuti 3 1 648 BC - 1 645 BC  
Sekhemre-seusertawi Sobekhotep VIII 16 1 645 BC - 1 629 BC  
Sekhemre-seankhtawi Neferhotep III 1 1 629 BC - 1 628 BC  
Seankhenre Mentuhotepi 1 1 628 BC - 1 627 BC  
Sewadjenre Nebiryraw I 26 1 627 BC - 1 601 BC  
Nebiriau II 1 1 601 BC  
Semenre 1 1 601 BC - 1 600 BC  
Seuserenre Bebiankh 2 1 600 BC - 1 588 BC  
Sekhemre Shedwaset 1 1 588 BC  
Unknown 6 1 588 BC - 1 582 BC Five kings lost in a lacuna of the Turin Canon.


Additional kings are classified as belonging to this dynasty per Kim Ryholt but their chronological position is uncertain. They may correspond to the last five lost kings on the Turin canon:


Additional Kings of the Sixteenth Dynasty
Name Dates Comments
Djedhotepre Dedumose I   May have tried to sue the Hyksos for peace.
Djedneferre Dedumose II    
Djedankhre Montemsaf    
Merankhre Mentuhotep VI    
Seneferibre Senusret IV   Left a colossal statue of himself in Karnak.


Table of Sixteenth Dynasty Rulers.








The Seventeenth Dynasty

1 580 BC - 1 550 BC

The Seventeenth Dynasty's mainly Theban rulers are contemporary with the Hyksos of the Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt and succeed the Sixteenth Dynasty, also based in Thebes. In March 2012, French archeologists examining a limestone door in the Amun-Ra temple in Luxor discovered hieroglyphs with the name Senakhtenre, the first evidence of this king dating to his lifetime.

King Nebmaatre may have been a ruler of the early 17th dynasty.

The last two kings of the dynasty opposed the Hyksos rule over Egypt and initiated a war that would rid Egypt of the Hyksos kings and began a period of unified rule, the New Kingdom.

Kamose, the second son of Seqenenre Tao and last king of the Seventeenth Dynasty, was the brother of Ahmose I – the first king of the Eighteenth Dynasty.


Seventeenth Dynasty
Name Horus (Throne) Name Consort Burial Years Dates Comments
Rahotep Sekhemre-wahkhaw     1 circa 1 585 BC  
Sobekemsaf I Sekhemre-wadjkhaw Nubemhat   7    
Sobekemsaf II Sekhemre-shedtawy Nubkhaes Robbed during the reign of Ramesses IX      
Intef Sekhemre-wepmaat   Dra' Abu el-Naga'?      
Intef Nubkheperre Sobekemsaf Dra' Abu el-Naga'      
Intef Sekhemre-heruhermaat Haankhes        
Ahmose Senakhtenre Tetisheri   1    
Tao Seqenenre Ahmose
Inhapy
Sitdjehuti
Ahhotep I
  4 circa 1 560 BC  
Kamose Wadjkheperre Ahhotep II?   5 1 555 BC - 1 550 BC  


Table of Seventeenth Dynasty Rulers.






nubkheperra intef nubkheperra intef
Seventeenth Dynasty: 1 580 BC - 1 550 BC

Intef Nubkheperre


Intef Nubkheperre (there were three kings with the name Intef) was an Egyptian king of the Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt at Thebes / Luxor during the Second Intermediate Period, from 1582 BC to 1570 BC when Egypt was divided by rival dynasties including the Hyksos in Lower Egypt.

This is a sycomore fig wood anthropoid coffin of Intef Nubkheperra. The lid of the coffin is covered with gold leaf on a base of gesso. The king is represented wearing a royal headcloth (nemes) of unusually large proportions. A uraeus serpent was originally attached to the brow, but it is now missing and only the socket is visible. A false beard, originally fitted to the chin, is also lost, although the painted beard-straps survive on each side of the face.

The face itself was originally gilded, and the eyes are made from black and white stone. On the upper body is a collar with falcon-head terminals, and a winged figure (now mostly destroyed) occupied the middle of the breast. The sides of the headdress and most of the body of the coffin-lid are covered with a design of stylised feathers, although the areas at the sides of the feet have a different motif, consisting of spherical and barrel shaped beads arranged in a net-pattern.

Catalog: EA6652
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia




nubkheperra intef nubkheperra intef
In the centre of the lid, from the collar to the level of the ankles is a single line of hieroglyphic text. The exterior of the coffin-case is painted a uniform blue and bears no decoration apart from a stylised representation of the queue of the king's wig in the centre of the back. On the base of the foot are figures of the goddesses Isis and Nephthys raising their hands in a gesture of lamentation.

A column of inscription between them contains their speech. The interior surfaces of both lid and case are thickly coated with a dark, shiny resinous substance. The mummy was apparently placed inside the coffin before this substance was dry, as substantial portions of the outer linen wrappings adhere to the inner surface of the case.

Some of these fragments of the linen shroud bear funerary texts on behalf of King Intef, written in black ink (other sections, removed from the coffin in the 19th century, are EA 10706). Several insects, identified as Dermestes beetles, are also visible, having become trapped in the sticky coating of the interior.

Among the inscriptions on the coffin is the hieroglyphic sign for an owl ('m'), which has been intentionally drawn without legs - such a symbolic 'disabling' of a potentially harmful creature was a common feature of Egyptian script in the Second Intermediate Period.

Length: 1932 mm.

Catalog: EA6652
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia




nubkheperra intef nubkheperra intef
Necklace and crown from the burial of Intef Nubkheperre, 1635 BC.

This Ancient Egyptian 17th dynasty inlaid diadem or crown, composed of silver with gold uraeus (serpent) ( out of focus at the back of this photo - Don ), and glass or faience inlays, is traditionally associated with the burial of the 17th dynasty Theban king Nubkheperre Intef. It is today in the collection of the Leiden Museum (or Rijksmuseum van Oudheden) in the Netherlands where its registration number is No. AO. 11a.


This rare crown, 18 cm in diameter was found in Dra' Abu el-Naga' on the West Bank of the Nile at Thebes / Luxor presumably from Intef Nubkheperre's royal tomb in the early days of Egyptology when record keeping was weak to non-existent. Nevertheless, this beautiful object was an important find from a time during the Second Intermediate Period when Egypt was divided into two between the Hyksos controlled north and the Theban dominated South.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Text: Wikipedia


nubkheperra intef serpent nubkheperra intef serpent
Uraeus (serpent), gold, associated with the crown above, and shown here attached to it.

Photo: © http://www.rmo.nl/collectie/zoeken?object=AO+11a-2
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.




scarab amulet
Seventeenth Dynasty: 1 580 BC - 1 550 BC

King Sebekemsaf II


Green jasper and gold heart-scarab of King Sebekemsaf II, (also identified as Sobekemsaf II) 17th Dynasty, about 1590 BC.

This amulet, in the form of a scarab beetle with a human face ( inverted in this photo - Don ), was intended to ensure that the deceased passed safely through the judgement which could establish whether or not he was deserving of eternal life.

It is inscribed with an early version of Chapter 30B of the Book of the Dead, the magical text intended to prevent the heart from testifying against its owner. It is carved from green jasper, set in a gold mount, and is the earliest known example of such an amulet made for a king.

The human-headed jasper scarab is inset into a cloison in a hollow sheet gold plinth with a rounded back end. The rim of the cloison itself has been inset with an undulating strip of sheet gold to give the effect of granulation.


scarab amulet
The insect's legs, splayed out on the plinth's top, are made from individual sheet gold strips with roughly incised markings representing hairs.

The crudely formed hieroglyphs incised around the plinth, and in five horizontal rows across the underside, come from Chapter 30B of the Book of the Dead: 'Spell for preventing the heart from opposing the deceased'. In the inscription the legs of the birds are missing, a common feature in earlier magical texts to prevent them attacking the dead person.

Catalog EA 7876

Photo (upper): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (lower, at left) © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




 gilded mask
Gilded plaster mummy-mask

17th or early 18th Dynasty, circa 1600 BC - 1500 BC, from Rifeh.

Mummy-masks with very small faces and feathered decorations on the headdress were characteristic of the period before the beginning of the New Kingdom.

Catalog: EA69151
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0








The Eighteenth Dynasty

1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

The eighteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XVIII) is the best known ancient Egyptian dynasty. It boasts several of Egypt's most famous pharaohs, including Tutankhamun, whose tomb was found by Howard Carter in 1922. The dynasty is also known as the Thutmosid Dynasty for the four pharaohs named Thutmosis (English: Thoth bore him).

Famous pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII include Hatshepsut (circa 1 479 BC - 1 458 BC), longest-reigning woman-pharaoh of an indigenous dynasty, and Akhenaten (circa 1 353 BC - 1 336 BC), the 'heretic pharaoh', with his queen, Nefertiti.

Dynasty XVIII is the first of the three dynasties of the Egyptian New Kingdom, the period in which ancient Egypt reached the peak of its power.




Eighteenth Dynasty
Name Horus (Throne) Name Consort Burial Years Dates Comments
Ahmose I Nebpehtire Ahmose-Nefertari
Ahmose-Henuttamehu
Ahmose-Sitkamose
  25 1 549 BC - 1 524 BC  
Amenhotep I Djeserkare Ahmose-Meritamon KV39? or Tomb ANB? 21 1 524 BC - 1 503 BC  
Thutmose I Akheperkare Ahmose
Mutnofret
KV20, KV38 10 1 503 BC - 1 493 BC  
Thutmose II Akheperenre Hatshepsut
Iset
KV42? 14 1 493 BC - 1 479 BC  
Queen Hatshepsut Maatkare Thutmose II KV20 21 1 479 BC - 1 458 BC Hatshepsut ruled jointly with Thutmose III, who had ascended to the throne the previous year as a child of about two years old. Hatshepsut was the chief wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III's father.
Thutmose III Menkheper(en)re Satiah
Merytre-Hatshepsut
Nebtu
Menhet, Menwi and Merti
KV34 54 1 479 BC - 1 425 BC  
Amenhotep II Akheperure Tiaa KV35 27 1 425 BC - 1 398 BC  
Thutmose IV Menkheperure Nefertari
Iaret
Mutemwiya
Daughter of Artatama I of Mitanni
KV43 10 1 398 BC - 1 388 BC  
Amenhotep III Nebmaatre Tiye
Gilukhipa of Mitanni
Tadukhipa of Mitanni
Sitamun
Iset
Daughter of KurigalzuI I
of Babylon
Daughter of Kadashman-Enlil of Babylon
Daughter of Tarhundaradu of Arzawa
Daughter of the ruler of Ammia
KV22 38 1 388 BC - 1 350 BC Amenhotep’s father, Tuthmosis IV, left his son an empire of immense size, wealth, and power. He was only twelve years old when he came to the throne and married Tiye in a royal ceremony. He was a master of diplomacy, who placed other nations in his debt through lavish gifts of gold so that they would be inclined to bend to his wishes, which they invariably did.
Amenhotep IV/
Akhenaten
Neferkepherure-Waenre Nefertiti
Kiya
Tadukhipa of Mitanni
Daughter of Šatiya, ruler of Enišasi
Meritaten?
Meketaten?
Ankhesenamun
Daughter of Burna-Buriash II, King
of Babylon
Royal Tomb
of Akhenaten
17 1 351 BC - 1 334 BC  
Smenkhkare Ankhkheperure Meritaten   1 1 335 BC - 1 334 BC  
Neferneferuaten Ankhkheperure Akhenaten?
Smenkhkare?
  2 1 334 BC - 1 332 BC  
Tutankhamun Nebkheperure Ankhesenamun KV62 9 1 332 BC - 1 323 BC  
Ay Kheperkheperure Ankhesenamun
Tey
KV23 4 1 323 BC - 1 319 BC  
Horemheb Djeserkheperure-Setepenre Mutnedjmet
Amenia
KV57 27 1 319 BC - 1 292 BC  


Table of Eighteenth Dynasty Rulers, data chiefly from Wikipedia, with some text from Joshua J. Mark, at http://www.ancient.eu/Amenhotep_III/




coffin of Taiuy coffin of Taiuy
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Taiuy


Wooden anthropoid coffin of Taiuy.

Painted detail on plaster including rishi-pattern and hieroglyphic text.

Early 18th Dynasty, circa 1550 - 1500 BC. Sycomore fig coffin in the Rishi style, inscribed for the lady Taiuwy. From Birabi, Thebes / Luxor, intrusive burial in tomb 41.

This coffin was prefabricated, and the owner's name was inserted into a blank space in the central inscription. The large painted wings possibly represent those of protective godesses, or may derive from the decoration of masks of the Second Intermediate period.

In this late example of the Rishi style, the striped wig and transverse bands foreshadow the design of the classic 18th Dynasty coffins.

Catalog: EA54350
Photo (left): ©Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Photo (right): Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




IMG_2244
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Bust of a king, circa 1335 BC.

P 49.06 (Sculptor's workshop) (Egypt / Middle Egypt / Amarna)

Limestone, painted, 215 mm.

This limestone bust, much discussed in the literature, decorated with red and black paint, shows a king in his youth. The status is clearly visible on the royal headbands, while the temporal assignment (age) is ensured by the style of the object. However, it is uncertain as to its identity, since Semenchkare comes into consideration alongside the possibility of it also being either Akhenaton or Tutankhamun.

Possibly a bust of King Tutankhamen.


The neck collar is marked with three black, curved lines and only lets red colouring show through in some places, suggesting that chain links were indicated. The short neck is marked near the chin by two folds, which are among the typical styles of the time. The soft, Round face and the slight nasolabial folds indicate the youthfulness of the pharaoh. The physiognomy follows the tradition of the safely assigned portraits of Akhenaten, which points to one of his successors. The comparatively small and narrow eyes are framed by a still partially preserved ink stroke. The eyes were originally painted and not intended for inlays. The thick black eyebrows frame the upper part of the face of the king. Since there is no pin at the back of the bust, it is to be assumed that this portrait should be provided with a wig or a headscarf instead of a crown that reaches the height. The house P 49.6, from which the object originates, is a sculptor's workshop.

Limestone, painted, ÄM 20496

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




   mask
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Ahmose-Turi


Lower half of a sandstone seated statue of Ahmose-Turi from Kerma, Circa 1530 BC.

Ahmose-Turi was viceroy of Kush under Pharaohs Amenhotep I and Thutmose I.

The hieroglyphic inscription on the sides of the throne invoke the gods Osiris, Horus Lord of Buhen and Dedwen (a native Nubian god), and gives the names of Ahmose' s parents.

Abyssinia, or Ethiopia, was known as Kush to the ancient Egyptians.

Catalog: EA1279
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


   Kerma
Kerma was the capital city of the Kerma Culture, which was located in present-day Sudan at least 5500 years ago. Kerma is one of the largest archaeological sites in ancient Nubia. It has produced decades of extensive excavations and research, including thousands of graves and tombs and the residential quarters of the main city surrounding the Western/Lower Deffufa.

