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Ancient Egyptian Culture, Mummies, Statues, Burial Practices and Artefacts

Ancient Egypt from the start of the 21st Dynasty with Smendes (Nesbanebdjed I) in 1077 BC to just before the start of the Ptolemaic period, in 305 BC.



Egypt


This coffin from the 21st Dynasty (1077 - 943 BC) is unusual in that the hair depicted is in a more natural style, although the wig is in blue, which is the divine colour.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.




Egypt Egypt



Late 21st Dynasty wooden inner coffin of an unknown man from Thebes / Luxor, Bab el-Gasus, 980-945 BC .

Painted detail on plaster, Hieroglyphic text.

The lid is decorated with many figures of gods, and repeated groups of symbols and amuletic devices relating to resurrection, including scarab beetles and the sky studded with stars. The scenes include the barque of the sun-god, the goddess Hathor in the form of a cow, and the presentation of offerings to various deities.

On the interior is painted a large figure of the god Osiris on a background of stars.

Length 179 cm.

Catalog: EA24798
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




EA24798 EA24798
Coffin side and the lid of the late 21st Dynasty wooden inner coffin of an unknown man from Thebes / Luxor, Bab el-Gasus, 980-945 BC .

Catalog: EA24798
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum




EA24798





High resolution image of the case of EA24798.

Catalog: EA24798
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum




EA24791 EA24791 EA24791
Wooden anthropoid coffin of Tjenthenef / Tanethenaef.

Painted detail on plaster, hieroglyphic text. Late 21st Dynasty, circa 980 BC - 945 BC, from the Bab el-Gasus, no 44, Thebes / Luxor.

The exterior is decorated with scenes representing offerings to Osiris. Osiris is on a lion-shaped bier awakening to new life, and the deceased is giving offerings to the goddess Hathor in the form of a cow and receiving water from the Goddess of the West, who stands within the foliage of a tree.

A large figure of the Goddess of the West occupies the interior, to each side of which are some of the many forms in which the sun god was believed to be manifested.

The coffin was prepared for a woman with the title Chantress of Amen-Ra. The name Tanethenaef was added in a different colour of paint in spaces left for the purpose. The lid represents the dead woman adorned with a massive wig and a collar composed of flowers and petals. The numerous small scenes below represent Osiris, the sun god, and other deities.

Length: 2199 mm

Catalog: EA24791
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




EA24791



Wooden anthropoid coffin of Tjenthenef / Tanethenaef.

Catalog: EA24791
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




( It should be noted from the images above that the 'blue' lotus flowers are apparently coloured green. This occurs because of the yellowing of the resin sometimes used to paint over the entire surface, and this transparent yellow changes the blues to green, in accordance with the way colours are seen by the human eye, see the quote below from Robins. Note, however, that some coffins were not painted with the resin, and the colours remain true, such as that of Taihuty, and for that of Bakenmut, it would seem that although most pale blues were changed to green, some remained blue, perhaps depending on the coverage of the resin, and the darkness of the original blue colour - Don )

In the late Eighteenth Dynasty a new sort of anthropoid coffin came into use alongside the black-painted type. By the reign of Ramses II the new type had superseded the older.

The ground was yellow, with decorations in red, light blue and dark blue, all covered by a varnish that has darkened over time and changed the blues to greens. The new scheme imitated gold and coloured inlay, and exceptional coffins used gold rather than paint. It became normal to show the forearms crossed on the chest underneath the elaborate collar through which the hands protrude. Women's hands were usually depicted open and men's clenched, holding amulets.

Below the collar a kneeling figure of the goddess Nut spreads her wings in protection. On the lower part of the lid the spaces between the bands of text show the deceased and deities, burial rites, and various scenes taken from the decorative repertory of tomb chapels. On the case Thoth and the four sons of Horus are still depicted.

Traditionally the coffin showed the deceased in an idealised form wearing the divine three part wig, and, if male, the long beard associated with male gods.
Text above from Robins (2008)

EA24791 EA24790
Wooden mummy-board of an unnamed man, with the outer coffin of Bakenmut behind and to the right.

Painted decoration on a layer of plaster, Deir el-Bahri (Thebes / Luxor), Second Cache.

Mid-late 21st dynasty, about 1000 BC - 945 BC, from Bab el-Gasus, no. 29. Below the floral collar is a large image of the sun god as a child squatting upon a lotus flower and flanked by protective winged serpent. Beneath this is the goddess Nut and series of compartments containing figures of the gods Osiris and Sokar, and the ba of the dead man.

Length: 1685 mm

Catalog: EA24790
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




EA24790 EA24790
(left) Close up of the head of EA24790.

(right) High resolution close up of a winged scarab within the floral collar, and, below the collar, a large image of the sun god as a child within a red sun-disk, sitting on a lotus, bearing a striped crook as a symbol of power, and flanked by protective winged serpents.

Note that the scarab has had a face, looking to the right, added to the head. The face is that of the Egyptian god Khnum which was usually depicted with the head of a ram.

Catalog: EA24790
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum




EA24790
Although the text above states that the sun god is sitting on a lotus flower, what this closeup shows is that it is the sun disk which sits on the lotus flower, whereas the sun god himself is actually sitting on what appears to be the seed case of a pink lotus.

These seed cases can be seen on either side of the red sun disk, and immediately below it, still bearing what looks like a schematic image of their stalks. Some reports, including that of Harer (1985) and Pommerening, Marinova, Hendrickx (2010) say that the pink or sacred lotus only arrived in Egypt from Asia in about 525 BC at the time of the Persian conquest.

Thus either the sacred or pink lotus was imported much earlier than that into Egypt, given the age of this mummy-board, or the design I have interpreted as a lotus seed case is in fact something else.



The seed case of the pink lotus may be seen in the drawing below, similar only in general shape to a poppy seed case, but with exposed holes or receptacles in the seed case holding the seeds.

Catalog: EA24790
Photo and text: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum




Lotus flower
( note that this image is a drawing of the Sacred Lotus from Asia, Nelumbo nucifera, which is not endemic to the area, and was apparently imported at the time of the Persian conquest of Egypt - Don )

Two of the species of lotus which grew in the Nile, the white and the blue, have seed-vessels similar to those of the poppy: the capsules contain small grains of the size of millet-seed. The fruit of the pink lotus 'grows on a different stalk from that of the flower, and springs directly from the root; it resembles a honeycomb in form,' or, to take a more prosaic simile, the rose of a watering-pot. The upper part has twenty or thirty cavities, 'each containing a seed as big as an olive stone, and pleasant to eat either fresh or dried.'


This is what the ancients called the bean of Egypt. 'The yearly shoots of the papyrus are also gathered. After pulling them up in the marshes, the points are cut off and rejected, the part remaining being about a cubit in length. It is eaten as a delicacy and is sold in the markets, but those who are fastidious partake of it only after baking.' Twenty different kinds of grain and fruits, prepared by crushing between two stones, are kneaded and baked to furnish cakes or bread; these are often mentioned in the texts as cakes of nabeca, date cakes, and cakes of figs. Lily loaves, made from the roots and seeds of the lotus, were the delight of the gourmand, and appear on the tables of the kings of the XIXth dynasty.

Photo: Drawn by Faucher-Gudin from the Description de l'Egypte, Histoire Naturelle, pl. 61.
Source and text: Maspero (1903), Volume 1, Part A, Chapter I




Lotus seedcase
Seedcase of the Asian Sacred Lotus, Nelumbo nucifera.

Photo: © Joel Savage
Source: https://joelsavage1.wordpress.com/2015/06/01/health-matters-evaluation-of-the-quality-and-wonders-of-lotus-seed-for-the-health/




Lotus flower
Flower of the Asian Sacred Lotus, Nelumbo nucifera.

Photo: T.Voekler
Permission: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.




Lotus flower Lotus flower
(left) Flower of the Blue Lotus, Nymphaea caerulea.

(right) Flower of the White Lotus, Nymphaea lotus, at Lake Panic, Sukuza, Kruger National Park, South Africa.

( the blue lotus appears to be the most favoured species to be depicted on mummy-boards and coffins, judging by its shape - Don )

Photo (left): © http://www.rarexoticseeds.com/en/nymphaea-caerulea-seeds-blue-lotus.html
Photo (right): © Chris Eason, permission Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic licence




nymphaea
White water-lily (Nymphaea lotus L.), left, and blue water-lily (Nymphaea caerulea Sav.), right.

1. Fruit
2. Leaf and flower
3. Plant with rhizome.

Photo and text: Pommerening, Marinova, Hendrickx (2010)




EA24790
High resolution close up of the goddess Nut, and the ram's head of Khnum within a red solar disk which also contains his enemy, the snake, Apep.

