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La Ferrassie Tools


La Ferrassie rock shelter yielded skeletons from eight Neanderthal individuals, including adults, children, infants, and two fetuses. Today the skeleton of La Ferrassie 1 is considered the classic example of Neanderthal anatomy. It was discovered on 17th September 1909 by R. Capitan and D. Peyrony. This is a record of the tools found there by Peyrony, and on display at Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac.

La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie Mousterian tools from the Grand abri layer D, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 70 000 BP.

  ■ 2 Racloirs, side scrapers

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie Mousterian tools from the Grand abri layer D, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 70 000 BP.

  ■ 2 Racloirs, side scrapers

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie Mousterian tools from the Grand abri layer D, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 70 000 BP.

  ■1 Bifaces, hand axes
  ■ 2 Racloirs, side scrapers
  ■ 3 Encoches/denticulés, notched/serrated tools
  ■ 4 Tools of the upper Palaeolithic type
  ■ 5 Special tools

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer E, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 35 000 BP.

Perigordian I, N = 1000.

The Perigordian is from the Upper Palaeolithic, and is characterised by the Châtelperronian point. It is derived from the evolved Mousterian period and Acheulian type B tradition, immediately anterior to Würm II, and is thus dated from the end of the Würm II/III interglacial period. (Diop et al, 1991)

■   6: Grattoirs, scrapers on the end of a blade
■   7: Burins
■   8: Retouched tools
■   9: Perçoirs becs, awls
■ 11: Notched/denticulated tools
■ 12: Racloirs/raclettes, side scrapers and small, often round scrapers

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Value for N: Clarke (2014)




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer E, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 35 000 BP.

Perigordian I, N = 1000.

Note the classic Châtelperronian point at the upper right corner of this image.

■ 11: Notched/denticulated tools
■ 12: Racloirs/raclettes, side scrapers and small, often round scrapers
■ 13: Armatures, tools
■ 14: Composite tools

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Value for N: Clarke (2014)




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer E, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 35 000 BP.

Perigordian I, N = 1000.

Note the classic Châtelperronian point beside the number ■ 13 in this image.

Note also the curious bone tool under ■ 16 which looks remarkably like a bone arrow head.

■ 12: Racloirs/raclettes, side scrapers and small, often round scrapers
■ 13: Armatures, tools
■ 14: Composite tools
■ 15: Special tools
■ 16: Bone industry

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Value for N: Clarke (2014)




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie bones and other organic material from the Grand abri layer E, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer E', excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 34 000 BP.

Perigordian II.

■   6: Grattoirs, scrapers on the end of a blade
■   7: Burins
■   8: Retouched tools
■ 14: Composite tools

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer E', excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 34 000 BP.

Perigordian II.

■   8: Retouched tools
■ 10: Microliths
■ 14: Composite tools
■ 15: Special tools
■ 16: Bone industry

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer E', excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 34 000 BP.

Perigordian II.

■   8: Retouched tools
■ 10: Microliths
■ 15: Special tools
■ 16: Bone industry

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer F, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 32 000 BP.

Aurignacian I, N = 2460.

■   6: Grattoirs, scrapers on the end of a blade
■   7: Burins
■   8: Retouched tools

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Value for N: Clarke (2014)




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer F, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 32 000 BP.

Aurignacian I, N = 2460.

■   6: Grattoirs, scrapers on the end of a blade
■   8: Retouched tools

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Value for N: Clarke (2014)




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer F, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 32 000 BP.

Aurignacian I, N = 2460.

■   6: Grattoirs, scrapers on the end of a blade
■ 10: Microliths
■ 11: Notched/denticulated tools
■ 12: Racloirs/raclettes, side scrapers and small, often round scrapers
■ 16: Bone industry

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Value for N: Clarke (2014)




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie bones and other organic material from the Grand abri layer F, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 32 000 BP.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer H, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 30 000 BP.

Aurignacian II, N = 4039.

■   6: Grattoirs, scrapers on the end of a blade
■   7: Burins

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Value for N: Clarke (2014)




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer H, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 30 000 BP.

Aurignacian II, N = 4039.

■   6: Grattoirs, scrapers on the end of a blade
■   7: Burins
■   8: Retouched tools
■ 10: Microliths
■ 11: Notched/denticulated tools
■ 12: Racloirs/raclettes, side scrapers and small, often round scrapers
■ 14: Composite tools
■ 15: Special tools

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Value for N: Clarke (2014)




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer H, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 30 000 BP.

Aurignacian II, N = 4039.

■   8: Retouched tools
■ 10: Microliths
■ 11: Notched/denticulated tools
■ 12: Racloirs/raclettes, side scrapers and small, often round scrapers
■ 14: Composite tools
■ 15: Special tools
■ 16: Bone industry

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Value for N: Clarke (2014)




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer H, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 30 000 BP.