Around 3 000 BC, a cultural tradition began around Kerma. It was a large urban centre that was built around a large adobe temple known as the Western Deffufa.

Photo: Lassi via Wikipedia
Permission: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International, 3.0 Unported, 2.5 Generic, 2.0 Generic and 1.0 Generic license
Text: Adapted from Wikipedia




sandstone stela
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Amenhotep I


Sandstone stela dated to Year 8 of Pharaoh Amenhotep I, from Qasr Ibrim, circa 1 530 BC.

The scene shows the king making offerings to the god Horus of Miam (modern-day Aniba). He is accompanied by his mother, Queen Ahmose-Nefertary, and a second royal female, possibly his wife Queen Merytamun (whose name appears to have been excised and later inaccurately restored as Ahmose-Nefertary).

Below is a hieroglyphic text boasting of the power of the pharaoh over foreign lands.

Catalog: EA1835
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Mentechenu
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Mentechenu


Mentechenu, an official from the time of Amenhotep II, was ' the Captain of the Guard at the gate of the royal palaces ', with the honorary rank of ' wrist-bearer on the right hand of the king '. As a sign of his rank he holds a small ostrich feather in his left hand. He is dressed in a long robe, which shows the right breast above the waist.

Around his neck Mentechenu wears two chains of golden rings, the so-called ' gold of bravery '. This award may indicate that he was a career officer, although the inscriptions only cite the official titles from his civilian career. It was customary, however, to appoint officers who had been discharged from the service into the state or priestly administrative apparatus. The inscriptions characterise the portrait as a temple figure.

Height 830 mm, circa 1 450 BC - 1 425 BC.

Catalog: Granodiorite, Thebes - Karnak, ÄM 19289
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Sandstone stela of Usersatet
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Usersatet from Kush


Sandstone stela of Usersatet, an Egyptian Viceroy of Kush, from Wadi Halfa, circa 1 430 BC. Abyssinia, or Ethiopia, was known as Kush to the ancient Egyptians.

Usersatet makes offerings to the god Thoth, Lord of Ta-Seti (Nubia). Below is a funerary prayer to Thoth. Usersatet served under Pharaoh Amenhotep II.

Catalog: EA623
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0






painted stela
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Thutmose III


Part of a painted limestone stela with Pharaoh Thutmose III making offerings to the god Horus, who will have been depicted on the missing left side of the stone.

From Wadi Halfa, circa 1 470 BC.

Catalog: EA1021
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


obelisk doorjamb
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Queen Hatshepsut


(left) Pink granite obelisk of Queen Hatshepsut, early 1 400s BC, from Qasr Ibrim.

On one side it is inscribed with the names of the queen described as 'beloved of Horus, Lord of Miam (modern-day Aniba), living forever like Ra'. The names were later erased as an attempt to remove her memory from history.

Catalog: EA 1834


(right) Sandstone door-jamb with the name of Pharaoh Thutmose Ill, from Buhen, about 1 470 BC.

The door-jamb bears an incised hieroglyphic text on the front, including the name of the pharaoh, who is described as 'beloved of the god Horus Lord of Buhen'.

Catalog: EA1019


Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, http://www.britishmuseum.org/




Shabtis: servants for the afterlife
The ancient Egyptian idea of the afterlife included the possibility that the dead might have to carry out agricultural labour. This could be avoided by having small mummy-shaped figurines of the deceased, known as shabti, shawabti or ushabti. These figures, made of stone, wood, faience, pottery and sometimes bronze, would magically perform work on behalf of their owner.

They were a regular feature of tomb equipment from the Middle Kingdom to the Ptolemaic period (about 2000-30 BC). Originally, the shabti acted as a substitute for its owner, but it later came to be regarded more as a servant, and its character as an agricultural labourer was highlighted by the representation of tools held in the hands. The magical spell which ensured the proper functioning of the shabtis was frequently inscribed on the figures.

The number of shabtis per burial gradually increased from one or two to 401. This total comprised 365 'worker' shabtis (one assigned for each day of the year) and 36 'overseers' to control each team of ten figures. Whereas earlier shabtis were often large and finely carved, the later increase in quantity brought a corresponding decline in size and quality.
Text above: Poster at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Limestone shabti of Nefer
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Shabti of Nefer


Limestone shabti of the priest of Amun, Nefer, with a lappet-wig, a modelled face with a beard and arms crossed in relief over the chest. The leg section is inscribed with seven rows of Hieroglyphs.

Circa 1 500 BC.

Height 250 mm, width 80 mm, depth 69 mm.

Titles/epithets include: God's Servant of Amun.

Catalog: EA51819
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0,




Shabti of Renseneb
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Shabti of Renseneb


Painted wooden shabti of Renseneb, circa 1 500 BC.

Eight rows of Hieroglyphic text. Height 242 mm.

Catalog: EA57342
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0,




img_2283wallsm


img_2284wallsm


img_2285wallsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Fragments of reliefs from the tomb of Hatshepsut: Egyptian soldiers and Nubian mercenaries, circa 1470 BC.


The tomb of Hatshepsut dates from the 18th dynasty and is the best preserved temple in Deir el-Bahari on the west bank of the Nile at Thebes.

(top, ÄM 18542) 315 x 425 x 65 mm.

The relief comes from the Temple of Queen Hatshepsut in Deir el-Bahari and shows a series of soldiers who are participating in a procession. They are armed with throwing sticks and axes, and carry olive branches. One of the soldiers holds a standard, on which decorated horses are to be seen, and which indicates the troop the men are part of.


(middle, ÄM 14507), 330 x 585 mm

(bottom, ÄM 14141) The soldiers in this panel are armed with axes and bows and arrows.

Catalog: Painted Limestone, ÄM 18542, ÄM 14507, ÄM 14141
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, F. Seyfried at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Shabti of Lady Mes
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Shabti of Lady Mes


Painted limestone, height 230 mm, circa 1 450 BC. Nine rows of Hieroglyphic text.

Catalog: EA27372
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0,




Shabti of Hatsherit

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Shabti of Hatsherit


Wooden shabti of Hatsherit, Chantress of the Aten. Probably reign of Akhenaten, circa 1 352 - 1 336 BC

( note that this identification may be inaccurate. The information here including the catalog number of EA8644 is from the shelves of the British Museum in 2015, and it is at variance with the shabti shown in the online BM catalog, pictured immediately below, which depicts a quite different shabti. It is a possibility that this is also a shabti of Hatsherit, but in any case its catalog number is not EA8644, which is well attested for the shabti shown below - Don )

Catalog number given on card: EA8644
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, Wikipedia




Shabti of Hatsherit

Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Shabti of Hatsherit


( this is the shabti from the BM online catalog, also with the catalog number of EA8644 - Don )

Ebony shabti of Hatsheret, Chantress of Aten. The number of Osiride attributes of the figures is striking, including the mummiform stance and the epithet 'true of voice', which translates as 'justified' in the traditional religion. The beautiful ebony shabti is inscribed with the conventional shabti spell from the Book of the Dead naming 'the Osiris, Hatsheret'.

Height 235 mm, width 65 mm, depth 47 mm, weight 350 grams.

Catalog: EA8644
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, Wikipedia




shabti of a Royal Nurse
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Shabti of a Royal Nurse


Calcite, height 206 mm, width 64 mm, circa 1 400 BC.

Inscribed with the 6th chapter of the Book of the Dead, in 11 horizontal bands of text.

Catalog: Abydos, EA66677
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0,




sandstone stela
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Merymose


Sandstone stela of Merymose: describing the campaign of Merymose against the Nubians of Ibhet in thirteen lines of incised hieroglyphic text. Several lines from the beginning of the inscription are missing and the whole of the upper portion is badly mutilated and weathered. The greater part of the last half of the sixth and seventh lines is destroyed and the ends of many others are damaged.

Sandstone stela (stone slab) of the Egyptian Viceroy of Kush, Merymose, from Semna, circa 1 400 BC. Abyssinia, or Ethiopia, was known as Kush to the ancient Egyptians.

A hieroglyphic text describes his campaign against the Nubians of lbha Merymose served under Pharaoh Amenhotep III.


The text describing the campaign of Merymose against the Nubians of Ibhet is in thirteen lines of incised hieroglyphic text. Several lines from the beginning of the inscription are missing and the whole of the upper portion is badly mutilated and weathered. The greater part of the last half of the sixth and seventh lines is destroyed and the ends of many others are damaged.

Catalog: EA657
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




tomb painting
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Sebekhotep


Wall painting from an Egyptian tomb showing the presentation of African products to the pharaoh during the 18th Dynasty, circa 1400 BC, from the tomb-chapel of Sebekhotep at Thebes, TT63, during the rule of Thutmose IV.


The two fragments formed part of a large scene in which Africans and people from Western Asia are shown presenting the products of their lands to the Egyptian king. The men of the south are painted brown or black, and wear large earrings and animal skin kilts. Their offerings include gold nuggets and rings, ebony logs, a monkey, a baboon, giraffe tails and a leopard skin. The last figure carries a tray of reddish objects, probably pieces of red jasper.

EA921: Part of tomb wall, made of plaster on mud. Painted representation of Nubians offering gold nuggets and rings to the king (not seen), with a cornice above.

Height: 710 mm, width 965 mm.


EA922: Part of tomb wall showing Nubians bringing tribute from the south to Pharaoh. The figure at the front carries interlocking gold rings over one arm; the man behind bears ebony logs on his shoulder and a giraffe's tail in one hand. The third figure carries a leopard skin and a basket full of chunks of red jasper; a monkey perches behind his head. All three wear earrings.

Height 740 mm, width 610 mm.

Catalog: EA921, EA922
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




map of Nubia






Map showing modern day Sudan, Egypt and Nubia.

Photo: Poster at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Poster at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Egypt timeline

Timeline from prehistoric Sudan and Nubia to Sudan and Nubia today.

Photo: Poster at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Poster at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0



Senenmut
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Sobekhotep


Scribe figure of Sobekhotep, chief of the treasury during part of the reign of Amenhotep III.

Circa 1 400 BC

Catalog: Grey granite, Dime (?) , ÄM 11635
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




O'Connor, Cline (1961) write, in part:
Sobekmose's family is also unusual for the relatively secure dating of its members' tenure in office. Sobeknakht was already steward of Amon by year 20, when he joined the staff of Amon's high priests to witness the installation of one Nebnefer a chief grain measurer in the shena of the divine offerings of Amon. Sobeknakht's on, the treasurer Sobekmose, was in office by year 30, when he contributed wine to his master's first jubilee: at that time, his own son Sobekhotep was already an adult but still served as a subordinate treasury scribe. Six years later, however, Sobekhotep had replaced his father as chief treasurer and was deep in preparations for the king's third Sed Festival.

While most officials emerge from official records with no individual marks to colour the bland recital of their achievements, a tiny personal detail my perhaps be inferred for Sobekhotep. If his nickname, Panehsy, ' The Nubian '. is taken at face value, he would have been one of those dark complexioned Saïdis who still populate the towns and villages of Upper Egypt in great numbers. At an earlier stage of his career, he led trade and mining expeditions abroad in person.


akhenaten
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

King Amenhotep III


Circa 1 360 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, West Thebes, Grave of Chaemhat ÄM 14503
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


img_2392amenhotepiiism
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

King Amenhotep III


Head of a statue of King Amenhotep III, wearing nemes and double crown, circa 1360 BC.

Catalog: Diorite, Heliopolis (?), VÄGM 1997/118
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_2425cartouchesm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

King Amenhotep III


Cartouche of King Amenhotep III, circa 1388 - 1351 BC.

Catalog: Faience, ÄM 7241
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




img_2426buttonsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Queen Tiy cartouche


Button of a chest with the cartouche of Tiy, circa 1388 - 1351 BC.

Catalog: Faience, ÄM 20567
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Amenhotep III Amenhotep III
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

King Amenhotep III


Circa 1 400 BC.

These two heads come from a pair of colossal statues set up in the king's mortuary temple in western Thebes.

On the left, EA6 wears the red crown of Egypt.

On the right, EA7, the quartzite head of Amenhotep III wearing the red crown with uraeus. Despite its huge size, this head has been carved with infinite care. As on all of Amenhotep Ill's large statues, the eyeballs are noticeably angled back from the top to the bottom lid so that they appear to look down toward the viewer. The finishing polish was deliberately varied, from a glittering smoothness on the facial surfaces to less polish on the mouth and eyes - which thus seem slightly different in colour - to quite rough surfaces on the brows and cosmetic lines.


It is a round face, with plump, youthful-looking cheeks, and little indication of the underlying bone structure. The eyes are large, long, and rather narrow, with a slight slant. Heavily made-up eyebrows and upper lids, indicated in relief, extend back to the temples. The nose is rather broad at the nostrils, with a round tip. The mouth is full, its contours defined by a crisply cut outline. The upper lip is thicker than the lower, over which it droops in the centre. The lower lip curves in a perfect shallow arc up to the open corners of the mouth, to produce the effect of a slight smile.

EA6: height 1170 mm.

EA7: height 1170 mm, width 810 mm, depth 660 mm.

Catalog: Quartzite, Thebes, EA6, EA7
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


img_2257amenhotepsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head of a King.


Head of the statue of a King, probably Amenhotep III.

Plaster model, 225 x 195 x 220 mm.

This face is distinguished from the other royal studies by its completely different physiognomy. The full face is characterised by a high degree of symmetry. Not only the full cheeks and the powerful, fleshy nose, the full mouth with the slightly raised lips, the round chin and the straight, short and wide neck, but also the characteristically shaped eyes with the barely indicated brows cause us to assume that this is a portrait of Amenhotep III.

Catalog: Amarna, plaster, ÄM 21299
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Seyfried (2012)


Amenhotep III Amenhotep III Amenhotep III



Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

King Amenhotep III


Circa 1 390 BC - 1 352 BC

Bust of King Amenhotep III. This fragment belonged to a seated pair statue of the king and his wife, Queen Tiye. Originally it stood in Amenhotep's mortuary temple in Western Thebes. The building was apparently devastated by an earthquake some 150 years later, in the reign of Mereneptah. The statue was then moved and reused in Mereneptah's own mortuary temple nearby.

Head and upper torso of monumental limestone statue of Amenhotep III wearing nemes. The nemes is the striped headcloth worn by pharaohs in ancient Egypt. It covered the whole crown and back of the head and nape of the neck (sometimes also extending a little way down the back) and had lappets, two large flaps which hung down behind the ears and in front of both shoulders.