Khnum was one of the earliest Egyptian deities, originally the god of the source of the Nile River. Since the annual flooding of the Nile brought with it silt and clay, and its water brought life to its surroundings, he was thought to be the creator of the bodies of human children, which he made at a potter's wheel, from clay, and placed in their mothers' wombs. Khnum is the third aspect of Ra, the solar deity, bringer of light.


The snake Apep was named as the greatest enemy of Ra, and was also known as 'the Lord of Chaos'. Ra was worshipped, and Apep worshipped against. Ra's victory each night, shown by the rising of the sun, was thought to be ensured by the prayers of the Egyptian priests and worshippers at temples. The Egyptians practiced a number of rituals and superstitions that were thought to ward off Apep, and aid Ra to continue his journey across the sky.

Catalog: EA24790
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Wikipedia




Tameniut
The mummy-board of Tameniut.

Painted detail on plaster including Hieroglyphic text. Attached hands, one lost.

Thebes / Luxor, 21st Dynasty, circa 1050 BC.

Restoration of a usurped coffin: the wooden mummy-board of Tameniut:

During the 21st Dynasty many coffins at Thebes were removed from tombs and reinscribed to adapt them for new owners. On this mummy-board the name of the owner, the Chantress of Amun Tameniut, has been erased and subsequently restored.

A hieroglyphic text on the reverse (lower left) throws light on this. It is dated in the third year of an unnamed ruler, and states that the object was restored to its true owner after it was found that the workers of the necropolis had removed the names from the inscriptions.

Catalog: EA15659
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Tameniut Tameniut
Details of the mummy-board of Tameniut.

Catalog: EA15659
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum




Taihuty Taihuty Egypt
Wooden anthropoid coffin of Taihuty / Ta-ahuty.

Painted detail on plaster, hieroglyphic text, Thebes / Luxor, 21st Dynasty, circa 980 BC.

From Bab el-Gasus, no. 32.

Length 1932 mm.

Catalog: EA24793
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Taihuty



Wooden anthropoid coffin of Taihuty / Ta-ahuty.

Catalog: EA24793
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




Taihuty inside coffin
Wooden anthropoid coffin of Taihuty / Ta-ahuty, close-up, and the painted interior of the coffin.

Catalog: EA24793
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum




Taihuty inside coffin
Wooden anthropoid coffin of Taihuty / Ta-ahuty, close-up, and the painted interior of the coffin.

Catalog: EA24793
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




Taihuty Taihuty
The painted base of the coffin of Taihuty.

Catalog: EA24793
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




Egypt

Mummy board of Ankhefenmut

21st Dynasty, 1077 BC - 943 BC, from the Bab el-Gasus, no 68.

Found at the Second Cache. KV 35 in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt originally belonged to king Amenhotep II from the 18th Dynasty but was later used a mummy cache.

Royal and high elite mummies from the 18th, 19th, and 20th Dynasty were relocated here during the Third Intermediate Period and were identified by in inscriptions on their burial wrappings.

Ankhefenmut is entitled priest and sculptor of the temple of the goddess Mut. Other parts of his coffin-ensemble are in museums in Vienna and Albany (USA)

This mummy-board is decorated with an image of a pectoral incorporating a scarab beetle, a figure of the goddess Nut, and a rhomboidal pattern imitating bead-netting over a deep red background.

Catalog: EA24797
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Ankhefenmut Ankhefenmut Ankhefenmut

Mummy board of Ankhefenmut

21st Dynasty, 1077 BC - 943 BC.

Ankhefenmut's title was the priest and sculptor of the temple of the goddess Mut, consort of Amun-Re. Mut's cult-temple was at Thebes / Luxor, its ruins lying to the south of the great Temple of Amun-Re at Karnak. The colour palette used on Ankhefenmut's mummy board is limited to red, black and yellow. White is used, but only for the eyes and details of the net which covers the lower body of the figure.

Ankhefenmut is shown wearing the usual wig and garland collar around his upper body. On the lower half of the body is a cross-hatched design, which imitates a bead net on a red background. The design echoes real nets, made of faience beads, which have been found in some cases placed over the mummy inside the coffin.

The vertical and horizontal bands on the lower body match the bandages on the outside of mummies of this period.The goddess Nut is shown protecting the deceased with her feathered wings. She first appears on coffins and mummy boards from the New Kingdom (about 1550-1070 BC). She still appears, in human form, on the interior of coffins in the Roman period, a thousand years later.

There are other protective symbols on this coffin: the wedjat eyes which form a band on the right arm, perhaps representing a bracelet. These amulets were worn by the living, as well as being placed on the mummy, and represented on coffins.

Photo (left and centre): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Google Arts and Culture Project
Text: © https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/mummy-board-of-ankhefenmut/xQHTJvNfTfxwUw




Egypt
Lid of the painted wooden outer coffin of the God's Father of Amun, Bakenmut.

From Bab el-Gasus, number 40, Thebes / Luxor, 21st Dynasty, 980 BC - 945 BC. Wood, painted detail on plaster.

The exterior is decorated with a variety of scenes, including the sun god's barque, rowed by a procession of deities, and the deceased in the company of various gods, making offerings to the goddess Hathor in the form of a cow.

The interior is decorated with a large image of the Djed pillar enfolded in protective wings, and with mummiform figures representing different manifestations of the sun-god. Length 2084 mm.

Catalog: EA24792
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Bakenmut

Lid of the painted wooden outer coffin of the God's Father of Amun, Bakenmut.

Bakenmut holds in his hands wooden amulets in the form of the Djed pillar and the Tit or Tjet, associated with the deities Osiris and Isis respectively.

Catalog: EA24792
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Bakenmut
The outer coffin of Bakenmut shows him wearing a striped head-dress surmounted by a lotus blossom, and with a garland collar around his shoulders and upper body. This arrangement is often depicted on coffins of the New Kingdom (circa 1550 - 1070 BC) and early first millennium BC. Bakenmut's crossed hands hold the djed pillar and tit amulet.

The tit symbol (pronounced teet) illustrates a knotted piece of cloth whose early meaning is unknown, but in the New Kingdom it was clearly associated with the goddess Isis, the great magician and wife of Osiris. By this time, the tit (or tjet) was also associated with blood of Isis. The tit or tjet sign was considered a potent symbol of protection in the afterlife and the Book of the Dead specifies that the tit be made of blood-red stone, and placed at the deceased's neck.

Knots were widely used as amulets because the Egyptians believed they bound and released magic.

Below kneels a figure of the goddess Nut with her wings outstretched in order to protect the mummy. Nut is often depicted in this pose on the exterior of coffins of this period, and the preceding New Kingdom.

The exterior of Bakenmut's coffin is crammed with small scenes. The paint is so thickly applied that they appear in slightly raised relief. The scenes show deities such as Osiris, Isis and Nephthys and those linked with the solar cycle, such as the scarab Khepri, as well as Re in various mummified forms.

Catalog: EA24792
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/outer-coffin-of-bakenmut/QQGjGNyfe4KGBQ
Additional text: http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/548207




Bakenmut Bakenmut
Sides of the case of the painted wooden outer coffin of the God's Father of Amun, Bakenmut.

Catalog: EA24792
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




Bakenmut Bakenmut
The interior of the outer coffin of Bakenmut.

(Note the very strange images painted on this particular interior. Horus, the falcon headed god, is immediately recognisable, as is Thoth, the ibis headed god, but there are some odd snake like headed gods as well, probably various versions of Apep, the evil Lord of Chaos, the snake headed enemy of Ra, the solar deity, the bringer of light.

In addition there is a somewhat rare depiction of Unut, a goddess with a hare's head. I find the god to the right of Thoth at the base of the coffin particularly enigmatic. It appears to be a god with the head of a Khet, or brazier - Don 
)

Catalog: EA24792
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum




Bakenmut





The interior of the outer coffin of Bakenmut.

The main feature of the interior of the coffin is a large djed pillar, topped by a triple version of the crown of Osiris, further ornamented with rams horns. At the top of the coffin is a large ba bird, whose wings flanked the head of the mummy.

Catalog: EA24792
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/outer-coffin-of-bakenmut/QQGjGNyfe4KGBQ




Egypt



The outer coffin of Bakenmut shows him wearing a striped head-dress surmounted by a lotus blossom, and with a garland collar around his shoulders and upper body. This arrangement is often depicted on coffins of the New Kingdom (about 1550-1070 BC) and early first millennium BC.