Aurignacian II, N = 4039.

■   8: Retouched tools
■ 10: Microliths
■ 11: Notched/denticulated tools
■ 12: Racloirs/raclettes, side scrapers and small, often round scrapers
■ 14: Composite tools
■ 15: Special tools
■ 16: Bone industry

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Value for N: Clarke (2014)




Ferrassei tools
La Ferrassie bone industry.

Age: Layer H, Middle Aurignacian.

Layer H is dated elsewhere in the museum in the main display cases as circa 30 000 BP, Aurignacian II.

( note that this image is from an apparently older display of various tools from various sites from the Aurignacian - Don )

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals , Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac




La Ferrassie tools





La Ferrassie bones and other organic material from the Grand abri layer H, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer H', excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 29 000 BP.

Aurignacian III.

■   6: Grattoirs, scrapers on the end of a blade

Note that some of these appear to be on a flake, not a blade.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer H', excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 29 000 BP.

Aurignacian III.

■   6: Grattoirs, scrapers on the end of a blade
■   7: Burins
■   9: Perçoirs becs, awls
■ 11: Notched/denticulated tools
■ 12: Racloirs/raclettes, side scrapers and small, often round scrapers
■ 14: Composite tools

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer H', excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 29 000 BP.

Aurignacian III.

■   8: Retouched tools
■ 15: Special tools
■ 16: Bone industry

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac




Ferrassei tools
La Ferrassie bone industry.

Age: Layer H', Recent Aurignacian.

Layer H' is dated elsewhere in the museum in the main display cases as circa 29 000 BP, Aurignacian III.

( note that this image is from an apparently older display of various tools from various sites from the Aurignacian - Don )

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals , Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer H'', excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 28 000 BP.

Aurignacian IV, N = 473.

■   6: Grattoirs, scrapers on the end of a blade
■   7: Burins

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Value for N: Clarke (2014)




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer H'', excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 28 000 BP.

Aurignacian IV, N = 473.

■   6: Grattoirs, scrapers on the end of a blade
■   7: Burins
■   8: Retouched tools
■ 11: Notched/denticulated tools
■ 14: Composite tools
■ 15: Special tools
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Value for N: Clarke (2014)




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer H'', excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 28 000 BP.

Aurignacian IV, N = 473.

■ 11: Notched/denticulated tools
■ 14: Composite tools
■ 15: Special tools
■ 16: Bone industry

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Value for N: Clarke (2014)




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer J, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 26 000 BP.

Perigordian V1/Va, N = 886.

■   6: Grattoirs, scrapers on the end of a blade
■   7: Burins
■   8: Retouched tools
■   9: Perçoirs becs, awls
■ 10: Microliths
■ 13: Armatures, tools

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Value for N: Clarke (2014)




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer J, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 26 000 BP.

Perigordian V1/Va, N = 886.

■   9: Perçoirs becs, awls
■ 10: Microliths
■ 11: Notched/denticulated tools
■ 13: Armatures, tools
■ 14: Composite tools
■ 15: Special tools
■ 16: Bone industry

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Value for N: Clarke (2014)




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer J, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 26 000 BP.

Perigordian V1/Va, N = 886.

■ 13: Armatures, tools
■ 15: Special tools
■ 16: Bone industry

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac
Value for N: Clarke (2014)




La Ferrassie tools La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer K, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 25 000 BP.

Perigordian V2/Vb.

■   6: Grattoirs, scrapers on the end of a blade
■   7: Burins
■   8: Retouched tools
■   9: Perçoirs becs, awls
■ 11: Notched/denticulated tools
■ 13: Armatures, tools
■ 14: Composite tools
■ 15: Special tools

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac




La Ferrassie tools
La Ferrassie tools from the Grand abri layer L, excavations of D. Peyrony.

Age circa 24 000 BP

Perigordian V3/Vc.

■   6: Grattoirs, scrapers on the end of a blade
■   7: Burins
■   8: Retouched tools
■ 11: Notched/denticulated tools
■ 14: Composite tools
■ 16: Bone industry

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Originals, Le Musée National de Préhistoire, Les Eyzies-de-Tayac









References

  1. Clarke, D., 2014: Models in Archaeology, Routledge, 24Oct.,2014 - Social Science - 1090 pages
  2. Delson E., Tattersall I., Van Couvering J., Brooks A., 2004: Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory: Second Edition, Routledge, 23rd November 2004 - Social Science - 800 pages
  3. Diop C., Salemson H., De Jager M., 1991: Civilization Or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology, Chicago Review Press, 1991 - Social Science - 440 pages
  4. Mellars, P., 1996: The Neanderthal Legacy, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-03493-1



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