Height: 1523 mm

Catalog: Limestone, Thebes, EA3
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia


Amenhotep III
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

King Amenhotep III


Circa 1 390 BC - 1 352 BC

The bust above has been recently identified as one of the upper parts of a pair statue of Amenhotep III and queen Tiye, the lower part of which has now been re-erected in Merenptah's mortuary temple. Merenptah reused many blocks and statues from Amenhotep III's temple.

Catalog: Limestone, Thebes, EA3
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Poster, British Museum
Text: Poster at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Amenhotep III
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

King Amenhotep III


King Amenhotep III wearing the blue crown.

The khepresh was an ancient Egyptian royal headdress. It is also known as the blue crown or war crown. New Kingdom pharaohs are often depicted wearing it in battle, but it was also frequently worn in ceremonies. It used to be called a war crown by many, but modern historians refrain from defining it thus. The khepresh was made of cloth or leather stained blue and was covered with small yellow sun discs. It was represented in hieroglyphs. As with many other royal crowns, it featured a uraeus fastened to its front.

The earliest known mention of the khepresh is on the stela Cairo JE 59635 (CG 20799) which dates to the reign of pharaoh Neferhotep III, during the Second Intermediate Period. After Amenhotep III's reign – and particularly during the 18th and 19th Dynasties – it came into fashion and was even adopted by some pharaohs as a primary crown. The crown ceased to be depicted in the Kushite Dynasty (747 BC to 656 BC).

During the New Kingdom, pharaohs were shown with this crown in military circumstances. However, some scholars think that the crown was also meant to evoke the divine power of the pharaoh, and was thus worn to religiously situate kings as manifestations of gods on earth.


Catalog: Limestone, West Thebes, Tomb of Chaemhat, ÄM 14442
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia




Temple relief
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Queen Tiye


Fragment of a relief representing Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep III.

Circa 1375 BC

Relief fragment with representation of Queen Tiye from a stele of Amenhotep III.

Painted sandstone, 375 x 360 x 75 mm.

Attached to the hood is the symbol of the Upper Egyptian crown goddess, the head of a vulture, as well as the royal serpent, the Uraus, carrying the crown of Upper Egypt. The fragment was part of the gable of a stele.


Tiye came from a ' bourgeois ' family of provincial officials. She was chief queen during the entire reign of Amenhotep III. This special significance can be seen, for example, in the pictorial representations, in which she replaced the royal mother as the most important woman at court. She occupied an almost equal position beside the king, both in public appearances and in correspondence with foreign rulers, but without denying her non-royal origin.

As noted by O'Connor, Cline (1961):

' The unprecedented thing about Tiyi. ... is not where she came from but what she became. No previous queen ever figured so prominently in her husband's lifetime. Tiyi regularly appeared besides Amenhotep III in statuary, tomb and temple reliefs, and stelae while her name is paired with his on numerous small objects, such as vessels and jewellery, not to mention the large commemorative scarabs, where her name regularly follows his in the dateline.

New elements in her portraiture, such as the addition of cows' horns and sun disks - attributes of the goddess Hathor - to her headdress, and her representation in the form of a sphinx - an image formerly reserved for the king - emphasise her role as the king's divine, as well as earthly partner. Amenhotep III built a temple to her in Sedeinga in northern Sudan, where she was worshiped as a form of Hathor ... The temple at Sedeinga was the pendant to Amenhotep III's own, larger temple at Soleb, fifteen kilometres to the south (an arrangement followed a century later by Ramses II at Abu Simbel, where there are likewise two temples, the larger southern temple dedicated to the king, and the smaller, northern temple dedicated to the queen, Nefertiry, as Hathor) '.

Catalog: Painted sandstone, mortuary temple of Amenhotep III, ÄM 23270
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, K. Finneiser at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: O'Connor, Cline (1961)




Amenhotep III and Tiye

The reign of Amenhotep III marked the beginning of a new political era with a strong focus on diplomatic relations with neighbouring peoples and an economic upturn in Egypt. Amenhotep III was unconventional in the choice of his 'Great Royal Wife', Tiye, who was in fact a commoner by birth.

The royal couple had two sons. The first-born, Thutmosis, died young, leaving the second-born to succeed his father to the throne as Amenhotep IV / Echnaton. Tiye supported her son who raised her status from that of a queen mother to that of a goddess by reworking her famous head statue.

img_2396tiyesm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Queen Tiye


Head of a statuette of queen Tiy with double feather crown, 225 mm high.

Circa 1355 BC

Tiy was the spouse of King Amenhotep III and mother of Akhenaten. This small portrait was probably produced in the last years of rule of her husband because the queen is shown at an advanced age. The artist produced a realistic face which captures the personality of Tiy: Intelligent, determined and assertive, all qualities which are also evident through historic-literary sources.

After the death of Amenhotep III and still in the lifetime of Tiy the head was reworked, the originally head scarf of silver with the gold uraeus was covered with several layers of linen which were decorated with small faience beads. A crown consisting of a sundisc, cow horns and a pair of feathers was added separately.

This type of crown is usually worn by goddesses or deified queens. By adding this crown to the statue Akhenaton raised his mother, already in her lifetime, into the realm of a goddess. The crown was rediscovered in our collection after having been separated from the head for many years .

Catalog: Yew wood, silver, gold and faience inlays, Medinet el Gurob, ÄM 21834, ÄM 17852
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, K. Finneiser at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.egyptian-museum-berlin.com/c52.php






img_2394astronomertaitaism
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Taitai


Standing-striding figure of the priest and astronomer Taitai, or Tchaichi.

Circa 1323 BC -1319 BC

Tchaichi is wearing a short robe, as well as the priestly leopard fur, whose head rests on the front of the belt. Below is a pocket for an instrument, which identifies the wearer as an astronomer.

275 x 80 mm.

Catalog: Greywacke, Limestone, ÄM 17021
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.jenseits-des-horizonts.de/downloads/pressebilder/




img_2398scribesm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head of a scribe, figure of an unknown man.


Circa 1360 BC

Catalog: Quartzite, ÄM 23150
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Sekhmet
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Sekhmet


Black granodiorite statue of the lion-headed goddess of healing, circa 1 370 BC. Probably from the French excavations in the temple of Mut at Karnak near Thebes or from the excavations of the British proconsul Henry Salt.

The following description is dependent on the identification of this statue as EA88, the card does not specify the Catalog number, and unfortunately there is no photograph of EA88 in the Catalog.

The description of EA88 in the Catalog tallies well with this statue, as does the findspot. The description is as follows:

Granodiorite seated statue of Sekhmet.

The sides of the throne are decorated with the motif of binding the plants of the Two Lands and the throne is also inscribed on the front edges with the names of Amenhotep 3. The left hand holds an ankh-sign; the right is much restored. The front of the plinth and the feet is all restoration, as is each side of the solar disk headdress. There is a join with some restoration at the base of the collar. Pink crystals are evident in the grey granite of the face.


Height 210 cm, width 55 cm, depth 104 cm.

Findspot: Karnak (Thebes), Temple of Mut)

Catalog: probably EA88
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, http://www.britishmuseum.org/




Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Amenhotep-Huy


Canopic chest of Amenhotep-Huy. It is made of a single piece of quartzite, and is thus an extremely expensive object. It came to Leiden in 1829 as part of the large collection of Giovanni d'Anastasy.

Amenhotep-Hoey was chief steward of Memphis, at the time of pharaoh Armenhotep III.

The box has the shape of a chapel. The canopenkist stands on a sledge foot frame, a shape inspired by the usual mode of transport during the funeral procession. On the sides are the four sons of Horus and the goddesses Isis, Nephthys, Neith and Selkis. The four vases (originally at least) contained the embalmed corpse entrails, but in any case they are not the original vases, which were probably broken and destroyed by grave robbers.


Under King Amenhotep III  (1 388 - 1 350 BC) he was, after the vizier or viceroy, the most important official in the capital of Memphis. His main task was that of manager of the royal estates. He was also active as a builder. In that capacity Amenhotep-Hoey supervised the construction of a new temple to the Memphite city god Ptah and the placement therein of a large image of his royal master. Additionally Amenhotep-Hoey was involved in the administration of the treasure house and granary.

Material quartzite and alabaster, location Saqqara, circa 1 370 BC.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Additional text: http://www.rmo.nl/onderwijs/museumkennis/verhalen/canopenkist-van-amenhotep-en-canopen-van-ipy


 ebony mask  ebony mask
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Ebony Face


Face from an anthropoid coffin

18th Dynasty, circa 1400 BC - 1300 BC. Provenance unknown. Length 228 mm.

The face is carved from East African ebony ( Dalbergia melanoxylon ), one of the most highly prized products of the lands to the south of Egypt. The use of such an expensive wood for this coffin-face suggests that the owner was a person of high status. The eyes and brows were originally inlaid.


Catalog: EA6885
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Meryptah


Tomb stela of Meryptah, Late 18th dynasty, circa 1 360 BC, from Memphis.

This is only the upper half of the stele, the rest is located in London, see below. Meryptah is pictured second from left. Like his brother Ptahmes beside him he carries the zijlok, the side lock of hair, and chest insignia of the high priests of Ptah. The brothers may be flanked by their proud parents. Djehoetymes' father wears the high-necked robe neckband of a vizier or viceroy. On the far right is another priest of Ptah.


Meryptah was the Chief Steward of the mansion (Temple) of Amenhotep III and brother of the High-priest of Ptah in Memphis Ptahmose, Martin (1991). A stela mentioning Meryptah and relatives is spread over two museums. The top part is on display in Leiden, as shown here, while the bottom part is in the Petrie museum. Depicted are the parents Thutmose (Vizier) and his wife Tawy, with the two brothers Meryptah amd Ptahmose between them. To the right is an additional priest.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Additional text: http://mathstat.slu.edu/~bart/egyptianhtml/tombs/Saqqara-Tombs-NK.html


Meryptah
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Meryptah


Tomb stela of Meryptah, Late 18th dynasty, circa 1360 BC, from Memphis.

This is the lower half of the limestone stela of Meryptah, Chief Steward of the mansion (Temple) of Amenhotep III and High Priest of Memphis, Ptahmose, located in London at the Petrie Museum.

Rectangular frame and cavetto cornice.

Photo and text: Original, http://mathstat.slu.edu/~bart/egyptianhtml/tombs/Saqqara-Tombs-NK.html




Palace Floor
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Palace Floor


Fragment of a Palace Floor.

Circa 1 350 BC

Catalog: Painted plaster, Amarna, South Palace, ÄM 15335
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


Bust of Queen Nefertiti
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Nefertiti


Bust of Queen Nefertiti

Nefertiti was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. Nefertiti and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshiped one god only, Aten, or the sun disc. Together Akhenaten and Nefertiti were responsible for the creation of a whole new monotheistic religion which changed the ways of religion within Egypt.

With her husband, she reigned at what was arguably the wealthiest period of Ancient Egyptian history. Some scholars believe that Nefertiti ruled briefly as Neferneferuaten after her husband's death and before the accession of Tutankhamun, although this identification is a matter of ongoing debate.

She was made famous by her bust, now in Berlin's Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum. The bust is one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. It was attributed to the sculptor Thutmose, and it was found in his workshop. The bust is notable for exemplifying the understanding Ancient Egyptians had regarding realistic facial proportions.

Circa 1 355 BC, dimensions 490 x 245 x 350 mm.


Catalog: Painted limestone, stucco, wax, rock crystal, ÄM 21300
Photo: Philip Pikart
Permission: GNU Free Documentation License
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia


img_2272nefertitism img_2246nefertitism
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head of a statue of Queen Nefertiti

18th Dynasty circa 1345 BC

Dimensions: 240 x 160 x 163 mm.

Granodiorite, grey, painted.

This head is also identified with a royal lady due to the slightly accentuated frontal ligament and the pin serving as crown attachment. But this head did not function as part of a composite statue, but rather the broken lower side of the neck, as well as the rest of a backpost, reveal that this piece originally belonged to a large, life-sized statue carved from a block.

On the long cone on the head was presumably a head-covering, which extended far backward, and the recesses at the level of the temples also indicate a blue hood, which was typical of Nefertiti, was placed on the head. Dorothea Arnold therefore defines this type as a 'partial composite statue'.


Lips and the part of the statue above the head are painted red, slight traces of black painting are still preserved in the eye and brows, which served as a preparation for further elaboration. The nasal tip is broken, and the ears also do not seem to be finished. Compared to Nefertiti's other pictures, the eyes are narrower and the mouth wider, the cheeks are set below the temples. These traits indicate a late work of the Amarna period.

Catalog: Amarna, ÄM 21358
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wikipedia


img_2260headsm img_2260headsm img_2260headsm


img_2260headsm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Unfinished head of a statue of Queen Nefertiti.

Limestone, painted, 300 x 180 x 210 mm.

This unfinished statuary head with corrections by the sculptor is described as a portrait of Nefertiti due to numerous design criteria, but especially because of the typical crown approach. Since Borchardt's interpretation of the colored bust as a sculpture model, both heads have been related to each other and the completed work has been regarded as the model for this.

Even if the first sight of the unfinished queen is at first astonishing for many viewers, and is almost repulsive and confusing to many a visitor, the approach and mode of operation of the ancient Egyptian artisans unfolds in an exemplary fashion in this piece.

The already very advanced blank had already in the face and the neck a very good smoothing of the surface, while the coarser chisel marks on the ears and on the crown neck were still left raw. The eyes and the eyebrow bead had already been set so precisely that they were enclosed and painted with accurate lines as a safe reference point for further work. The nose and mouth as well as the tendons on the neck seem to be quite close to being complete, but obviously some corrections have to be made. In order to mark the places to be remodelled, the sculptor drew the questionable parts in the face with skilful, sweeping brush strokes.

These included the missing, slight furrow in the middle of the forehead; The folds of the eyes at the inner corner of the eye; The elaboration of the left ventricle, a straightening of the nasal bridge, the missing nasolabial folds, a correction of the lips that are too full, as well as a more delicate modelling of the slightly recessed cheeks - especially on the left side of the face - and the missing neck folds.


On the chin and around the mouth as well as on the upper lip one can already recognise the next processing step by means of fine, small chisel marks. How many such corrections this statuary head had already passed through can not be estimated, but the unfinished head shows in comparison to the completed bust and to the gypsum model head of the queen (ÄM 21349) that reliable model templates in the workshop were indispensable to the set goal of a perfect, though idealised, image of the queen.

Catalog: Circa 1340 BC, Amarna, Painted Limestone, ÄM 21352
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, K. Finneiser at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Seyfried (2012)


img_2248nefertitism
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head of a statue of Queen Nefertiti or Queen Merit-Aten.

Circa 1340 - 1335 BC.

Painted quartzite, 290 x 149 x 165 mm.

The top projection of this head served for the attachment of a royal head covering, which is attributed to a queen. Frequently this piece is identified with Nefertiti, who appears here with the soft features of her young years. As a part of a composite statue, the head is included in the series of three further images of Nefertiti (ÄM 21300, ÄM 21358, ÄM 21263), which were found in the workshop of Thutmosis.