Bakenmut's crossed hands hold the djed pillar and tit amulet. Below kneels a figure of the goddess Nut with her wings outstretched in order to protect the mummy. Nut is often depicted in this pose on the exterior of coffins of this period, and the preceding New Kingdom.

The exterior of Bakenmut's coffin is crammed with small scenes. The paint is so thickly applied that they appear in slightly raised relief. The scenes show deities such as Osiris, Isis and Nephthys and those linked with the solar cycle, such as the scarab Khepri, as well as Re in various mummified forms.

The main feature of the interior of the coffin is a large djed pillar, topped by a triple version of the crown of Osiris, further ornamented with rams horns.

At the top of the coffin is a large ba bird, whose wings flanked the head of the mummy.

Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Google Arts and Culture Project
Text: © https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/outer-coffin-of-bakenmut/QQGjGNyfe4KGBQ




priest priest priest
(Left) Lid of the coffin of the priest called Amun Nes-pa-neb-imakh.

Wood, Luxor, New Kingdom 1000-970 BC

Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark



(Centre and right): This so-called mummy board was placed inside the coffin on top of the mummy, to function as a full-length mummy-mask.

This mummy board also belonged to the priest called Amun Nes-pa-neb-imakh. The detailed decoration primarily focuses on the adoration of the Egyptian god of the dead, Osiris.

Wood, Luxor, New Kingdom 1000-970 BC
Height: 174 cm. Width: 45 cm
Wood.

Photo (centre): Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark

Photo (right): https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/mummy-board/5wGrQGZKqBq0qg?projectId=art-project
Permission: CC-BY-SA




priest priest



(Note that that there are many individuals with the name of Ankh-ef-en-Khonsu. They are further designated scribe or prophet or priest, and sometimes have suffixes after the name to identify them - Don )

The priest of Ankh-ef-en-Khonsu. Since he is one with Osiris, he is shown (on the right, the topmost lid) with a curved beard and holding an ankh sign, the sign of life.

Wood, Luxor, New Kingdom, 1000-950 BC.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark




Egypt
This is an excellent diagram of the family of the high priests of Thebes / Luxor and the royal family of Tanis.

Tanis was a city in ancient Egypt and served as a parallel religious centre to Thebes / Luxor in the Third Intermediate Period. No archaeological evidence from it pre-dates the reign of Psusennes I (1039-991 BC, 21st Dynasty), but many scholars think it originated in the late New Kingdom. Tanis's creation was most likely due to the silting up of the Nile branch that ran by Pi-Ramesses, which forced people to seek another area with access to water. Later on, Tanis would become known as Thebes / Luxor of Lower Egypt.

The kings at Tanis saw themselves as the legitimate successors on the throne of Upper and Lower Egypt. They used traditional titles and displayed their royalty in building work, although that was insignificant when compared to activity at the height of the New Kingdom.

Tanis was founded in the late Twentieth Dynasty, and became the northern capital of Egypt during the following Twenty-first Dynasty. It was the home city of Smendes, founder of the 21st dynasty. During the Twenty-second Dynasty Tanis remained as Egypt's political capital (though there were sometimes rival dynasties located elsewhere in Upper Egypt). It was an important commercial and strategic city until it was threatened with inundation by Lake Manzala in the 6th century AD, when it was finally abandoned. The refugees founded the nearby city of Tennis.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden
Additional text: Wikipedia




Amenemipet
Coffin of the priest Amenemipet, 21st Dynasty, from Deir el-Bahri, length 2058 mm.

The anthropoid (human-shaped) coffin of Amenemipet is typical of Egyptian coffins of the period immediately after the New Kingdom (that is, after about 1070 BC). At this time, Egyptian tombs were not decorated, and many of the scenes which would have appeared on the tomb walls were instead transferred to the coffins.The various scenes on the exterior and interior of the coffin are painted in white, blue, green, red and black on a yellow background.

Short hieroglyphic labels, written on a white background, explain the scenes. These include the worship of the sun god and other deities by the deceased and his ba. According to Egyptian beliefs, the ba was an element of the individual (similar to 'personality'), which was divided at death but reunited in the Afterlife. It is represented as a bird with a human head. Another scene shows Amenemipet's mummy being purified by Anubis.

The funerary deities Isis and Nephthys are also represented.The cartouche of King Amenhotep I (about 1525-1504 BC) appears on the interior of the coffin, by the head of the deceased. Amenhotep was a king of the early Eighteenth Dynasty, and revered as the founder of the Theban necropolis (cemetery).

Catalog: EA22941
Photo: Google Arts & Culture, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/coffin-of-the-priest-amenemipet/SAHuiqucxNHo9w?hl=en, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Amenemipet Amenemipet
Coffin of the priest Amenemipet, 21st Dynasty, from Deir el-Bahri, length 2058 mm.

Painted wooden coffin of the priest Amenemipet, also known as the priest of Amun Amenemope.

Late 21st - early 22nd Dynasty, about 950 BC - 900 BC, from Thebes / Luxor.

The lid is dominated by a large floral collar, over which is represented a crossed stole of red leather, an element of the trappings of mummies at this period, probably signifying protection. The exterior of the coffin case carries scenes from the Amduat, showing the nocturnal journey of the sun god. On the interior are depictions of the solar disc and the deceased adoring various gods.

Catalog: EA22941
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the Museum © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Hor
Closeup of the painted wooden mummy-board of an unidentified woman.

Late 21st - early 22nd Dynasty, about 950 BC - 900 BC, from Thebes / Luxor.

Beneath the large floral collar are winged solar discs, the goddess Nut flanked by ba-birds, and many small images of deities. At the foot is the cartouche of the deified king Amenhotep I.

Length 1685 mm, width 380 mm, thickness 120 mm.

Catalog: EA22542
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at the museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Hor
Full length view of the painted wooden mummy-board of an unidentified woman, as above.

Catalog: EA22542
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum




The Unlucky Mummy

From the British Museum site, http://www.britishmuseum.org/

Text attributed to: Strudwick (2006)

This object, EA22542, is perhaps best known for the strange folkloric history attributed to it. It has acquired the popular nickname of the 'Unlucky Mummy', with a reputation for bringing misfortune. None of these stories has any basis in fact, but from time to time the strength of the rumours has led to a flood of enquiries.

The mummy-board is said to have been bought by one of four young English travellers in Egypt during the 1860s or 1870s. Two died or were seriously injured in shooting incidents, and the other two died in poverty within a short time. The mummy-board was passed to the sister of one of the travellers, but as soon as it had entered her house the occupants suffered a series of misfortunes. The celebrated clairvoyant Madame Helena Blavatsky is alleged to have detected an evil influence, and ultimately traced it to the mummy-board. She urged the owner to dispose of it and in consequence it was presented to the British Museum.

The most remarkable story is that the mummy-board was on board the SS Titanic on its maiden voyage in 1912, and that its presence caused the ship to collide with an iceberg and sink!Needless to say, there is no truth in any of this; the object had never left the Museum until it went to a temporary exhibition in 1990.

This mummy-board is both a remarkable ancient object and an example of how Egyptian objects can develop their own modern existence.Mummy-boards or covers like this were placed on top of the mummy, which would lie inside one or two wooden coffins decorated in a very similar fashion. The mummy to which this board belonged is said to have been left in Egypt.

No inscriptions on the board identify the deceased, presumably because that task would have been performed by the outer coffins.The wooden board was covered in plaster, serving as a painting ground, with many of the decorative elements modelled in the plaster to give the appearance of raised relief. The decoration was executed with great care in red, blue, and light and dark green; the predominantly yellow effect comes either from the use of a yellow ground or from the varnish, applied to the finished object, which has gradually turned yellow.

On the shoulders of the mummy-board is a massive coloured collar, below which is a series of complex scenes. They include images of baboons worshipping the sun, figures of Osiris, and many protective deities, including the name of Amenhotep I, the dead king worshipped as a local deity in Thebes / Luxor. One of the coffin's functions, other than to act as a container for the body, was to serve as a microcosm, setting the deceased within the larger environment of the universe itself; thus the solar and Osirian symbolism essential to assist the person's rebirth figures prominently. The decoration usual in the Twenty-first Dynasty is perhaps the most elaborate example of this.

From Wikipedia:

The name 'Unlucky Mummy' is misleading as the artifact is not a mummy at all, but rather a gessoed and painted wooden 'mummy-board' or inner coffin lid. It was found at Thebes / Luxor and can be dated by its shape and the style of its decoration to the late 21st or early 22nd Dynasty (c 950–900 BC).