Dorothea Arnold assigns the production of these heads to different sculptors, but asserts that this head was still in its processing phase. In further steps, polishing and presumably painting of the head were to be completed, as indicated by the perfectly curved lips, which had a touch of red. The slightly sharp cheek muscles, the dimples around the corners of the mouth, and the wider nose give the somewhat rounded head very natural, but idealising features. The youthful freshness of the piece makes some researchers assign this image oto Merit-Aton, daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti.

This 'splendid piece', described by Borchardt, was found in Room 19, just before the passage, which led to the 'large courtyard' of P 47.2 / 3 and was later walled. Many of the plaster models found appeared in the immediate vicinity.


Catalog: Amarna, Painted Quartzite, ÄM 21220
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, K. Finneiser at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Mettlen (2012)




nefertiti
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Nefertiti


Standing-striding figure of Nefertiti.

Dimensions 405 x 80 x 170 mm, circa 1 355 BC

This statue of the Nefertiti, broken into several fragments, was found in the same room in which the brightly painted bust of the queen came to light. According to the records of Borchardt, the base was first recovered with its feet, which then later led the other fragments. All fragments were in close proximity to the site of the great Akhenaten bust (ÄM 21360).

A deliberate destruction of the sculpture, as in the case of the royal bust, can not be proved, since the delicately modelled face is not damaged. On the other hand, the damaged nipples give the impression of a conscious intervention. Except for the missing right forearm and the damaged areas in the left shoulder area, the statuette was completely reassembled with some additions to the calves.

The figure impresses in every detail by its incredible naturalness. According to the later Amarna style, Nefertiti is reproduced as a mature woman with clear wrinkles around the eyes and prominent incisions around the corners of the mouth. Only the eye and mouth received a colour accent. As a headdress, Nefertiti carries the typical, wide-waisted dome, which is typical of her - besides the helmet crown - into which a separately worked Uraeus snake was fixed as a royal protection symbol, as can be seen by the hole over the forehead and hood band.

The Queen also has two disc-shaped earrings. The shoulders and upper body are slightly flexed and the upper body with the slightly hanging breasts, due to the slightly forward-headed head, which is further underlined by the round, wide-reaching pelvic and abdomen and the full thighs. Also typical of the sculptures during the Amarna period are the extremely flexed knees, the wearing of sandals - even in royal personalities - and the slightly outward-facing foot position.


Had the garment not been shown at the right shoulder, as well as the fine black line of the neck-collar over the breasts, one could guess the body to be naked. This misleading impression is further emphasised by the accentuated abdomen and the abdominal folds over the pubis. It is, however, one of the perpetual, ancient Egyptian representational conventions to emphasise the femininity of a person in her perfect physicality as opposed to clothing, which in this example has succeeded to the utmost in this image of the older queen and mother.

Catalog: Painted limestone, Amarna, ÄM 21263
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, F. Seyfried at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


nefertiti and akenate
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and their three daughters


Dimensions 335 x 395 x 35 mm, circa 1 355 BC

This plaque in bas-relief is the altar of a shrine. It shows the royal couple in an intimate scene with their children, and above them is represented the god Aton as a sun-disc with a multitude of radiation arms directed towards the earth and ' signs of life '. The depiction shows an intimate, tender family scene of the ruling couple together with their princess children.

( note the distortion of the face that was fashionable during the reign of Akhenaten, particularly in bas-relief sculptures, with an elongated chin the most obvious effect - Don )

Catalog: Limestone, Amarna, ÄM 14145
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


akhenaten
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


Bust of Akhenaten. Limestone (painted and gilded) with reversible modern additions. This impressive bust was originally intended to be placed in a sanctuary for the adoration of the king. It was found earlier than the queen's bust, and was already cut into several pieces in antiquity.

The voids between these fragments have now been partially filled in order to stabilise the bust and to approximate the state in which it was found by Borchardt on 6th December 1912. The reconstruction of the lost mouth is temporary. It has only been added for the period of this special exhibition.

Dimensions 570 x 450 x 350 mm, circa 1 351 BC - 1 334 BC.

Catalog: Haus P 47.2, Raum 19, Grabung/Excavation DOG, 6.12.1912 ÄM 21360
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


Akhenaten
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


The relief shows the head of Pharaoh Akhenaten, which is turned to the right, in the style of the early years of the so-called ' Amarna period '. To this new, expressive, almost caricature-like mode of representation belong the overly long, convexly curved neck, the full lips and the lengthened chin, as well as the narrow eye. The earlobe is pierced by a hole. Neck and nasolabial folds are marked with scored lines. The shape of the king's crown cannot be determined.

Dimensions: 155 x 115 x 32 mm, circa 1 345 BC.

Catalog: Limestone, Amarna, ÄM 14512
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, F. Seyfried at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


Akhenaten
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


Relief portrait of King Akhenaten, circa 1 340 BC.

This is described as a sculptor's model in Ertman (2013)

Catalog: Limestone, Amarna, ÄM 21683
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


img_2250akhenatensm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Portrait bust of Akhenaten


Circa 1345 BC, 260 x 150 x 200 mm.

Akhenaten is the Pharaoh in Thomas Mann's Joseph trilogy:

'He looked like an aristocratic young Englishman of somewhat decadent stock', wrote Mann, 'spare, haughty, weary, with a well-developed chin which yet somehow looked weak, a nose with a narrow, rather depressed bridge which made even more striking the broad, sensitive nostrils; and deeply, dreamily overshadowed eyes with lids he could never open quite wide. Their weary expression was in disconcerting contrast to the unrouged, morbid brilliancy of the full lips . . .'

The lower end of the headband on this sculpture was subsequently marked by a thin coloured line. The eyebrows and the edges of the eyes are also painted black. Fine lines mark the upper eyelid furrows, the nasolabial folds, the nose wings and nostrils, thus providing a lively, overall visual impression.

At the temples, the recesses for the crown neck are visible, the structure of the blue crown being visible on the left side. In the nape of the gypsum model, a perpendicular crown was formed. The cast was presumably made from two moulds, as one can still see remnants of a retouched centre seam on the forehead and the overlying band. A statuary head apparently served as a model for this sumptuous sculpture, from which the sculptor made a true-to-scale copy. Presumably, this portrait head is a ready-made model and view piece in a workshop.


Catalog: Painted plaster, Amarna, ÄM 21351
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Jung (2012b)


akhenaten
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Akhenaten


Three cartouches bearing the name of King Akhenaten and the god Aten.

Length 210 mm, circa 1340 BC.

These bronze cartouches of King Akhenaten and his god Aton were excavated by Borchardt on January 6, 1913, in the so-called ' obscure house Q 47.10 '. The excavator presumed an original placement in the palace or a temple of Achet-Atons. In his opinion, the place of discovery suggests that the objects were ' carried away for the precious metal ' in order to reuse them. Due to the thickness of the material, it can be assumed that the cartouches were originally set into stone or wood. Their size is an indication that it must have been a door frame or the like. A break runs through all three cartridges, which suggests that they may have been forcibly removed from their original position.


The smallest cartouche on the left shows the name of the Akhenaten in the following form: ' The only one of the Re who is beautiful in appearance of the Re '. The two others are assigned to the god Aton. There he bears the name ' Long live the Aton, ruler of the two horizons who rejoice in the light country ' with the addition ' in his name as Re, the father who has come out as Aton '. This is the later version of the god's name, which previously contained names of other gods, which finally had to give way in favour of the sole naming of the Aton.

Catalog: Bronze, Amarna, Haus O 47.10 ÄM 22082/1-3
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Weber (2012)


img_2253sm img_2253headsm img_2253sm


img_2252headcloseup
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Head of a princess.


Head of a statue of a princess, probably a daughter of Akhenaten, without inlays. 210 mm.

Circa 1345 BC

The Princess's head was discovered in the 'large courtyard' of P 47.2 / 3, just a few metres north of the Wall of P 47.1. In its immediate vicinity a royal statuary head (Acts 21222) had been found earlier. According to Borchardt's diary entries, it lay 'face up, embedded in hair'.

The polished portrait is very similar in form and material to the head ÄM 21364, which was found in 1911 near the sculptor's workshop. In contrast to the latter, the surface of the back part of the sculpture is polished to a smoother finish. The facial features of the princess are based on the representation of her father Akhenaten: a long face, a pronounced chin and a curved neck. The head was intended for a composite statue, having a pin below the neck. Paint residues in the creases as well as the recesses of the eyes and eyebrows suggest that this statuary element had already been painted and provided with inlays of faience, glass or precious stones, but these were removed when taken from the workshops of Achet-Aten.


Catalog: Amarna, Quartzite, ÄM 21223
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Wegner (2012)


   mask    mask
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Mummy-mask


Painted wooden mummy-mask of an unidentified woman.

Late 18th Dynasty, circa 1 350 BC - 1 295 BC, from Thebes / Luxor.

The mask is made from the wood of the Sycomore fig. The outer rows of the collar are composed of lotus petals and fruits or berries. Perforations in the ear-lobes for the suspension of ear-rings have been carefully represented.

Height 410 mm, width 330 mm, diameter 215 mm.

Catalog: EA22912
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




stela of Ipoe
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Stela of Ipoe


Tomb stela of Ipoe (Ipu), cupbearer to the king, 18th Dynasty.

Circa 1 333 BC - 1 323 BC, during the reign of Tutankhamun

Dimensions 129 x 85 x 21 cm, circa 450 kg.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Catalog: AP 9
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.




Egypt


Egypt

Temple Wall panels from the private tomb of the Great Commander of the Army, Horemheb, showing him receiving 'gold of honour' collars.


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Horemheb


Horemheb was the military force behind the throne in the aftermath of the Amarna Period. He was general in the army during the reigns of Tutanchamon and Aye, after this he himself became pharaoh and abandoned this tomb for a tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden
Text: adapted from http://ancientpeoples.tumblr.com/post/50495250530/saqqara-saqqara-is-the-most-important-cemetery






Horemheb

Close up of part of the panel above.

Dimensions: 860 x 1090 x 195 mm
Photo and text: Google Arts and Culture


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Horemheb


Horemheb was the supreme commander of Tutankhamun’s armies. Four years after the latter’s death, he himself ascended to the throne as pharaoh. A magnificent tomb at Saqqara dates from his period as general. The National Museum of Antiquities owns two series of wall reliefs from the second courtyard of the grave complex. Here, Horemheb is being presented with gold gorgets in gratitude for his victories on the battlefield. On the left, Egyptian soldiers are bringing in some Asian captives. 1 333 BC - 1 319 BC. Size 860 x 1090 x 195 mm

Photo: Google Arts and Culture, https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/horemheb-grave-relief/-gHrFrcniOR5Ow
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden
Text: Google Arts and Culture, https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/horemheb-grave-relief/-gHrFrcniOR5Ow


Maya and Horemheb

At the time of the young pharaoh Tutankhamun the true power was in the hands of two experienced officers. Treasurer Maya looked after domestic administration, and General Horemheb regulated foreign policy.

Both top officials built tombs in the desert at Saqqara. These graves were found around 1825 by art collectors. Through the art market the reliefs of Horemheb and the tomb statues of Maya and his wife Meryt were taken to Leiden.

Since 1975 the National Museum of Antiquities conducted excavations in the necropolis of Saqqara. Both the tomb of Maya as well as that of Horemhab have now been recovered. Thus we now know much more about these treasures.

Text above from a display at the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.



Maya Maya
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Maya


Maya was an important figure during the reign of the Pharaohs Tutankhamun, Ay and Horemheb of the eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt. Maya's titles included: fan bearer on the King's right hand, overseer of the treasury, chief of the works in the necropolis, and leader of the festival of Amun in Karnak.

From: Sakkara circa 1 325 - 1 310 BC 18th Dynasty.
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden
Additional text: Wikipedia




Egypt Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Meryt


Meryt, shown here, was the wife of Maya. Like many significant women she carries the title 'singer of Amun'. In her hands she holds a menat: a necklace of many strings of beads with the counterweight, a figure of the goddess Hathor, normally worn on the back, shown here in her hands. This might be used also as a rattle in the supervision of temple hymns.

From: Sakkara circa 1 325 - 1 310 BC 18th Dynasty.
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden
Additional text: Wikipedia




Egypt Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Maya and Meryt


This Tomb statue shows Maya and Meryt side by side. Meryt (on the left) embraces her husband. These images are among the best created by Egyptian artists. The three sculptures shown here are all from Maya's tomb, where they stood on pedestals beneath the galleries around the inner court.

From: Sakkara ca 1325 - 1310 BC 18th Dynasty.
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden
Additional text: Wikipedia




Maya
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Maya


Maya was a high official of the provincial administration. He was appointed governor and chief of the priests by King Thutmose III whose name is on the chest and right upper arm, in the 10th Egyptian Region. There, in the necropolis of the capital, his grave was also found, from which this figure may originate.

Maya sits upright on a simple stool. The text lists the names and titles of Maya, as well as the sacrificial formulas addressed to the local gods. He is dressed in a short robe, which was originally worn only by kings, but later also by private people. In his clenched right hand he holds a so-called 'sweat cloth', while the left lies flat on the apron.

The round, expressive face is, like the whole figure, very formally constructed. A wig, corresponding to the fashion of the time, has been carefully placed over his head. The two gold chains around his neck, as well as the massive upper and lower gold arm bands, are awards which the king had given him for previous military successes.

Dimensions: 740 x 215 x 400 mm.

Catalog: Limestone, Achmim (?), ÄM 19286
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Mentechenu
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Amenhotep-user and Tentwadj


Seated figure of Amenhotep-user and his wife Tentwadj.

Doorkeeper of the granary, and wife, with the outline of their son and daughter carved into the front of seat, and text mentioning Am un-Re of Karnak, Mut and Hathor, quartzite.

Circa 1 425 BC

Catalog: Quartzite, Thebes, ÄM 2298
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3pm8sta3.pdf




Senenmut
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Senenmut and Princess Neferure


Block Statue of the steward Senenmut with Neferure / Nefrurê.

This cuboid statue represents a man seated with his arms encircling his drawn up knees. His cloth garment is stretched tight against the lines of his arms and legs. He is balanced on a thick base, now partly broken. The head of a child, whose body is hidden within the taut folds of his clothing, emerges from his embrace. The flat panel formed by the fabric between his legs is covered with finely incised hieroglyphs.

The text reveals the identity of the man, Senenmut, who served as the highest official in Egypt during the reign of Queen Hatshepsut. The child on his lap is the princess Neferure, shown with a sidelock hairstyle (characteristic of children in ancient Egypt) and a uraeus on her forehead (marking her royal status). This is one of eight statues of Senenmut that pair him with the princess Neferure, daughter of Hatshepsut. Despite the fact that he must have been at least middle-aged, Senenmut is depicted here as a youthful man, with a smooth, idealised face.


Senenmut
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Senenmut and Princess Neferure


More than 20 statues depicting Senenmut, the most favoured and influential person during the reign of Queen Hatshepsut, were found in the Karnak cache. Eight of them portray Senenmut with Princess Neferure, the daughter of Queen Hatshepsut.

This statue shows the nobleman with the features of a young man: full cheeks in a smooth round face, wide-open eyes with long lashes executed in relief, large ears, and a small, straight, full mouth. As Senenmut was her tutor, the princess' head emerges from his mantle. An indication of her position as heiress to the throne, the child wears her hair in the pleated tress characteristic of royal children, ornamented with the uraeus. Her name, inscribed within a cartouche next to her head, is preceded by the title ' god's wife ', most probably Amun-Re. This honorary and religious title began to be born by unmarried princesses from now on and was wide spread in the Late Period.

The sides of the statue were ideal for a long text, listing Senenmut's numerous titles and functions in connection with the palace and with the cult of Amun.


Circa 1 475 BC, height 130cm. Found during excavations of the ' cachette ' in the court of the 7th pylon.

By the New Kingdom, most cuboid statues (also called ' block statues ') were set up in temples. They were inscribed with texts that offered prayers for the person depicted, providing their owner with a permanent presence within the temple’s sacred halls, courts, or chapels.

Catalog: Grey granite, Thebes/Karnak, ÄM 2296
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: © C. Zarnoch, E. Sullivan, http://dlib.etc.ucla.edu/projects/Karnak/resource/ObjectCatalog/1841
Additional text: http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/record.aspx?id=14859




img_2310sm
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

False door of Senenmut


False door of Senenmut, steward of Queen Hatshepsut.

Circa 1480 - 1460 BC.

Catalog: Thebes-west, Sandstone, ÄM 2066
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Amenophis III
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Figure with a flagellum


Figure of a military person holding the handle of a flagellum.

Amenhotep III / Amenophis III (?)

A flagellum was a flail or rattle to drive away evil spirits. It could only be used by a pharaoh and was a symbol of royal power.

Catalog: Wood, ÄM 14134
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.touregypt.net/flagellum.htm




coffin of Katebet
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Mummy of Katebet, circa 1 300 BC.


The mummy of the woman Katebet was discovered in the 1820s in a tomb at Thebes, together with the mummy of a man named Qenna, possibly her husband.


Catalog: Thebes, EA6665
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




mummy of Katebet
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Katebet


Mummy of Katebet, circa 1 300 BC.

Her fine gilded cartonnage mask represents Katebet wearing wearing an elaborate wig with calcite ear-studs, a broad collar, bracelets and real finger-rings. Analysis of the surface decoration of the trappings has revealed almost pure gold leaf on the mask. The white metal of the pectorals is not silver, but pure tin. The shabti is of low-fired ceramic or clay, with applied gesso and gold leaf on the head, and copper foil on the torso. At the time of the discovery, the coffin also contained plaits of hair wrapped in linen, a pair of sandals and floral garlands, the last two items now lost.

Catalog: Thebes, EA6665
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




mummy of Katebet
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Katebet


Mummy of Katebet, circa 1 300 BC.

The mummy of the woman Katebet was discovered in the 1820s in a tomb at Thebes (Luxor), together with the mummy of a man named Qenna, possibly her husband. Like Katebet's wooden coffin, the two pectorals and shabti figure placed on her mummy appear to have been designed for a man and adapted for her burial.


Catalog: Thebes, EA6665
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




amenemhat
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Amenemhat


Statue of Amenemhat holding a stela (stelophore), height 345 mm.

Circa 1 500 BC.

( note that the same names keep coming up in the records of Ancient Egypt. There were a number of men called Amenemhat, and it is unclear which one this is - Don )

Catalog: Painted limestone, ÄM 2316
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


Sa-Iset
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Sa-Iset


Stelophore of Sa-Iset

Dimensions: 300 x 145 x 175 mm.

Sa-Iset kneels on the ground. He raises his arms in prayer and touches with his palms the stele standing in front of him. The figure portrayed carries a long apron extending from the hips to the ankles. The head is covered by a hairy wig, which, however, leaves the ears free. A short beard adorns the chin. It is, like the wig, painted black. A reddish-brown hue was used for the skin colour.

The stele is adorned with the symbols for duration (the ring in the middle) and for protection (the two Udjat eyes). This is followed by the text: ' Adoration of the Re in the morning, when he walks on the horizon of heaven, through the goldsmith of Amun, Si-Ese, saying, Rejoice, Re, when you arise, hidden, God-power. Rise. Enlighten the two countries. You are crossing the sky, joyfully, with a great heart in the Mandjet barge, truly complete. '

Catalog: Painted limestone, Thebes-West, ÄM 2314
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)


Samut
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Samut


Samut ' son of Mut ', nicknamed Kyky, was a scribe and ' inspector of cattle in the stalls of Amun '. He lived during the reign of Ramesses II. His wife was named Rayay. Excavated in 1959, Samut's tomb has a few interesting scenes, but evidence of the hastiness of execution increases as one moves inside. Relief was virtually not attempted, despite the excellent quality of the stone. Although the colours have suffered considerably from the salinity of the stone, they are still easy to appreciate.

Samut's tomb, N° 409, is situated in West Thebes, in the Assassif, close to the temple of Deir el-Bahari. It was dug and decorated for Samut / Kyky, a civil servant of the time of Ramesses II, of whom we are otherwise ignorant and in particular we do not know how this character, of intermediate rank in aristocracy, succeeded in getting the distinguished honour (and the means by which) to have his burial here. Salt had invaded the south-west corner of the tomb, causing damage to the paintings and the stone itself.

Catalog: Painted limestone, ÄM 2312
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: Hodel-Hoenes (2006)
Additional text: http://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/nobles/kyky/e_kyky_01.htm


Sennefer
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Sennefer


Block statue of the priest Sennefer.

Circa 1 360 BC.

Sennefer took up his role as Mayor of the Southern City (Thebes) during the reign of Amenhotep II. His cousin, Amenemopet, was Vizier of Upper Egypt, which included Thebes. They both probably owed their position to Ahmose Humay, who actually managed to become overseer of the royal harem and tutor of princes, whilst Nub, his wife, was a lady of the court. These two cousins may have grown up together with the prince, who eventually became king Amenhotep II.

Sennefer's most important title was that of ' Mayor of the Southern City ', which during this period additionally included other cities, their ports and their surrounding lands. Even with this title, his position was subordinate to that of his cousin, who was the vizier and to whom he was responsible for the collection of the taxes of grain and other goods. He also held a great many other titles, found as usual embedded in the inscriptions which accompany the scenes of the walls, ceilings and pillars of both the upper and lower chambers. The list is quite extensive, some being more honorary than practical in nature; but such a long list was not unusual for high officials.


In his autobiography, found on the ceiling of the longitudinal corridor of the upper chambers, he describes himself in the following manner: ' The well-beloved courtier, great of the great ones, the noble dignitary among the courtiers and (of) the Lord of Upper and Lower Egypt, he says: ' I reached the state of venerable old age under the king, in that I was the confidant of the Lord of the Two Lands. The king knew of my excellence and he knew that I did useful things in the service in which he had placed me. He investigated everywhere, but could find nothing bad of me. I was praised because of this and my every need was catered for. He appointed me as chief administrator and Mayor of the Southern City, as overseer of the granary of Amun, overseer of the fields of Amun, as overseer of the gardens of Amun, high priest of Amun in the temple Men-isut (the mortuary temple of Ahmose-Nefertari) ', Mayor Sennefer, justified by the great god '.

Catalog: Granodiorite, ÄM 21595
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/nobles/sennefer/e_sennefer_01.htm


amenemopet
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Amenemopet


Block statue of Amenemopet.

Circa 1 340 BC.

Block statue of Amenemopet Jmn-m-jpt, Overseer of necropolis-workers in Memphis, with text which mentions the Aten, Hathor, (Ptah-Sokari-) Osiris lord of Shetyt, etc., temp. Amenophis IV (early), in Berlin, Ägyptisches Museum, 31199 (formerly 4/65). (Probably from Memphis.)

Catalog: Limestone, ÄM 31199
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf


Temple relief


Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Temple relief


Falcon-headed sun god Aten and King Amenhotep IV

Circa 1353 BC

Akhenaten was known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV, and Amenophis is the Greek form of the name Amenhotep.

Dimensions: 720 x 1510 x 270 mm

This relief block from Karnak probably dates from the first two years of Amenhotep, and is one of the few examples that show the Pharaoh in the traditional manner in Thebes. The relief is divided into two picture panels separated by a vertical inscription line. On the left is a falcon-headed sun god, and on the right Amenophis IV with the blue crown. The iconography in the representation corresponds to the style of Amenophis III.

The face of Amenophis IV / Akhenaten is very similar to that of his father. The inscriptions, on the other hand, tend already towards the new religious ideas, and the sun-disc above the head of Amenophis IV with the signs of life at the lower edge are the forerunners of a motif which is one of the best known in the Amarna period: The god Aton represented by a sun-disc, the rays of which flow into hands and hold signs of life.

Catalog: Painted sandstone, Karnak, ÄM 2072
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text, included on http://www.smb-digital.de/ : Jung (2012a)


Thebes / Luxor / Luxor Poster
Eighteenth Dynasty or later: 1 550 BC - 1 069 BC

Theban Necropolis


The Theban necropolis in the New Kingdom, which lasted circa 1550 BC - 1069 BC.

Thebes (modern Luxor), a provincial centre in the Old Kingdom, produced families of rulers who reunified Egypt after the political decentralisation of the First and Second Intermediate Periods.


The city was a major royal residence on several occasions, and was the principal cult centre of Amun, the supreme deity of the Egyptian state. The cemeteries of Thebes / Luxor were used extensively from the 4th Dynasty to the Roman Period. They included the tombs of the kings of the 11th and 17th to 20th Dynasties, and those of administrators, craftsmen and priests of all periods.

Most of the private burials were in rock-cut sepulchres, those of the New Kingdom being renowned for the carved and painted wall-decoration of their funerary chapels. Although the majority of these tombs were robbed in antiquity, a substantial number of mummies, coffins and associated burial goods have been recovered from them since the early 19th century.

Photo: Steve F-E-Cameron
Permission: Multi-license with GFDL and Creative Commons CC-BY 3.0
Text: Poster, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Panehsy


Canopic jars of Panehsy, 18th Dynasty, ca 1300 BC.

Material: limestone, 21 cm.


When someone someone was mummified lungs, liver, stomach and intestines were removed from the abdominal cavity. The bodies were mummified independently , and the organs placed separately in stoppered pots. These pots had lids that represent the four sons of Horus. They look after the mummified organs.

The liver went into a pot with a lid in the form of an Amset (man)
The stomach went into a pot with a lid in the form of a Duamutef (jackal)
The lungs went into a pot with a lid in the form of a Hapy (baboon)
The intestines went into a pot with a lid in the form of a Qebehsenuf (falcon)

Photo: http://www.rmo.nl/collectie/zoeken?object=AH+184-a
Text: http://www.dierenmuseum.nl/dierenliefde/dierenmummies-dierenbegraafplaatsen/




Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Papyrus of Nakht


Agriculture in the afterlife, from the papyrus of Nakht, circa 1 300 BC.

The ideal state of existence, which the dead achieved after becoming akh, included and agricultural paradise known as the Field of Reeds. Here the blessed dead would plant and reap abundant crops, traverse the waterways of the netherworld, and worship the gods.

From: Book of the Dead of Nakht, frame 13, flax-harvesting vignette, and sixteen columns of Hieroglyphic text.


Catalog: Thebes, EA10471/13
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC

Figurine


Figurine of a girl with a cat, circa 1 380 BC

Mirror handle.

Catalog: Wood, Abusir el Meleq, ÄM 16400
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/3berlin.pdf




Nefer-Hor and his wife
Eighteenth - Twentieth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 077 BC Nefer-Hor

Double statue of Nefer-Hor and his wife.

Catalog: Limestone, ÄM 2303
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)








The Nineteenth Dynasty

1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

The Pharaohs of the 19th dynasty ruled for approximately one hundred and ten years. Seti I's reign is today considered to be 11 years and not 15 years by both J. von Beckerath and Peter Brand, who wrote a biography on this pharaoh's reign. Consequently, it will be amended to 11 years or 1290-1279 BC. Therefore, Seti's father and predecessor would have ruled Egypt between 1292-1290 BC. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes (designated KV). More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website.




Nineteenth Dynasty
Name Horus (Throne) Name Consort Burial Years Dates Comments
Ramesses I Menpehtire Sitre KV16 2 1 292 BC - 1 290 BC  
Seti I Menmaatre (Mut-)Tuya KV17 11 1 290 BC - 1 279 BC  
Ramesses II Usermaatre Setepenre Nefertari
Isetnofret
Maathorneferure
Meritamen
Bintanath
Nebettawy
Henutmire
KV7 66 1 279 BC - 1 213 BC  
Merneptah Baenre Merynetjeru Isetnofret II KV8 10 1 213 BC - 1 203 BC  
Seti II Userkheperure Twosret
Takhat Tiaa
KV15 6 1 203 BC - 1 197 BC  
Amenmesse Menmire-Setepenre   KV10 3 1 201 BC - 1 198 BC  
Siptah Sekhaienre Meryamun/
Akhenre Setepenre
  KV47 6 1 197 BC - 1 191 BC  
Queen Twosret Sitre Meritamun None KV14 4 1 191 BC - 1 187 BC  


Table of Nineteenth Dynasty Rulers, data chiefly from Wikipedia




 ramesses statues  ramesses statues
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Ramesses I


Centre and right: Statue of King Ramesses I

Height 2007 mm.

The statue is made from the wood of the sycomore fig and was coated with black bitumen. It is one of two life-size statues found in the tomb of Ramesses I. The king wears the bag-like Khat headdress, and would originally have been depicted holding a staff and a mace. Headdress, kilt and other details were originally gilded over a thin layer of gesso, and the eyes and eyebrows were inlaid.

It can be seen from this statue that it is made from separate pieces, notably the arms and the front of the kilt. It is also likely that gilding was placed over certain parts of the statue, but this was stripped off when the tomb was robbed.


Far left: Statue of King Ramesses IX, (also written Ramses) (originally named Amon-her-khepshef Khaemwaset), 1129 BC – 1111 BC was the eighth king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt.

Statue from Tomb 6 in the Valley of the Kings. This figure is carved from sycomore fig and represents the king wearing the Nemes Headdress. The surface of this statue was finished using less costly materials than that of Ramesses I. Black paint took the place of resin, and polychrome paint was applied instead of gold leaf. The eyes and eyebrows were carved directly from the wood, instead of being inlaid.