In the British Museum it is known by its serial number EA 22542. The beardless face and the position of the hands with fingers extended show that it was made to cover the mummified body of a woman. Her identity is not known due to the brief hieroglyphic inscriptions containing only short religious phrases, and omitting mention of the name of the deceased. The high quality of the lid indicates that the owner was a person of high rank. It was usual for such ladies to participate in the musical accompaniments to the rituals in the temple of Amen-ra; hence early British Museum publications described the owner of 22542 as a 'priestess of Amen-Ra'.

The mummy-board is 162 centimetres (64 in) in length and made out of wood and plaster. The detail is painted upon the plaster, and hands protrude from the wooden mummy-board. For its age, the mummy-board is of good quality.

The mummy-board has acquired a reputation for bringing misfortune, and a vast web of mythology has developed around it. It has been credited with causing death, injury and large-scale disasters such as the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912, thereby earning the nickname 'The Unlucky Mummy'. None of these stories have any basis in fact, but from time to time the strength of the rumours has led to a flood of enquiries on the subject. A disclaimer written by Wallis Budge was published in 1934, and yet since that time the myth has undergone further embellishment.

The 'Unlucky Mummy' has also been linked to the death of the British writer and journalist, Bertram Fletcher Robinson. Robinson conducted research into the history of that artefact whilst working as a journalist for the Daily Express newspaper during 1904. He became convinced that the 'Unlucky Mummy' had malevolent powers and died just three years later aged 36 years.




Egypt
Denytenamun, Priest of Amun.

22nd dynasty around 945-850 BC Thebes / Luxor.

Mummy of a man of middle age. Resin has been poured on the linen wrappings.

Skull - The mouth is closed, but some teeth are missing. An incisor and two premolars are lying in the nasal area. Artificial eyes are inserted in the orbits, but the eye in the left is displaced. There are no obvious fractures and the cervical spine appears intact.

Thorax and Abdomen - The ribs and spinal column have no fractures or dislocations. There is a pectoral in the form of a bird with open wings, with a heart-scarab below it. A dense mass occupies the left thoracic apex; this is almost certainly a mixture of sand and mud. The four parcels of viscera fill the rest of the thorax. A large swab of linen has been pushed into the flank-incision which is covered by a metal plate. There is a large rounded granular mass in the pelvis. The pelvis and hips appear normal.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Egypt
Denytenamun, Priest of Amun.

Arms - Extended. Hands with fingers extended in pubic area.

Legs - There is a large oval opacity between the thighs. This may represent a package of resin-impregnated linen possibly containing shed epidermis. No fractures, dislocations, or lines of arrested growth seen.

Base and lid of the anthropoid sycomore fig wooden coffin of Denytenamun, Priest of Amun: wooden mask with inlaid eyes, perhaps a portrait of the deceased, is inserted over the face; lid - polychrome painted wig and wide collar, overlaid with 'braces', hands in relief, representation of sun-god on solar-barque protects the breast with Osiris, flanked by Isis and Nephthys, with wings poised in a gesture of protection.

Below, a vertical register of hieroglyphs runs down the centre of the body and is flanked by six vignettes:
1 and 2: the deceased worships manifestations of the sun-god.
3 and 4: the cow of Hathor and the bull of Ptah-Sokar-Osiris stand before the western mountains and the tomb of the deceased.
5 and 6: the four Sons of Horus, with jackals beneath, the foot section is damaged in places; the base - is decorated with representations of funerary deities, in yellow outline on a dark ground; also some fragments of mummy-wrapping, some coated in resin, now removed from the coffin.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Egypt Egypt
Mummy of Djedkhonsiufankh. The mummy, when acquired, was in a gilded cartonnage mummy-case and wooden coffin with a gilded face and inlaid glass (?) eyes bearing painted deities and the name Djedkhonsiufankh, son of Pennestytawy, son of Nesamun.

Skull - No obvious fractures. The mouth was closed; details of the teeth are poor. No artificial eyes were visible, but these may well have been obscured by bone shadows.

Thorax and Abdomen - Entirely filled with what is probably a mixture of sand, sawdust, and resin. It is likely that the four visceral packs are embedded in this material. Over the lower end of the sternum is a winged pectoral. Above the pectoral is a small amulet ('was'-sceptre perhaps) and below a scarab.

Details of the ribs are poor, but the dorsal and lumbar vertebrae show gross osteo-arthritic changes. An opaque rectangular flank-plate covers the embalming incision on the left side of the abdomen. There is considerable subcutaneous packing in the region of the thighs. The pelvic cavity has also been tightly packed. No obvious fractures or dislocations of the pelvis.

Arms - Extended. The palms of the hands (fingers extended) cover the genital area. No obvious fractures or dislocations.

Legs - The long bones appear normal and there are no fractures, dislocations or lines of arrested growth. In the bandages between the thighs is a ring with a scarab as a bezel. The bones of the feet are within normal limits. Also listed as Djedkhonsefankh on the museum card associated with the display.

22nd Dynasty, about 945-716 BC from Thebes / Luxor.

Catalog: EA6662
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Egypt Egypt
Mummy of Djedkhonsiufankh, 21st Dynasty, fourth prophet of Amun at Karnak, 22nd Dynasty, about 945-716 BC from Thebes / Luxor.

Also listed as Djedkhonsuefankh, and as Djedkhonsefankh, second son of Pinudjem I, brother of Masaharta.

The cartonnage case has been extensively decorated with gilded low-relief scenes showing the sun god in the form of a ram-headed falcon, the sons of Horus and the goddesses Isis and Nephthys with wings outspread in protection over the body.

After the body was placed in the coffin the surface was coated with a layer of molten resin which has obscured the scenes and inscriptions.

The colour black was closely associated by the Egyptians with death and resurrection. At several periods, coffins and other funerary objects were coloured black, often with inscriptions and decoration in gold leaf or yellow or white paint. The coffin of Djedkhonsefankh typifies this colour scheme. The face is covered with gold leaf, and has inlaid eyes, while the main features of the decoration are executed in cream coloured paint.

On the lid are figures of the goddess Nut and a scene of a child-god shaking a sistrum before the jackal-diety Anubis. The compartments below contain depictions of the dead man in the presence of various gods, including the deified king Amenhotep I. Along the sides of the case are scenes drawn from the repertoire of the Books of the Underworld, which illustrate the denizens of the kingdom of Osiris and the treatment, according to the blessed and the damned. These scenes include deities armed with knives, and a large serpent spitting fire towards the decapitated enemies of the sun god.

Catalog: EA 6662
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, Wikipedia, card at the display in the British Museum.




Egypt Egypt The Ancient Egyptian Panehsy was Prophet of Amenhotep (I) of the Forecourt, during the reign of Ramesses II . He had a troubled career as viceroy in Nubia.

Panehsy or Pinehesy was Viceroy of Kush during the reign of Ramesses XI, the last king of the Egyptian 20th Dynasty. Sometime during the reign of Ramesses XI, Pinehesy succeeded in temporarily suppressing the Theban High Priest of Amun, Amenhotep. Although this 'suppression of the High Priest of Amun' used to be dated quite early in the reign (prior to year 9 of the reign), recently the communis opinio has changed to the view that it took place only shortly before the start of the Whm Mswt or Renaissance, an era which was inaugurated in regnal Year 19, probably to stress the return of normal conditions following the coup of Pinehesy.

Following this suppression, Pinehesy was chased out of the Thebais, although it is not entirely clear who ended this anarchic period. It seems that Pinehesy more or less maintained his position in Nubia for over a decade. Some ten years after the suppression, in year 10 of the Whm Mswt, the Renaissance, the then High Priest of Amun and Viceroy of Kush, Piankh, went on an expedition to 'meet Pinehesy'. Although this is seen by many Egyptologists as an expedition to attack Pinehesy, this is little more than speculation. Other Egyptologists have suggested that Piankh may have rather gone south to negotiate with Pinehesy. Of the outcome of this undertaking very little is known. It seems, however, that Pinehesy died of old age while still in control of Lower Nubia.

The Theban Tomb TT16 is located in Dra' Abu el-Naga', part of the Theban Necropolis, on the west bank of the Nile, opposite to Luxor. It is the burial place of the Ancient Egyptian Panehsy, who was Prophet of Amenhotep (I) of the Forecourt, during the reign of Ramesses II.

Panehesy's wife is named Ternute (or Tarennu). A brother of Panehesy by the name of Pahesy appears in a scene with the procession of a vase of Amun. The tomb is rather roughly hewn from the rock, and the decoration is poor. A scene of the barque of Amenhotep I has been almost totally destroyed, but other scenes showing Panehsy and his wife standing before Osiris are preserved.