Catalog EA 883
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, Wikipedia, http://www.britishmuseum.org/




Seti
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Seti I


Cast from the Tomb of King Sety I

Valley of the Kings, Egypt

Tomb carved 1 290 - 1 279 BC.

Cast made by Joseph Bonomi 1824 - 1834.

Catalog: Hay Collection AES
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Seti
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Sety I


The sun god sailing through the underworld and bringing new life to the mummified dead, from the tomb of Sety I.

Copy made by Henry Salt (1780 - 1827).

Tomb carved 1 290 - 1 279 BC.

Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Poster, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Sandstone stela of Pharaoh Seti I
Nineteenth Dynasty: circa 1 310 BC

Sandstone stela of Pharaoh Seti I (also Sety I).


This fragmentary round-topped stela consists of twelve horizontal lines of text below a main scene. All texts are incised and all figures are in sunk relief. Sety I is shown on the right of the scene with one arm raised and the other holding an incense-burner. In front of him are two altars on which rest water-pots cooled by lotus-flowers. Facing him are Amun-Ra, Min-Kamutef and Isis. This stela has been broken into several fragments and has been restored in modern times. The surviving portions are worn and chipped in places. There are no traces of colour. The hieroglyphs describe Seti's decision to endow the temple at Buhen with offerings, priests and servants.

Height: 1265 mm, width 830 mm.

Condition is fair, though incomplete. This stela has been broken into several fragments and has been restored in modern times. The surviving portions are worn and chipped in places.

Catalog: From Buhen, EA1189
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Egypt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Stele of Huy


Stele of Huy, Limestone, possibly from the Sakkara site, circa 1 292 - 1 275 BC.

Huy was a scribe of the treasure house of Pharaoh, presumably in Memphis. On this stone he and his wife worship the god Osiris. On the left his parents and other family members do the same. Among them is included Huy's grandfather, who was still working in the Aten Temple at the time of Akhenaten's revolution. The stele is remarkable for its well-preserved colours.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Additional text: Wikipedia






 Ramesses II

Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Ramesses II


Statue of Ramesses II

About 1 280 BC

Temple of Khnum, Elephantine, Egypt, Granite

Dynastic rule began in Egypt in around 3000 BCE. Ramesses II was Pharaoh, King of Egypt, between around 1279 and 1213 BCE. He was an extremely successful ruler, presiding over a golden age of prosperity and imperial power across the kingdom. He founded a new capital city in the north called Pi-Ramesses, 'House of Ramesses II' Here he holds a crook and flail and wears a double crown, symbolising his rule over a united country: Upper and Lower Egypt.

Upper part of a red granite colossal statue of Ramses II: the middle part of the statue has not been found, and the left elbow is broken. Aside from the damage to the nose, the sculpture is in good condition and displays very good workmanship. The surfaces are smoothly polished, with the exception of the band on the forehead, the eyebrows, and the cosmetic bands around the eyes, which were left unpolished, probably to facilitate the application of paint.

Catalog: EA67, 1840, 1114.3, Elephantine, Temple of Khnum
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2017
Text: Card, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Exhibition by the British Museum at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra


 Ramesses II
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Ramses II


All the decorated elements of the king's attire are finely chiselled. Ramses II wears a double crown upon a curled wig. The royal uraeus (snake) is fixed at the forehead. A decorated fillet, tied in the back, encircles the wig and ends with two streamers falling on the sides, each supporting a uraeus crowned by the sun disk. A ceremonial beard is attached under the royal chin. A broad collar, fringed by a row of drop-like pearls, surrounds his neck, and a bracelet adorns each of his wrists, the one on the right decorated with an incised 'wedjat' eye, symbol of soundness.

The visage is almost round, with full cheeks. Under the wide forehead, the eyebrows, depicted in raised relief, form two symmetrical arches on the protruding brow-bone. A faint depression separates them from the heavy upper eyelids. The eyes, placed horizontally and framed by cosmetic bands, gaze slightly downward. The narrow root of the nose expands gently toward the base, which is broken. The mouth, slightly slanting, is articulated by well-defined edges. Two little hollows mark the corners of the lips. The rounded chin overlaps the top of the tapering beard. The neck is broad, the chest schematic, with large shoulders. On the arms of the sovereign are engraved his birth and throne names.

Catalog: EA67, 1840, 1114.3, Elephantine, Temple of Khnum
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2017
Text: Card, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Exhibition by the British Museum at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra


 Ramesses II  Ramesses II
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Ramses II


The statue of Ramesses II has two cartouches on the shoulders.
On the left shoulder: 'Ramesses-meryamun - 'Ra is his creator, beloved of Amuni'.
On the right shoulder: 'Usermaatra-setepenra' - 'Strong in Right is Ra, Chosen by Ra'.

The cartouches are surmounted by a double plume flanking a disk, and placed on the hieroglyphic sign for gold. The back pillar bears two vertical columns of a delicately incised hieroglyphic inscription that ends on the lower part of the statue.

Height 1580 mm (including plinth), width 680 mm, depth 520 mm.
Plinth: Height 150 mm, width 520 mm, depth 520 mm.
Weight 495 kilograms.

Catalog: EA67, 1840, 1114.3, Elephantine, Temple of Khnum
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2017
Text: Card, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Exhibition by the British Museum at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra




Titles/epithets include:
Mighty Bull beloved of Maat (Horus Name)
Who protects Egypt and subdues the foreign countries (Two Ladies' Name)
Rich in years and Great of Victories (Golden Horus Name)
'The perfect god, son of Khnum, and born from Anuket, Lady of Elephantine.'

Catalog: EA67, 1840, 1114.3, Elephantine, Temple of Khnum
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2017
Text: Card, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Exhibition by the British Museum at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra


Ramesses II


Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Ramesses II


Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum



Plaster cast of a relief from the temple of Belt el-Wall, Lower Nubia.

The cast depicts a military expedition by Ramesses II (left) and the presentation to the pharaoh of the produce of Nubia and the lands of tropical Africa (right).

On the left, Ramesses II (1279-1213 BC), followed by two of his sons, Amen-her-wenemef and Khaemwaset, is depicted charging against a body of Nubian bowmen, who are shown with black and brown complexions, dressed in leopard skin kilts, and wearing large earrings. A wounded warrior is escorted to a village. On the right, Ramesses II, enthroned beneath a canopy, receives the produce of the southlands, presented by the viceroy Amenemope. These include bags of gold, gold rings, incense, elephant tusks, ebony logs, ostrich eggs and feathers, pelts, bows, hide-covered shields, fans and chairs. The varied selection of live animals includes a lion, giraffe, ostrich, gazelle, leopard, monkeys, antelopes and dogs, as well as oxen with horns artificially deformed and decorated with miniature human heads and hands. Men, women and children are presented as servants and slaves.

The cast was made for Robert Hay by Joseph Bonomi in 1825. The colours were added by Bonomi and are based on the originals as observed by Bonomi and Arundale. The cast was repainted by Douglas Champion in 1952.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Ramses Frieze
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Temple of Beit el-Wali frieze


This is the earliest photograph of the Temple of Beit el-Wali frieze which celebrates the exploits of Ramesses II. It was taken at the very beginning of practical photography, in 1854, on salted paper, from a calotype negative. The original title is 'Bet-Oualli, Sculptures Historiques de la Paroi de Gauche'.

Dimensions: Height 230 mm, width 305 mm.

Photo: John Beasly Greene (American, born France, 1832 - 1856)
Permission: Public Domain
Text: adapted from Wikipedia
Made available by: Google Art Project




Salted paper technique
The salted paper technique was created in the mid-1830s by English scientist and inventor Henry Fox Talbot. He made what he called 'sensitive paper' for 'photogenic drawing' by wetting a sheet of writing paper with a weak solution of ordinary table salt (sodium chloride), blotting and drying it, then brushing one side with a strong solution of silver nitrate. This produced a tenacious coating of silver chloride in an especially light-sensitive chemical condition. The paper darkened where it was exposed to light. When the darkening was judged to be sufficient, the exposure was ended and the result was stabilized by applying a strong solution of salt, which altered the chemical balance and made the paper only slightly sensitive to additional exposure. In 1839, washing with a solution of sodium thiosulfate ('hypo') was found to be the most effective way to make the results truly light-fast.
Text above: Wikipedia

Sphinx Sphinx
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Sphinx


Sandstone falcon-headed sphinx from the 19th Dynasty, about 1250 BC.

One of a pair of sphinxes found in the Great Hall of the temple of Ramesses II.

Catalog: EA13
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Sphinx
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Sphinx


Sandstone falcon-headed sphinx from the 19th Dynasty, about 1250 BC.

Catalog: EA13
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Nefer-Hor and his wife
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Amenemope / Amenemopet


Seated figure of the foreman of the craftsmen, Amenemope, and his wife Hathor.

Circa 1 280

The royal clerk Amenemope sits on an armchair with lion's feet, while his wife Hathor has taken a lower stool that is padded with a pillow. Under her chair is a monkey eating figs. The inscriptions on the separately worked base and on the backrest have been engraved and filled with a yellowish mass. The texts contain sacrificial prayers.

Dimensions: 330 x 181 x 255 mm.

Catalog: Sethos I, Wood, White putty (hieroglyphs), Deir el-Medine, TT 265 (grave), ÄM 6910
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, F. Seyfried at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Figurine
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Young woman


Standing figure of a young woman.

Catalog: Wood, Thebes ÄM 8041
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Seti
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Merneptah


Cast from the Tomb of King Merneptah

Valley of the Kings, Egypt

Tomb carved 1 213 - 1 204 BC

Cast made by Joseph Bonomi 1824 - 1834

Catalog: Hay Collection AES
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_2408motheramenhotepsm
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Queen Ahmose-Nofretari


Statue is circa 1200 BC.

Queen Ahmose-Nofretari herself, is from the Eighteenth Dynasty: 1 550 BC - 1 292 BC This statue is, however, from the 19th Dynasty, as a result of posthumous worship.

Height 440 mm.

Standing figure of Queen Ahmose-Nofretari, or Ahmosi Nefertere, mother of King Amenhotep I.

This small wooden figure represents Queen Ahmose-Nefertari (Ahmes-Nefertari / Nofretari). She was the sister and consort of King Ahmose (early 18th dynasty), who ended the domination of the Hyksos in Egypt and founded the 18th dynasty. Ahmose-Nefertari was one of the first 'goddesses of Amun'.

Ahmet-Nefertari and her son Amenhotep I were divinely revered after their death, especially by the craftsmen of the labourers' settlement in Deir el Medina, whom they regarded as their guardian goddess. The sculptor of the figure was 'Pai', who worked as a painter of Amun in Karnak, and who wanted 'a perfect life of health, comfort and daily joy, a beautiful funeral in old age on the western side of Thebes' from the deified queen.


Catalog: Wood, painted, Thebes, ÄM 6908

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE) Additional text: Margret Pirzer, https://www.flickr.com/photos/57703761@N06/31075006346




Shabti   of Merenset
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabti of Merenset

Painted wooden shabti of Merenset with a black lappet-wig, a brown modelled face with traced features and a yellow, green and red collar that envelopes the parallel brown hands.

The front of the leg section is inscribed with a column of black painted Hieroglyphs upon a yellow ground outlined in black; the body is white and the back is decorated with a representation of a yellow seed-basket and a red yoke with two pendular nu-pots.

Height 178 mm, width 52 mm, depth 35 mm.

Catalog: EA30803

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Shabti   of Amenmose Shabti   of Amenmose
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabti of Amenmose

Blue glazed composition shabti with anthropoid coffin inscribed for Amenmose: the absence of glaze in the recesses indicates that it was self-glazed. Along the vertical band of the blue coffin, and similarly along the vertical band on the shabti's kilt, the owner's name and titles are painted in black (probably manganese). The style of Amenmes' linen dress, his curled duplex wig, and the position of his hands flat on the skirt date the figure to the Nineteenth Dynasty.

Unlike the coffin, the shabti is not in the shape of a mummy, and does not hold the usual agricultural implements for work in the Underworld. Instead he appears in the dress of daily life, perhaps to signal his rebirth as a 'sah'. Amenmose is equipped for eternity by the protective texts running around his coffin. Four horizontal bands of text, a format introduced in the New Kingdom, wrap around the coffin like mummy bandages and describe Amenmes as revered before a number of gods, including the Four Sons of Horus.

For eternal protection, his image on the coffin holds the 'tyt'-girdle of Isis in his right hand, and the 'djed'-pillar of stability of the god of the Underworld, Osiris, in his left. Nut, the winged goddess of heaven, is painted across the chest of his coffin.

Height 292 mm (coffin), width 112 mm (coffin)
Height 285 mm (coffin lid), depth 125 mm (combined)
Height 228 mm (shabti), width 75 mm (shabti) depth 45 mm (shabti)


Inscription Translation:

Words spoken by the Osiris, fanbearer on the right of the king, royal scribe, overseer of the Shrine [lit.: Great House], overseer of the treasury of the Temple of Amun, Amenmes of Thebes.
Revered before Imsety, the Osiris, overseer of the treasury, Amenmes of Thebes.
Revered before Anubis, foremost of the god's booth, the overseer of the treasury, Amenmes of Thebes.
Revered before Duamutef, the Osiris, overseer of the treasury of Amen, Amenmes of Thebes.
Words spoken: revered before Horus the mighty protector of his father, Amenmes of the Treasury.
Revered before Hapy, the Osiris, Amenmes.
Revered before Anubis the mighty who is in the place of embalming, the Osiris, overseer of the treasury, Amenmes.
Words spoken: revered before Kebehsenuef, (Amen)-mes of Thebes.
Words spoken: revered before Thoth,the seat of Ra, the Osiris (Amen)-mes.
Right line. Words spoken by Nut the great: He is (my) son, (the) Osiris, Overseer of the Shrine [Great House] in the Temple of Amen-mes of Thebes.
Left line. Words spoken by Geb: He is (my) son, the Osiris, Overseer of the Treasury, Amen-mese, (the) offspring of Geb, ruler of the two lands.

Curator's comments: The abundant tomb shabtis of the New Kingdom were often stored in wooden boxes, while other shabtis, of a type in vogue since the end of the Seventeenth Dynasty, were placed in their own miniature anthropoid coffins. Most such shabtis with coffins were made of wood or clay, but this exceptional example, belonging to a man of some administrative status, is in glazed composition.The meaning of this coffined shabti is probably to be distinguished from that of the standard shabti that served until the late New Kingdom as a double of the deceased. Neither figure nor coffin carry the usual shabti agricultural implements nor the typical shabti inscription, Chapter 6 of the 'Book of the Dead'. Since the provenance of these coffined shabtis is generally unknown, determining their meaning is difficult. Some examples have been found as votive deposits.