More Details:
Measurements: 14 x 46 x 178 cm
Material: cartonnage
Date: ca 925 - 850 BC
Place: Luxor (Egypte)

Cartonnage: In a technique similar to papier-mâché, scraps of linen or papyrus were stuck together with resin and/or plaster, and moulded to the shape of the body, forming a type of shell, and used to make mummy cases and masks. After the material dried it could be painted or gilded, and the shell could be decorated with geometric shapes, deities, and inscriptions.

(The technique of cartonnage has several advantages. It would have been much easier and faster to get a realistic portrait of the person concerned, it was light and easy to handle, it did not crack, and was certainly a lot cheaper than wood, which had to be imported at huge expense from places such as Lebanon - Don )

Photo (left) : https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/cartonnage-of-panehsy/aQGxprcVBpeTtg?hl=en-gb

Photo (right): Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Additional text: Wikipedia


Egypt
For the ancient Egyptians, life was very important after death. They prepared for death throughout their life, as much as was practicable. Around 900 BC mummies were prepared with cartonnage as skintight sleeves. The material of such a sleeve comprised linen soaked in gum arabic. This was then plastered on the mummy, pulled off when dry, and then tied on the back with laces. The sleeve was painted in many colours, and often covered with gold leaf.

The mummy sleeve of Panehsy is a very nice specimen. The paintings, winged figures of gods and hieroglyphics, have a general protective significance. On the back of the sleeve is a djed-pillar, the Egyptian symbol for sustainability and continued existence. The djed symbol is one of the more ancient and commonly found symbols in Egyptian mythology. It is a pillar-like symbol in hieroglyphics representing stability. It is associated with Osiris, the Egyptian god of the afterlife, the underworld, and the dead. It is commonly understood to represent his spine.

material : cartonnage
Length : 178 cm
Date : about 925-850 BC.
Location : Luxor (Egypt)

Photo and text: http://www.rmo.nl/collectie/afdelingen/egyptenaren/de-mooiste-objecten/panehsy
Additional text: Wikipedia




Egypt
Superb photograph by Michiel 2005 of the face of the mummy sleeve of Panehsy.

Photo: © Michiel 2005, http://www.ipernity.com/doc/288839/18779683




Egypt
Mummy coffin of Djedmontefanch, a priest of Amun, ~ 945 BC - 712 BC

The lid of the mummy case of Djedmontuiufankh bears painted decorations that include rituals and spells from the Egyptian Book of the Dead. This book was a kind of guide for the dead man as he journeyed through the afterlife, so that his soul could live on, 'housed' in the mummy and its case. For centuries, the Egyptians had painted such scenes on the walls of their tombs. But around 1000 BC, when Djedmontuiufankh, a priest of Amun, died and was mummified, the political and social situation in Egypt had become volatile. Important personages were buried in bare, hidden chambers in the rock so that grave robbers could not find them. Mummies were placed in cases, and all the symbols, rituals, and spells had to be painted on those cases.

The wooden lid of Djedmontuiufankh’s mummy case shows the priest in the form of the god Osiris. Every dead person became an Osiris, destined to rise from the dead. This is why Djedmontuiufankh is wearing a long divine wig and braided divine beard and has crossed his hands over his chest, holding two schematically depicted sceptres. On his chest and belly lie protective figures of the god Horus (shown with a falcon’s head), the sky goddess Nut, and the disc of the sun. Between them are smaller figures of gods and many columns of hieroglyphic text. The rest of the mummy case, which is not on display here, is decorated inside and out with many other scenes, including offerings, the burial, and the ritual cleansing of the dead man by the goddesses Isis and Nephthys.

30 x 50 x 188 cm

Photo and text: © https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/mummy-coffin-of-djedmontefanch/AgGc_ydkCp9v6Q?projectId=art-project




Egypt





This photograph shows both the upper surface of the two part coffin of Djedmontefanch, as above, and its lower section, the inside of which has been richly decorated.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.




Egypt
Painted Stela

22nd Dynasty, about 945-716 BC. Provenance unknown.

In tombs of earlier periods, a stela served as the focal point of the funerary chapel, where offerings to the dead were made.

During the Third Intermediate Period, when few tombs possessed individual chapels, a small stela was sometimes deposited near the coffin. This example, made for a man named Ir, is typical of its period. It depicts the deceased making an offering to the sun god Ra-Horakhty, who usually replaced Osiris on 22nd Dynasty funerary stelae.

Catalog: EA 66425
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0






dagger mold
Kushite dagger mould, 900 - 400 BC, from Kawa.

Bronze daggers were made with this pottery mould.

Catalog: EA63584
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card at museum display, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Egypt Egypt



Tanetcharoe / Tachateroe coffin, 800 BC

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.


Egypt



Tanetcharoe / Tachateroe cartonnage.

14 x 43 x 165 cm, 800 BC

Photo: https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/cartonnage-of-tanetcharoe/WAFDizeZq9saeQ




   Kerma
In 2003, a Swiss archaeological team working in northern Sudan uncovered one of the most remarkable Egyptological finds in recent years. At the site known as Kerma, near the third cataract of the Nile, archaeologist Charles Bonnet and his team discovered a ditch within a temple from the ancient city of Pnoubs, which contained seven monumental black granite statues.

The statues were found in a pit in Kerma, south of the Third Cataract of the Nile. The seven statues, which stood between 130 to 270 cm tall, were inscribed with the names of five of Nubia's kings: Taharqa, Tanoutamon, Senkamanisken, Anlamani, and Aspelta. Taharqa and Tanoutamon ruled Egypt as well as Nubia. Sometimes known as the 'Black Pharaohs', Nubian kings ruled Egypt from circa 760 BC - 660 BC

Photo: Jac Strijbos8 via Wikipedia
Permission: CC BY-SA 3.0
Text: http://www.crystalinks.com/nubia.html




Egypt

Ta-khennu's Double Coffin and mummy
Luxor, 3rd Intermediate period, 750 - 650 BC.

On the lid of the inner coffin Ta-khennu's hair is dressed in the so-called Hathor-hairstyle which is rather unusual for this period. On the upper picture she is being introduced to Osiris, god of the Underworld, and Re, the sun god, at the weighing of the heart. This part of the coffin is mostly in very good condition.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark




Egypt

The lid of the outer coffin (centre) is very damaged. On top of the mummy was placed a protective net of beads which today has almost disappeared. Only the scarab, scraps of some bead hieroglyphs, and the faint imprint of the network reveal that they once existed.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark



Egypt

At the bottom of the outer coffin the goddess of the West protects the dead.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark



stela
Stela of Takhennu, or Ta-khennu, Luxor, 3rd Intermediate period, 750 - 650 BC.

Material: Sycomore fig, Ficus sycomorus, wood.

There are three sections on this round-topped stela. A winged sun-disk with uraei, the figure of the sacred serpent, an emblem of sovereignty depicted on the headdress of ancient Egyptian rulers and deities, appears below a curved border at the top. In the middle there is a scene beneath a sky-sign decorated with stars. The deceased Takhennu stands on the right with her arms raised in adoration before an altar on which rests a water-pot cooled by a lotus-blossom.

Behind stand Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, and the four sons of Horus. Seven lines of text in the bottom section contain a prayer to Osiris, Geb, Atum, Ptah-Sokar, Anubis, and Osiris-Wennufer on behalf of Takhennu.

Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source and text: © http://www.britishmuseum.org/




Egypt
(9) Canopic jars of Horpenmenti - The Egyptian Renaissance brings the return of real hollowed Canopic jars (vases for intestines).
Limestone; Thebes / Luxor ca 750-650 BC, 25th - 26th dynasties

(10) Shabti box of Bakenrenef - The owner gives a shabti to a seated god. The lid shows a ship which carries the sun god through the sky and the underworld.
Wood; Thebes / Luxor ca 700-600 BC, 25th - 26th Dynasty

(11) Shabti box of Setywy - On the lid are again the ships which sail the sun god through the sky and the underworld.
The box is in the shape of a coffin with corner-posts, characteristic of the period.
Wood; Thebes / Luxor ca 700-600 BC, 25th - 26th Dynasty

(12) Shabtis of Pamel - Shabtis from this period are poorly finished mass production pieces. Often there were 400 per deceased: one for each day of the year plus supervisors for every ten workers.
Faience, Thebes / Luxor ca 900-700 BC. 22nd - 25th Dynasties.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.




 Shabti box


The woman Mut's wooden box for shawabti-figures with contemporary figures.

3rd Intermediate Period, 750-650 BC.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark




Horakhbit stela
Painted wooden stela

25th Dynasty, about 725 BC - 675 BC.