Catalog: Thebes(?) EA53892
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Iupa
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Iupa

Block statue of Iupa with shrine of a god (Naos)

Circa 1 260 BC.

Like his father Urkhija, Iupa was an army commander and construction supervisor, and was involved at one of the building sites of the newly founded Residence Piramesse, i.e. ' the Great Stable of Ramessu-Meryamum ', according to an account book from the fifth year of Ramesses II, the so-called Paris Leather Roll. Later on during his career, he became not only the Superintendant of the Ramesseum at Thebes, but also Director of the Treasury of the King and Director of the Granaries.

( note the grotesquely large feet and toes of this statue. I feel sure that this cannot be an accident, or poor craftsmanship, but it is difficult to conceive of a rationale for this oddity - Don )

Catalog: Quartzite, ÄM 24022
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: García (2013)


Toes

While researching the statue of Iupa above, I stumbled across this delightful image of the size and arrangement of Western European people's toes, determined by their ancestry. Early Egyptian statues have Egyptian toes, Greek statues have Greek toes, but Roman statues also have Greek toes, since many were copies of Greek originals, or were done in the Greek style. See, for example, the giant foot of Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, as part of the Colossus of Constantine statue - Don 

Photo: http://www.familytree.com/blog/feet-toes/


Setau
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Setau

Kneeling figure of Setau holding a stela (stelophore)

Circa 1 260 BC.

A stelophore is a type of statue where the the kneeling person has a stele in front of him, holding it in a gesture of worship. They were probably erected in the niches of the pyramidial graves of private tombs.

Setau was the Viceroy of Kush in the second half of Ramesses II's reign. Contemporary records show that Setau served in this position from Year 38 until at least Year 63 of Ramesses II's reign.

Setau was ' a graduate of the royal school ' and already enjoyed an impressive record of royal service which is detailed in a long autobiographical inscription carved at Wadi es-Sebua. The temple of Wadi es-Sebua was built for Ramesses II by Setau around 1236 BC or Year 44 of this pharaoh's reign. Eleven of his stela, now in the Cairo Museum, were found in the courtyard of this temple and make it possible to establish his career and understand the precise duties of a viceroy. Setau states: ' I was one whom his Lord caused to instructed....as a ward of the palace. I grew up in the royal abode when I was a youth...I was provided for with bread and beer from all the royal meals. I came forth as a scribe from the school, I was appointed to be Chief Scribe of the Vizier; I assessed the whole land with a scroll. I was equal to the task. '


Setau was determined to set out his mark in Nubia and records that he: ' directed serfs in their thousands and ten-thousands, and Nubians in hundred-thousands, without limit. I brought all the dues of the land of Kush in double measure. I caused the people to come in submission. Then I was commissioned to build the temple of Ramesses II in the Domain of Amun ( ie. Wadi es-Sebua) ' Apart from the temple of Wadi es-Sebua, Setau also erected another temple at Gerf Hussein on the West Bank of the Nile around Year 45 of Ramesses II. Setau's tomb (TT289) is located in the Dra' Abu el-Naga' area of the Theban Necropolis.

Catalog: Limestone, ÄM 2287
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)
Additional text: http://www.aegyptologie.com/
Additional text: Wikipedia


Sandstone stela of Pharaoh Seti I
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Setau

Sandstone stela of the Egyptian Viceroy of Kush, Setau, from Wadi Halfa, 1200s BC (19th Dynasty).

Abyssinia, or Ethiopia, was known as Kush to the ancient Egyptians.

Setau is shown on the right pouring a libation over an altar and offering incense to the goddess Renenutet, represented as a serpent seated upon a 'neb' basket on a stand.

The cartouche with the name of Ramesses II is inscribed behind the goddess.

Behind her on the extreme left is a cartouche with the prenomen of Ramses II. All figures are in sunk relief and the texts are deeply incised. The relief is well preserved and there are no traces of colour.

Height: 530 mm, width 470 mm, thickness: 155 mm

Catalog: EA1055
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Son of Ramses II
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Khaemwase

Head of a statue of Prince Khaemwase, or Chaemwese, son of Pharoah Ramses II, circa 1 260 BC

Dimensions 250 x 230 x 220 mm

This almost life-size head of a statue probably represents Prince Chaemwese, son of Ramses II, and royal consort Isisnofret. Chaemwese wears a short, straight-edged chin-beard. The face is very full and round, as are other statues, which are certainly assigned to him, show. His eyes appear very small and shown close to the nose, but the mouth is not very wide and is surrounded by nasolabial and mouth folds. The prince's hairstyle is about chin length and forms a straight edge on the forehead.

From the top of the head, a braided plait runs along the right side of the head, which extends beyond the length of the fracture point of the statuary fragment shown here. This braid and the described beard characterise him as a high priest. Chaemwese held the office of the high priest of the god Ptah in Memphis for more than thirty years.


On the left half of the body, Chaemwese held a divine staff, of which there are remnants, and which extended to the ground. In the British Museum in London (EA 947) there is a comparable statue of the prince, with a staff on each side of the body, so the Berlin head can also be reconstructed as a standing figure with a staff.

Catalog: Quartzite, ÄM 13460
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Jessica Jancziak at http://www.smb-digital.de/ (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Family Group
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Seba



Stela of Seba, scribe of the treasury of the god Ptah, circa 1250 BC.

Catalog: Memphis, Limestone, ÄM 7315

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neues Museum, Germany
Text: © Card at the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 DE)




Shabti   of Djehutymose

Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabti of Djehutymose


Limestone, height 242 mm, Hieroglyphic text on apron and kilt.

The Theban Tomb TT32 is located in El-Khokha, part of the Theban Necropolis, on the west bank of the Nile, opposite to Luxor. It is the burial place of the Ancient Egyptian official, Djehutymose.

Djehutymose (or Tuthmose) was a chief steward of Amun and overseer of the granaries of Upper and Lower Egypt during the reign of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty). His wife Esi (Isis) is shown in the hall and the passage of the tomb.

The British museum image of this shabti, in the online catalog, has printed on its base:

(57341)
Shabti of Thutimes, King's scribe and overseer of the cattle, wearing ordinary costume.

Catalog: EA57341 Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, Wikipedia




Shabti   of Djehutymose

Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Shabti of Djehutymose


Painted limestone, height 228 mm, ordinary dress.

This shabti shows Djehutymose represented as a living individual, as in a portrait.

Catalog: EA9447
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Card at the Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, Wikipedia




elephant ivory venus
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Female Figurine


Elephant ivory female figurine. Qau & Badari, III:XXXVI, 3f

Ivory female figurine from Qau, Dynasty 19, with no arms and legs below knees missing. Ivory in friable state, face chipped away. Short layered wig carved at side of head on front of figurine.

length 128 mm, width 37 mm

Catalog: III:XXXVI, 3f, U.C. 26084
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Petrie Museum
Text: Card at the Petrie Museum




Paser Paser
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Paser


Sandstone statue of the viceroy Paser presenting a vase with a ram's head, from the 19th Dynasty, about 1250 BC.

From Abu Simbel, the Great Temple.

Found in two pieces in the interior of the temple. Paser, the second viceroy of that name, held office in the middle years of the reign of Ramesses II. He left statues and inscriptions at Abu Simbel and was responsible for repairing structural damage at the Great Temple caused by an earthquake.

Catalog: EA1376
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Henutmehyt Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Wooden inner-coffin of Henutmehyt with gilt and glass decoration from the New Kingdom, Thebes / Luxor.

Henutmehyt was the name of a Theban priestess, of Ancient Egypt who lived during the 19th Dynasty, around 1250 BC. The extensive use of gold, and the high quality and detail of her coffin indicates that Henutmehyt was a wealthy woman. On the front of the coffin are the figures of Isis and Nephthys, the protectors of the deceased.

Height 187 cm, width 46 cm.

Catalog: EA48001
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Closeup.

Catalog: EA48001
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Inner mummy-case (left) and inner coffin (right) of Henutmehyt.

The mummiform inner mummy-case was placed inside the inner coffin, directly over the wrapped body. It comprises a mask made of cedarwood, plastered, gilded and with inlaid eyes, and an openwork cover for the legs, made from the wood of the native sycomore fig.

The cover retains its backing of linen, originally coloured purple. It is decorated with a figure of the goddess Nut and scenes of the deceased adoring deities.

( The reddish colouring of the gold on both parts of the mummy-board may be the effect of the oxidation of impurities in the gold, most likely from copper, although red coloured gold may be created by a mixture of 75% gold and 25% copper, so it may have been deliberate - Don )

Henutmehyt was buried in a set of gilded coffins and a gilded mummy board. A wooden shabti box which was painted with a scene showing Henutmehyt adoring two of the canopic deities and receiving food and wine from the goddess Nut. There were four shabti boxes in total, containing shabtis made of both wood and pottery.

A funerary papyrus was included in her burial as well. The text is Spell 100 from the Book of the Dead and is written rather unusually in red and white ink. The papyrus was placed over the outer wrappings of the mummy. These types of texts became more common after the New Kingdom.

Magic bricks made of unbaked mud must have been placed in niches in the burial chamber. Henutmehyt's magic bricks were well preserved. They supported amuletic figures: a Djed pillar, the figure of Anubis, a wooden mummiform figure, and a reed. The bricks themselves were inscribed with magic spells.

A wooden box, painted black and containing fowl wrapped in linen and meat possibly from a goat may also belong to the funerary equipment of Henutmehyt. The box contains enough food for a meal.

Catalog: EA48001
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/ and card at the Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Inner mummy-case of Henutmehyt, showing the complete mummy-case in the photo on the left.

Catalog: EA48001
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): Google Arts and Culture Project, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt

Left: Inner mummy-case and outer coffin of Henutmehyt from the left hand side.

Right: Outer coffin of Henutmehyt shown from the right hand side.

Catalog: EA48001
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Close up of the face of Henutmehyt on the wooden inner-coffin.

Catalog: EA48001
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Close up of the face of Henutmehyt on the inner mummy-case.

As noted above, the reddish colour of the gold may be the effect of tarnishing of impurities in the gold, or it may be deliberate by making a gold alloy with 25% copper.

Catalog: EA48001
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Gilded outer coffin of Henutmehyt.

The coffins of Henutmehyt, originally placed one inside the other, were all anthropoid (human-shaped). Like tomb-statues, this type of coffin was believed to provide the spirit with a substitute body if the mummy should perish. The physical form, with crossed arms, together with the inscriptions and the figures of protective gods and goddesses all emphasised the identification of the dead person with the god Osiris. The implication was that, like him, they might experience resurrection.

Henutmehyt's outer coffin provides a magnificent idealised image of the dead woman, adorned with her full wig. A collar is spread over the breast, and below it hangs a pectoral (chest) ornament flanked by protective wedjat eyes. The sky-goddess Nut spreads her winged arms protectively across the body, and the hieroglyphic text immediately below invokes her.Vertical and horizontal bands divide the remainder of the lid into compartments which are occupied by figures of the Sons of Horus and the goddesses Isis and Nephthys. Further divine figures are painted along the sides of the coffin.

Height 206 cm, width 59 cm.

Catalog: EA48001
Photo (left and centre): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): Google Arts and Culture Project, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Painted wooden shabti-box containing eight painted shabtis (four in each compartment); Hieroglyphic text on sides and top naming Henutmehyt. The scenes on the sides depict Henutmehyt adoring Osiris and three of the sons of Horus.

In this view, Henutmehyt adores Duamutef and Qebehsenuef, two of the sons of Horus ( Imsety on the left and Duamutef on the right - Don ). The scene on the other side shows the deceased offering a tray of food to Hathor of the Sycamore Tree. This is returned by the goddess, who also supplies a libation (liquid offering), symbolic of purification. Henutmehyt wears the flowing robe, long wig and lotus flower that was fashionable when she lived.

Height 345 mm, width 180 mm, length 335 mm.

Catalog: EA41549 (EA41550 on the Museum card)
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


On the other side of the box she receives food and water from a goddess (probably Nut) in a tree. ( note the difference of opinion by scholars as to the identity of the goddess, and whether Henutmehyt is giving or receiving (or both) food and water - Don )

This box, one of four made for Henutmehyt is in the form of two conjoined shrines, although it contains only one internal cavity. The four sides are inscribed and painted with scenes of a funerary character: on the front, Henutmehyt adores Duamutef and Qebehsenuef, two of the sons of Horus (Imsety and Duamutef on the left and right), and on the back she receives food and water from a goddess (probably Nut) in a tree.

This image, a version of the vignette of spell 59 in of the Book of the Dead, is common on shabti boxes, perhaps because the shabtis' agricultural labours were a stage in the process of procuring food for the dead.


Early shabtis were stored individually in the tomb inside miniature coffins, but in the New Kingdom these were superseded by specially designed wooden boxes, the shape of which reproduced the form of a shrine. The adoption of this type of container probably reflects the shabti's character as a hypostasis (the underlying or essential part of anything as distinguished from attributes; substance, essence, or essential principle) of its owner, who was supposed to have acquired divine attributes after death. This box, one of four made for Henutmehyt (see cat nos. 15, 38, 54 and 134 ) is in the form of two conjoined shrines, although it contains only one internal cavity.

The four sides are inscribed and painted with scenes of a funerary character: on the front, Henutmehyt adores Duamutef and Qebehsenuef, two of the sons of Horus (Imsety and Duamutef on the left and right), and on the back she receives food and water from a goddess (probably Nut)in a tree. This image, a version of the vignette of spell 59 in of the Book of the Dead, is common on shabti boxes, perhaps because the shabtis' agricultural labours were a stage in the process of procuring food for the dead.

Catalog: EA41549 (EA41550 on the Museum card)
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Taylor (2010)


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Shabti from the tomb of Henutmehyt.

Catalog: EA41549 (EA41550 on the Museum card)
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Shabti from the tomb of Henutmehyt.

Catalog: EA41549 (EA41550 on the Museum card)
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


The complete shabti box and the eight shabti.

Catalog: EA41549
Photo : © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




The shabti figure emerged as an important item of funerary equipment in the early Middle Kingdom. A spell to activate these images as substitutes to work on behalf of the dead is first attested in the Coffin Texts, as spell 472.

In the New Kingdom this text was incorporated into the book of the dead as spell 6, and was often inscribed on the body of the figure. This group, EA41549, is part of a set of forty shabtis that was provided for the Chantress of Amun, Henutmehyt.

They are typical of their period in representing the owner holding agricultural tools for use in the process of food production in the afterlife. An abbreviated version of the spell is written on the body.

Originally each person possessed only one or two shabtis, but during the New Kingdom the number gradually increased, the forty belonging to Henutmehyt reflect not only this trend, but also her high status.

Text above: Taylor (2010)


Henutmehyt Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Another shabti box made for Henutmehyt.

Catalog: EA41548
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


This large black-varnished wooden chest of sycomore fig wood with two lids was made to hold the four canopic jars of Henutmehyt.

The canopic jars contain a bundle of organs within a coffinette.

Height 482 mm (chest), length 432 mm (chest), height 406 mm (each jar)

Catalog: EA51813
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum


Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Another shabti box made for Henutmehyt.

During the New Kingdom (about 1550-1070 BC), the number of shabtis to be included in a tomb increased considerably. The miniature coffins in which they had been kept became large boxes, decorated with funerary scenes. One of the scenes on the box of Henutmehyt shows her adoring the sons of Horus, who protected the internal organs of the deceased. This motif is perhaps more suited to the decoration of canopic chests.

Faience is the material most commonly associated with shabti figures, though Spell 6 of the Book of the Dead specifies that they should be made of wood, as these are. Although all the figures are similar, there are small differences in details such as the treatment of the necklaces and bracelets. Some are inscribed with the full version of the spell to activate the figures to carry out agricultural work, while others have only an abbreviated version.


Dimensions of the box: height 350 mm, width 192 mm, length 340 mm, weight 2 kg.

Catalog: EA41548
Photo : © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/




Henutmehyt Poster



Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


Text of the poster at left:

New Kingdom, circa 1279 BC - 1213 BC.

Burial assemblage of the lady Henutmehyt

This rich assemblage of objects was found by inhabitants of the Theban West Bank in or before 1904. The majority of the pieces were purchased for the British Museum between 1905 and 1913. From the style of the individual items the burial can be dated to the 19th Dynasty, probably to within the reign of Ramesses II (about 1279-1213 BC).

The inscriptions entitle Henutmehyt 'Lady of the House' (i.e. married woman) and Chantress of Amen-Ra in the temple of Karnak. This was a common title, but Henutmehyt's comprehensive burial outfit, and the fine craftsmanship and rich gilding of her coffins indicate that she was of very high status. The surviving fragments of her mummy indicate that Henutmehyt had a maximum height of 158 cm, and wore her own hair, which was reddish-brown in colour.

Studies of lung tissue from the jackal-headed canopic jar revealed that Henutmehyt suffered from several illnesses including emphysema, indicating that she died at an advanced age. She also suffered from anthracosis (a build-up of carbon deposits in the lung), an ailment prevalent in ancient Egypt, where open hearths polluted the living environment with smoke.

Photo on the poster: Interior of the inner coffin of Henutmehyt showing hair and soft tissue from the mummy.

Photo: Poster, British Museum
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Poster, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Magical Bricks
During the New Kingdom (about 1550-1070 BC), magic bricks with sockets were placed in tombs, in order to protect the deceased from the enemies of the god Osiris. They were positioned at the four cardinal points of the tomb (north, east, south and west). An amulet was set in each socket, standing so it faced the opposite wall. Each brick was inscribed with a portion of Spell 151 of the Book of the Dead. This spell identifies the deceased with Osiris, Isis and Nephthys.

The four sons of Horus offer their protection; the amuletic figures of the magic bricks specifying the ways in which they will defend the deceased from attack. The brick beside the west wall contains a faience djedpillar, representing the backbone of Osiris. It was thus an amulet which promoted stability and endurance. The brick by the east wall is surmounted by a clay figure of the jackal god Anubis. He presided over the mummification process, and protected the necropolis (cemetery). The mummiform figure by the north wall is identified in the spell as a shabti. This amulet offers to perform agricultural tasks on behalf of the deceased. The brick by the south wall contains a reed to hold a torch, burning the path of those who wish the deceased harm.
Text above: Taylor (1999)

Henutmehyt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Henutmehyt


All bricks are of unfired clay, only practical when they are in the sealed environment of a dry tomb, not exposed to the weather.

EA41544: Clay magical brick with a reed. Height 40 mm (brick), width 108 mm, length 165 mm. Reed height 195 mm.

EA41545: Clay magical brick with a representation of Anubis. Height 25 mm, width 92 mm, length 145 mm

EA41546: Wooden shabti on a brick, 145 mm high.

EA41547: Clay magical brick with a djed-pillar amulet, height 43 mm (brick), width 95 mm, length 110 mm. Amulet height 58 mm.


Catalog: EA41544, EA41545, EA41546, EA41547
Photo : Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Sandstone stela of Pharaoh Seti I
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Amunerhatef


Limestone stela of Amunerhatef showing adoration of Osiris.

On this stela from a chapel at Abydos, the god Osiris is depicted seated before a table of offerings. The hieroglyphic text in the lower section contains Amunerhatef's request to the god to provide funerary offerings for his own ka.

(Limestone stela inscribed with 2 registers of hieroglyphs mentioning Imn-r-hat-f, circa 1 250 BC.)

Height: 280 mm, width 190 mm.


Catalog: Abydos, EA345
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Egypt
Nineteenth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 187 BC

Rama


The Stele of Rama, Limestone, Thebes / Luxor site, ca 1225 -1200 BC (19th Dynasty)
Rama was the high priest of Amun in the Karnak Temple. He is pictured below left in an attitude of prayer.

Above in the centre are the seated gods Re-Harakhty (with a falcon head, one of the forms of the god Horus) and Osiris. On the far left is the goddess Isis, with the goddess Maat on the far right.

Seated in the middle are the gods Horus (with the head of a falcon) and Anubis (with a jackal head) on the right, with Pharaoh Amenhotep and the queens Ahmes-Nefertiti and Anhotep on the left. These deified rulers were considered the guardians of the Theban cemetery.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Additional text: Wikipedia




Djed  pillar
Nineteenth/Twentieth Dynasty: 1 292 BC - 1 077 BC

Djed pillar


From the Valley of the Kings

The Djed pillar embodied the concepts of endurance and stability. It also came to be interpreted as the backbone of Osiris, and was frequently represented in funerary art in place of the god himself.

Catalog: EA2086
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0








The Twentieth Dynasty

1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

The Pharaohs of the 20th dynasty ruled for approximately 110 years. The dates and names in the table are mostly taken from 'Chronological Table for the Dynastic Period' in Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors), Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill, 2006. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes (designated KV). More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website.

Background

Pharaoh Setnakhte was likely already middle aged when he took the throne after Queen Twosret. He ruled for only around 4 years when he was succeeded by his son Ramesses III. Egypt was threatened by the Sea Peoples during this time period, but Ramesses III was able to defeat this confederacy from the Near East. The king is also known for a harem conspiracy in which Queen Tiye attempted to assassinate the king and put her son Pentawere on the throne. The coup was not successful in the end. The king may have died from the attempt on his life, but it was his legitimate heir Ramesses IV who succeeded him to the throne. After this a succession of kings named Ramesses take the throne, but none would truly achieve greatness.

Tomb robberies

The period of these rulers is notable for the beginning of the systematic robbing of the royal tombs. Many surviving administrative documents from this period are records of investigations and punishment for these crimes, especially in the reigns of Ramses IX and Ramses XI.

Decline

As happened under the earlier Nineteenth Dynasty, this group struggled under the effects of the bickering between the heirs of Ramesses III. For instance, three different sons of Ramesses III are known to have assumed power as Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI and Ramesses VIII respectively. However, at this time Egypt was also increasingly beset by a series of droughts, below-normal flooding levels of the Nile, famine, civil unrest and official corruption – all of which would limit the managerial abilities of any king.

The power of the last king, Ramesses XI, grew so weak that in the south the High Priests of Amun at Thebes became the de facto rulers of Upper Egypt, while Smendes controlled Lower Egypt even before Ramesses XI's death. Smendes would eventually found the Twenty-First dynasty at Tanis.
Text above from Wikipedia.


family tree

Family tree of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, which was the last of the New Kingdom of Egypt, from Wikipedia.



Twentieth Dynasty
Name Horus (Throne) Name Consort Burial Years Dates Comments
Setnakhte Userkhaure Tiy-merenese KV14 3 1 187 BC - 1 186 BC  
Ramesses III Usermaatre-Meryamun Iset
Ta-Hemdjert
Tiye
KV11 31 1 186 BC - 1 155 BC  
Ramesses IV Usermaatre (later Heqamaatre)
Setepenamun
Duatentopet KV2 6 1 155 BC - 1 149 BC  
Ramesses V
Amenhirkhepeshef I
Usermaatre Sekheperenre Henutwati
Tawerettenru
KV9 4 1 149 BC - 1 145 BC  
Ramesses VI
Amenhirkhepeshef II
Nebmaatre Meryamun Nubkhesbed KV9 8 1 145 BC - 1 137 BC  
Ramesses VII
Itamun
Usermaatre Setepenre Meryamun   KV1 7 1 136 BC - 1 129 BC  
Ramesses VIII
Sethhirkhepeshef
Usermaatre Akhenamun     1 1 130 BC - 1 129 BC  
Ramesses IX
Khaemwaset I
Neferkare Setepenre Baketwernel KV6 18 1 129 BC - 1 111 BC  
Ramesses X
Amenhirkhepeshef III
Khepermaatre Setepenre Tyti KV18 4 1 111 BC - 1 107 BC  
Ramesses XI
Khaemwaset II
Menmaatre Setpenptah Tentamun KV4 30 1 107 BC - 1 077 BC  


Table of Twentieth Dynasty Rulers, data chiefly from Wikipedia




Egypt
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Osiris


Painted wooden statue of Osiris, circa 1 170 BC.

The figure depicts the god wearing his characteristic feathered crown and grasping the royal crook and flail sceptres. The green colouring of the skin reflects the god's associations with vegetation as a metaphor for rebirth. This statuette contained the rolled funerary papyrus of the lady Anhai.

Height 635 mm.

When this uninscribed Osiris figure was examined, the funerary papyrus of Anhai (registration no. 1888,0512.222.7) was found in a recess in the base. Figurines of this type are the forerunner of the more common and later Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figures, and take the form of a mummiform figure of the god of the dead; the presence of this deity in the tomb would help ensure resurrection and new life after death.

This example is particularly elaborate and wears the feathered atef crown, a floral collar, and an elaborately decorated red covering on the upper body, with a decorated white covering from the waist down. This bright colouring can also be seen in depictions of Osiris in tomb paintings from the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties. As in many other depictions, Osiris' face is green - the colour of vegetation, another symbol of new life associated with this deity. Some other figurines of this type are painted black, symbolising the fertility of the earth with which Osiris was associated. He carries the crook and flail of kingship.

Catalog: Thebes, EA20868
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




obelisk door lintel
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Hori


Sandstone lintel of the viceroy Hori, a fragment of a large lintel consisting of the torus roll and cornice with incised scenes and texts. In the centre of the lintel are the cartouches of Ramses III. On the left side the viceroy of Kush Hori and the mayor of Buhen, Harmose kneel in adoration.

Several columns of text are inscribed with a prayer to the king on their behalf. The lintel is battered about the edges, with the loss of the upper left corner and the right side which was recovered separately. The surface is worn in places so that the text is difficult to interpret. There are no traces of colour. The Egyptian Viceroy of Kush, Hod, and the mayor of Buhen, Harmose, kneel in adoration. A similar scene would have been carved on the right side.


A portion of the right side of the lintel was discovered separately and is now unlocated (Smith, 2006)

From Buhen, early 1100s BC (20th Dynasty) ( i.e. during the reign of Ramesses III, now thought to be March 1186 to April 1155 BC - Don )

Statements of adoration for the pharaoh are given in the columns of hieroglyphs flanking the royal cartouches.

Height 534 mm, length 965 mm (max).

Catalog: EA66667
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/,© Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia




Sarcophagus of Pharaoh Ramesses III
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Ramesses III


Sarcophagus of Pharaoh Ramesses III, from his tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

Granite, 18 tons. Height 180 cm, length 305cm, width 150 cm.

This pink granite cartouche-shaped box once contained the nest of coffins of Pharaoh Ramesses III. The lid is now in the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge. The outside of the box is engraved with the seventh and eighth chapters of the 'Book of Amduat', and the inside with the first chapter of the 'Book of Gates.' Certain parts of these texts were very carelessly engraved.


Catalog: Sully Rez-de-chaussée Crypte d'Osiris Salle 13, D 1
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/sarcophagus-box-ramesses-iii




Sarcophagus of Pharaoh Ramesses III
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Ramesses III


The decoration of this monolithic cartouche-shaped block is organised around the large winged figure of Isis at the feet of the deceased (on the flat front of the sarcophagus) and that of Nephthys at his head (on the rounded back of the box).

Both long sides are engraved with scenes taken from the "Book of Hidden Chambers" (the Amduat). The decoration begins near the figure of Nephthys at the king's head, with the seventh hour of the Amduat along the right side (looking from the head to the feet), and continues with the eighth hour along the left side.

Around the base of the coffin is the palace façade motif - a relic of Old Kingdom sarcophagi (cf. sarcophagus of Abu Roach, Room 14). The inside of the box features large figures of deities from the first hour of the 'Book of Gates'.


Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/sarcophagus-box-ramesses-iii


Sarcophagus of Pharaoh Ramesses III
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Ramesses III


The Egyptians imagined the sun to travel underground in a boat during the twelve hours of night. The nocturnal sun was represented as a man with a ram's head. Every 'hour' (i.e. every stage of his journey) was marked by a particular event: at the seventh hour, for example (right-hand side of the coffin), the sun confronts the snake Apophis, the 'evil serpent' of Egyptian texts, who tries to stop him on his course.

The sun-god is portrayed armed with knives to destroy him. The left-hand side represents the eighth hour: on the lower register, the creatures of the Underworld are depicted, sitting on the ideogram for fabric (one of the essential funerary offerings). The texts referring to the sun's night-time journey ('Litanies of the Sun', 'Amduat', 'Book of Gates', 'Book of Night', etc.) were composed during the New Kingdom for the exclusive use of the king.

As the pharaoh was associated with the sun god and his perilous journey through the night, the royal tomb featured representations of this recurrent event. After the New Kingdom, some of these texts (especially the Amduat) were also used for the benefit of priests and soldiers who were at the peak of their influence at that time (see the papyri in vitrine 4).


Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/sarcophagus-box-ramesses-iii




Sarcophagus of Pharaoh Ramesses III Sarcophagus of Pharaoh Ramesses III
Twentieth Dynasty: 1 187 BC - 1 077 BC

Ramesses III


Slapdash work

Only two scenes from the Amduat are illustrated on the sarcophagus of Ramesses III, which is characterised by extraordinary carelessness on the part of the scribe who engraved the introductory text to the seventh hour (to the right of the figure of Nephthys).

The phrases (and even individual words) are cut up into incoherent elements that cannot be understood without referring to the correct version featured in other tombs. This poor reproduction, without subsequent checking, suggests that, in the late New Kingdom, the monarchy was no longer treated with the respect it had once inspired.


Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée du Louvre
Text: http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/sarcophagus-box-ramesses-iii









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