Sycomore fig wood stela of Horakhbit: this round-topped stela is bordered by a curved sky-sign at the top and a was-sceptre on each side. Below the sky is a winged sun-disk with uraei flanked by 'wedjat'-eyes. On the left stands Ra, while the deceased stands on the right. Between them is an altar with offerings above which are three lines of text, naming the offerings.


The stela has been gouged in many places and has flaked around the edges. The background of the stela is white. There is a slight yellow margin on three sides and large red border at the bottom with an upper blue edge. The sky-sign is blue and the sceptres are green. The disk is red with yellow uraei. The upper wings of the disk are yellow with blue dots and a blue upper edge; the middle are white with black lines, blue decoration, often faded to grey, and a red lower edge; the lower are green with feathers delineated in black, yellow at each end, and a red lower edge in the centre. The 'wedjat'-eyes are blue with a black pupil on white.

There is a red band between eye and eyebrow and a yellow band below and to one side of the eye. The god has a red disk with a yellow uraeus. His wig and body are blue. His face is white with a red eye on yellow, green cheek, red poll, and black beak. His collar and bangles are yellow; his upper garment green; his kilt yellow and green with a blue sash and yellow and green tail. His 'ankh'-sign is blue and his sceptre is green.

The deceased has a red body, blue collar and bangles, yellow garment, black wig and eye, red fillet, and red and green cone. The altar is blue with a yellow top and red and blue offerings. The loaf and vase beneath are blue and red respectively. The hieroglyphs are blue. Plaster still remains on the sides and back of the stela.

The stela is typical of the small wooden funerary stelae placed in Theban tombs of the period. The scene shows the dead man before the sun-god Ra-Horakhty.

Catalog: EA8449
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Egypt
The Stele of Revealing. The funerary tablet of Ankh-af-na-khonsu, a 26th dynasty (ca 725 BC) Theban priest.

Photo: Ashami
Text: Wikipedia
Permission: Public Domain




Gautseshenu



Cartonnage and Mummy of Gautseshenu.

Egypt, probably from Thebes / Luxor. Third Intermediate Period, Dynasties 25 to 26, circa 700–650 BC. Linen, paint, gesso, organic materials; 163 x 38 x 29 cm .

Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 34.1223

This cartonnage shows, on the right, Anubis, the jackal-headed god, weighing the heart of the deceased, an important test for entry to the afterlife. In the center are the Four Sons of Horus, who protected specific mummified organs of the body. On the left, the deceased kneels and plays musical instruments before the symbol of the god Osiris.

This mummy’s name, Gautseshenu, means 'bouquet of lotuses'. The Egyptian word seshen (lotus) is the origin of the name Susan. She was from a prominent family of Egyptian priests, and the brightly colored 'cartonnage' or coffin made of linen and resin, was discovered near the city of Luxor in southern Egypt. Her coffin has never been opened.

The young woman was at least 16 years old and stood about 4 feet 6 inches, 137 cm tall.

Photo: https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/inner-cartonnage-of-gautseshenu/xgEwVgBunKnzdw?exhibitId=dQKygktK6lIGLg
© Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund
Text: http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/exhibitions/mummy_chamber/gautseshenu.php and http://thegrio.com/2011/04/29/hospital-uses-cat-scan-to-look-inside-mummys-unopened-coffin/




Egypt
Mummy of Keku and shroud

The mummy is covered with a bead coverlet, presumably a symbol of heaven. The shroud that lies beside the mummy was manufactured in 2006 by the Te Papa museum in New Zealand, in deference to the human remains of Keku that were exhibited there. According to Maori beliefs, the shroud is a symbol and carrier of life, love, care and respect.

Note that no attempt has been made to create a face from the beads, as was the case with the bead coverlet of Peftjauneith. Keku's bead coverlet is much larger, covering most of the body, and near the head is the symbol of a scarab.

In ancient Egyptian religion, the sun god Ra is seen to roll across the sky each day, transforming bodies and souls. Beetles of the Scarabaeidae family (dung beetle) roll dung into a ball as food and as a brood chamber in which to lay eggs that are later transformed into larvae. For these reasons the scarab was seen as a symbol of this heavenly cycle and of the idea or rebirth or regeneration. The Egyptian god Khepri, Ra as the rising sun, was often depicted as a scarab beetle or as a scarab beetle-headed man. The ancient Egyptians believed that Khepri renewed the sun every day before rolling it above the horizon, then carried it through the other world after sunset, only to renew it, again, the next day.


Mummy, linen, faience; site Thebes / Luxor ca 700-650 BC. (25th-26th Dynasty)
shroud; Wellington, New Zealand 2006.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Additional text: Wikipedia


Egypt
(Note that two identifications have been given for this mummy. I would be glad if I could clear up the confusion. The dates are the same, the descriptions are the same for both Keku and Inamonnefnebu. Perhaps Keku is the person and Inamonnefnebu is the place where it was found? Keku or Kekoe is listed on the catalogue as Egypt Item number: AMM 1-d - Don )

Mummy of Inamonnefnebu 700 BC - 650 BC Length 155 cm.

The mummy has been wrapped in a shroud of a vaguely reddish colour. There is a wide gap along the centre of the back, through which one can see the regular transverse bandages of the layer underneath. The shroud is held in place by a number of straps of folded linen: around the head, hips, knees, and just above the ankles, with the diagonal bands of a stola over the torso. There are three windings of a broad bandage around the insteps, with one loop passing under the soles of the feet, likewise over the shroud.

On top of the shroud lies a bead net which is 151 cm long and 51.5 cm wide. It is mainly composed of blue faience cylinder beads (0.6. cm long), forming rhomboid cells, with blue twin rings on the crossings. The upper edge of the net has been reinforced with a triple border of ring beads, forming alternating strips of red, white, and blue. The lower edge has a fringe with tufts of two cylinders and a twin ring each.

The following elements of bead mosaic have been worked into the bead net: a winged scarab on the throat, a collar on the chest consisting of alternating ranges of blue and red cylinder beads, a winged goddess on the abdomen, four antithetic Sons of Horus on the thighs and a column of text on the lower legs. The hieroglyphs read: ‘An offering which the King gives to Osiris, Lord of Aby[dos], may he grant a good burial.’

Mummy from Inamonnefnebu
RMO AMM 1,195, also listed as Leiden 15, AMM 1
Mummy, linen, faience, Thebes / Luxor (Egypt), late 25th – early 26th dynasty, ca 700-650 BC.
Photo and text: © https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/mummy-of-inamonnefnebu/RQHBQRZcxv6nTw?hl=en-gb




Egypt Egypt Egypt
Coffin of Keku.

Dimensions 31 x 49 x 172 cm

Keku lived in Thebes (now Luxor) ca 700 BC, and was the wealthy daughter of Namenekhamun, chief butcher in the temple complex of the god Amun. She died in her early 20s - probably of disease.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Additional text: http://www.theage.com.au/news/Science/Keku-a-wonder-to-behold-after-2700-years/2005/06/14/1118645805303.html?oneclick=true




Egypt Egypt Egypt
Coffin of Keku.

"Unfortunately, we do not know who excavated Keku and when, but it must have been a local agent in Upper-Egyptian Thebes / Luxor, working for one of the great diplomats-collectors around 1825 - perhaps the Italian, Piccinini, who appears to have worked for Giovanni d'Anastasi," said Dr Maarten Raven, the curator of the museum's Egyptian department.

'Giovanni d'Anastasi, a merchant in Alexandria and consul-general for Sweden, sold his collection of almost 6000 Egyptian objects to the Leiden Museum in 1828. Keku was among these objects.'

Photo: http://www.rmo.nl/collectie/zoeken?object=AMM+4-c
Text: http://www.ancientegypt.com.au/ancient-egypt-articles/2005/6/20/revealing-ancient-secrets/




Egypt
The priestess Di-Mut-shep-n-ankh died at the age of 35. She was wrapped in 15 garments, which had been reused as mummy bandages.

The lower coffin appears to be made of wood, although the lid is of cartonnage, a technique similar to papier mache.

Ca 700 BC.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark
Additional text: http://picturemixture.wordpress.com/2009/08/26/di-mut-shep-n-ankh/




Egypt
The cartonnage which forms the casket lid of the priestess Di-Mut-shep-n-ankh, also known as 'the leader of the chorus of Karnak'.

Sun gods wrap their wings around the woman.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark
Additional text: http://picturemixture.wordpress.com/2009/08/26/di-mut-shep-n-ankh/




Egypt
Garments from the mummy of the 'Leader of the chorus of Karnak', Di-Mut-shep-n-ankh. The tunics and the shawl are of varying quality, but they all have almost identical indigo-blue selvedges and a unique, embroidered edging at the neck and armholes.

Also in this image are examples of sandals, kept in place by a strap between the toes. Closed shoes did not exist. Wickerwork and leather, ca 1000 BC.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark




Egypt  corn mummy  corn mummy
Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figures

Many of these figures contain a funerary papyrus, including a book of the dead. Others contain random old official documents, since few people could read, and the deception would never be uncovered. The papyrus documents were contained either within the statue itself, or in a lidded cavity in the box on which the statue often stood.

These figures, each with the feather crown of the god of resurrection Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, sometimes contain a 'corn mummy', symbol of new life. Egyptians wished to secure everlasting life by binding their fate to the sun, being reborn every morning, or to Osiris, dead and buried as a mummy, but resurrected to life in the Underworld.

(left) Wood, location Thebes / Luxor, ca 700-600 BC, 25th - 26th Dynasty.
(centre) Wood, Late Period, 700-500 BC.
(right) Wood, Late Period, 700-500 BC.


During annual rituals honouring Osiris, the ancient Egyptians fashioned small 'corn mummies' from a mixture of clay, sand, and grains of emmer wheat. These 'mummies' were wrapped in layers of bandages and placed in coffins decorated with images of the falcon god Sokar. The clay/seed mixture was watered before the funeral, so that the grains sprouted in the darkness of the tomb as a symbol of new life. The Egyptians considered corn (emmer wheat) as being a living element of a natural cycle embodying the concept of resurrection and renewal. This concept was crucial to the worship of Osiris, who died and was resurrected as lord of the dead.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source (left): Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Source (centre and right): Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark
Additional text: http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/154356/Corn_Mummy


Ptah-Sokar-Osiris was a funerary god, 'born' out of the association of three originally separate gods, all connected with rebirth. Ptah, the creator god of Memphis, and the funerary god Sokar of Saqqara (the necropolis of Memphis) were already linked in the Old Kingdom. A third god, Osiris, was later added because he also was a funerary god. This resulted in the god Ptah-Sokar-Osiris. In ancient Egypt three was the number of plurality; compare also the triads of deities, developing from the New Kingdom onwards. In many tombs of the Late Period statuettes of this god were found, showing the god in the shape of a mummy, with a human head or the head of a falcon, usually wearing a crown with ram's horns, standing on a base and sometimes with a small crouching falcon in front of him on the base, facing him.

In the statuette or in its base a funerary papyrus was sometimes hidden, often a copy of the Book of the Dead but also other texts, such as the Amduat or – surprisingly – discarded administrative documents; the latter were apparently sold to the owner as funerary manuscripts; since only a small percentage of the Egyptians could read, this deceit usually was not detected. It may seem strange that someone illiterate bought a funerary papyrus, but the texts on these were believed to be magically working anyway, just by being there.
Text above: http://www.alexanderancientart.com/cat/e0737/e0737.html

Hor Hor
Wooden outer coffin of the Prophet of Montu Hor.

25th Dynasty, circa 700 BC - 680 BC from Thebes / Luxor.

Painted decoration and Hieroglyphic text, reinforced with metal clamps.

Length 2045 mm, width 762 mm, height 915 mm.

Catalog: EA15655
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Hor
Horus sculpture on the lid of the wooden outer coffin of the Prophet of Montu Hor.

Horus was one of the most significant ancient Egyptian deities. He was most commonly depicted as a falcon, or a man with a falcon head. Horus served many functions, most notably being the god of the sky, war and hunting.

Catalog: EA15655
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Wikipedia




Hor
Anubis sculpture on the lid of the wooden outer coffin of the Prophet of Montu Hor.

Anubis is the Greek name of a god associated with mummification and the afterlife in ancient Egyptian religion, usually depicted as a canine or a man with a canine head. Like many ancient Egyptian deities, Anubis assumed different roles in various contexts. One of his prominent roles was as a god who ushered souls into the afterlife. He attended the weighing scale during the 'Weighing of the Heart,' in which it was determined whether a soul would be allowed to enter the realm of the dead. Anubis was depicted in black, a color that symbolized both rebirth and the discoloration of the corpse after embalming.

Catalog: EA15655
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Wikipedia




Hor
Wooden outer coffin of the Prophet of Montu Hor, with the lid lifted so that we can see the painted and shaped coffin inside.

Catalog: EA15655
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




Hor Hor
Shabti-box for the Priest of Montu, Hor, Son of Ankhhor and Karoma, grandson of Iwf-aw, made of wood, covered with plaster, painted white and green-blue, rectangular in form, floorless, extended, curved top, shorter sides.

Shabtis or Ushabtis were funerary figurines used in Ancient Egypt. Shabtis were placed in tombs among the grave goods and were intended to act as servants or minions for the deceased, should he/she be called upon to do manual labor in the afterlife.

The figurines frequently carried a hoe on their shoulder and a basket on their backs, implying they were intended to farm for the deceased. They usually carried hieroglyphs, typically found on the legs. Called 'answerers', they carried inscriptions asserting their readiness to answer the gods' summons to work.


The practice of using ushabtis originated in the Old Kingdom (c. 2600 to 2100 BCE) with the use of life-sized reserve heads made from limestone, which were buried with the mummy. Most ushabtis were of minor size, and many produced in multiples – they sometimes covered the floor around a sarcophagus. Exceptional ushabtis are of larger size, or produced as a one of-a-kind master work.

Produced in huge numbers, ushabtis, along with scarabs, are the most numerous of all ancient Egyptian antiquities to survive.

Catalog: EA8525
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia




Hor Hor
Prophet of Montu Hor coffin

This is the first coffin inside the outer coffin, shown above with the lid of the outer coffin raised.

Dimensions of the base: height 179 cm, width 47 cm, thickness 13 cm

Dimensions of the lid: height 178 cm, width 47 cm, thickness lid-face 24 cm, thickness lid-feet 26 cm.

Catalog: EA27735
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Hor
Prophet of Montu Hor coffin

This is the complete lid.

Catalog: EA27735
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




Hor Hor
Prophet of Montu Hor coffin, about 700 BC.

These photos show the black on white hieroglyphics used on the back of the lid and on the inside and outside of the base of the coffin above.

Catalog: EA27735
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




Hor
Cartonnage mummy-case of Hor, the innermost coffin which holds the mummy.

The mummy is of a man of middle age. The mummy is wrapped in linen, and has a cartonnage mummy-case and painted wooden coffin. Both are inscribed with the name Hor.

Skull - Most of the upper teeth are missing and the incisors are very worn. Artificial eyes in the orbits; the right is displaced. The cervical spine appears intact.

Thorax and Abdomen - Filled with dense packing material. A scarab lies above the level of the upper lumbar vertebrae. The dorsal and lumbar inter-vertebral discs are partially opaque. No fractures or ribs or spinal column. Pelvis and hips normal. Circumcision has apparently been performed.

Arms - Extended. Hands with extended fingers in the pubic area. Legs - No fractures or dislocations. The knee cartilages are opaque. No lines of arrested growth.

A dense mummiform figure, just under 8 inches long, between the femoral shafts, is visible on the plate.

Catalog: EA6659
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Hor
Close up of the Cartonnage mummy-case of Hor.

Catalog: EA6659
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Hor
Cartonnage mummy-case of Hor, as above, and the mummy within it. The Hor coffin and mummy probably dates to the Twenty-second Dynasty (about 945-715 BC). The coffin is inscribed with the name of Hor.

X-rays taken of Hor's body in the 1960s suggest that he was middle-aged, but no obvious fractures or medical conditions have so far been observed. The X-ray did reveal that he had been circumcised. As was common practice in mummification, artificial eyes were placed in the eye sockets, and the arms were extended with the hands placed in the pubic area.

Catalog: EA6659
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/asset-viewer/mummy-and-coffin-of-hor/ygH0metou2bcKQ?hl=en © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Hor
Close up of the head and shoulders of the Hor mummy-case.

After the X-ray, a small mummiform figurine was noticed among the bandages. It was removed in the 1960s, and examined in the Museum's research laboratory in the 1990s; the figure is made of clay with straw, and inside it is a very small cylindrical object, the identity of which remains mysterious.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/asset-viewer/mummy-and-coffin-of-hor/ygH0metou2bcKQ?hl=en © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0



Hor
Possible appearance of the tomb of Hor.

Reconstruction by C. Thorne.


Painting: © C. Thorne, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Poster, British Museum
Text: Poster, British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0





Takhebkhenem
Mummy of Takhebkhenem, a door keeper's daughter.

25th Dynasty, about 700 - 680 BC, from Thebes / Luxor.

The mummy of this woman illustrates the method of wrapping employed in the 25th Dynasty. The outer shroud was originally dyed a salmon-pink colour. It is held in place by transverse bands and vertical strips (originally light brown and dark purple respectively). Over this is laid a network of tubular faience beads and a winged scarab beetle of mosaic beadwork.


CAT scans show that Takhebkhenem lies with her arms extended. The skeleton is in good condition, and all the teeth are present, but very little soft tissue remains on the bones. Large quantities of packing material, perhaps dried mud or earth, are visible inside the body cavity. Length: 154 cm.

Catalog: EA6692
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Takhebkhenem
Mummy of the young adult woman Takhebkhenem, with linen wrappings covered by bead-net of blue glazed composition.

Skull - Mouth closed. All teeth present. Cervical spine intact. No fractures.

Thorax and Abdomen - Ribs, vertebral column, pelvis, and hips normal. No fractures or dislocations. A large cylindrical mass of solidified resin, which appears to have been divided into four parts, occupies the right side of the body cavity, and a smaller, single, reniform mass is in the left side of the abdomen.


The resin, which was fluid when introduced, formed four pools which afterwards solidified. The pelvis has been filled with a round mass of packing. Above the large pack is a ball of linen, and probably sawdust as often in mummies of this period.

Arms - Extended. Hands with extended fingers and their palmar surfaces on the anterior aspect of the thighs.

Legs - Bones and joints appear normal. There is a considerable quantity of linen packing between the thighs, possibly containing the viscera, as often in mummies of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty.

Culture/period: 26th Dynasty ( note the discrepancy in dates between the card at the museum and the online web resource. Other sources simply date it 'Late Period', which is in concord with the 26th Dynasty date estimate. I would be grateful if any reader could clear this up for me - Don )

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Takhebkhenem
Mummy of the young adult woman Takhebkhenem, with linen wrappings covered by bead-net of blue glazed composition.



Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Takhebkhenem net beads





Poster showing the steps involved in the conservation of a faience bead-net. This is a highly skilled and time consuming task.

( I suspect that the dark blue beads in the images above are the original beads, while the pale blue ones are the modern painted glass beads - Don )

Photo (rephotography): Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Poster, British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_8949mapnusm
(left) Map of significant sites in Egypt and Nubia during the Napatan period, about 800 BC - 300 BC.



The Napatan Period

Three centuries after the New Kingdom pharaohs relinquished their Nubian territories, a powerful state rose to prominence in Upper Nubia. The important religious centre, Napata, gives its name to the period which includes a unique phase when Kushite kings also occupied the Egyptian throne.

The origins of the kingdom lie in the centuries following the withdrawal of the Egyptian imperial administration around 1070 BC. The rulers were of Kushite ancestry but had adopted many of the trappings of Egyptian culture, including pharaonic titles and regalia, and a devotion to the Egyptian deity, Amun.

From the reign of King Piye, about 747-716 BC, to the mid-7th century BC, five rulers of the Kushite line held sway over both Nubia and Egypt. Under their regime, Egypt enjoyed a cultural and political revival, participating more actively in foreign affairs and enjoying increased artistic productivity. Assyrian invasions eventually forced the Nubian kings out of Egypt, but their descendants continued to rule over a still powerful and independent kingdom in Nubia.

The Nubians

Nubia appears to have supported only a small population compared to that of Egypt. The ancient Nubians shared a broadly common ethnic background with the Egyptians, but their physical characteristics showed variations of skin colour, physiognomy and skeletal proportion. The distinctive features and the elaborate costume of the Nubians were carefully represented by Egyptian artists.

In Egyptian art Nubians can be easily recognised by their dark skin, feathers worn in the hair, large earrings and leopard - skin kilts. The languages spoken by the Egyptians and Nubians were different, Ancient Egyptian belonging to the Afro-Asiatic group and Nubian to the Nilo-Saharan family.

Photo: Poster, British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Poster at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_8986statuesm
Serpentine statue depicting the official, Harwa, presenting two female divine figures of Isis and Hathor.

25th Dynasty, circa 700 BC - 670 BC.

Harwa was Chief Steward of the 'God's Wife of Amun' at Thebes. He served under Amenirdis I, whose cartouche is inscribed between the two divine images, and under her successor, Shepenwepet II.

Statue itself: height 185 mm, width 130 mm, depth 170 mm

Fixed base: height 40 mm, width 160 mm, depth 195 mm.

Catalog: EA32555
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_8988faiencemonturesm
Faience figure of the god Montu-Re / Montu-Ra inscribed with the name of Shabaqo / Shabako.

25th Dynasty, circa 716 BC - 702 BC.

The god's feathered headdress, now lost, was made of bronze.

Glazed composition (now discoloured) of the figure of Montu-Ra. Bronze plumes (incomplete) on head. Hieroglyphic text including cartouche of Shabako on back. Left arm lost.

Height 110 mm.

Catalog: EA11334
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Nubian Kings of Egypt

Circa 716 BC - 664 BC

Taking advantage of instability and political disunity in Egypt, the Kushite King Piye launched an invasion about 728 BC. His successor, Shabaqo, achieved complete control about 716 BC, and he and his three successors, Shabitqo, Taharqo, and Tanutamani, were acknowledged as the legitimate sovereigns of Egypt, forming the 25th Dynasty.

The kings resided chiefly at Memphis, one of the principal cities of Egypt, and Kushite princesses were appointed to the religious office of 'God's Wife of Amun', a policy which gave the royal family firm control of Thebes.

The 25th Dynasty rulers brought Egypt much needed stability and increased political prestige. They fostered a revival of art, architecture and religious learning, drawing inspiration from the great eras of Egypt's past.

Taharqo was an active builder, constructing a number of temples in both Egypt and Nubia. Between 674 and 663 BC Assyrian invasions forced the Kushites to abandon Egypt. Taharqo was compelled to flee back to Nubia, where he died in 664 BC. An attempt by Tanutamani to retake Egypt was unsuccessful and he spent the rest of his reign in Nubia.

Text above: Poster at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

img_8969aerialtemplesm
Aerial view taken by the Royal Air Force in the winter of 1935 - 1936 during the excavations of the Taharquo / Taharqo temple by the Oxford Excavation Committee.

Courtesy of the Institute of Archaeology UCL.

Photo: Institute of Archaeology UCL, poster at the British Museum
Rephotography: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Poster at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




gebel barkal
Gebel Barkal (or Jebel Barkal ) is a very small mountain located some 400 km north of Khartoum, in Karima town in Northern State in Sudan, on a large bend of the Nile River, in the region called Nubia. The mountain is 98 m tall, has a flat top, and apparently was used as a landmark by the traders in the important route between central Africa, Arabia, and Egypt, as the point where it was easier to cross the great river.

It was a religious centre and the seat of Amin. Beginning in the 26th Dynasty, Nubian rulers built many temples at the foot of its slopes.

Photo: LassiHU
Permission: GNU Free Documentation License
Text: Wikipedia




img_8976woodenstatue1 img_8975woodenstatue2 img_8977woodenstatue3
Wooden leg of a bed or chair

Napatan period, circa 700 BC - 300 BC

The leg is carved in the form of a sphinx wearing a cap-like headdress of Nubian type. The eyes were originally inlaid.

Catalog: EA24656
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015




img_8978serpent
Gilded and inlaid bronze uraeus.

Napatan period, circa 700 BC - 300 BC

From Kawa, Temple 'A'

The uraeus serpent worn on the king's brow represented the patron goddess of Lower Egypt.

Gilded copper alloy fitting from a shrine in form of a uraeus with the breast inlaid with blue and green glass (most remaining); suspension loop behind the sun disc; tang below the tail.

Height 102 mm, width 25 mm.

Catalog: EA63593
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_8979solardiscsm


Gilded bronze divine headdress comprising solar disc and horns. Napatan period, circa 700 BC - 300 BC

From Kawa, Temple 'T'

Napata was a city-state of ancient Nubia on the west bank of the Nile, at the present site of Karima, Northern Sudan.

Catalog: EA63592
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_8980ornament
Sandstone ornament in the form of a ram's head.

Napatan period, circa 700 BC - 300 BC

From Kawa, Temple 'T'

Sandstone amulet in the form of a ram's head decorated with a horned sun-disc and inscribed with Meroitic hieroglyphs.

Catalog: EA63611
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_8985amenirdis
Granite statuette of Amenirdis I, 25th or 26th Dynasty

From Kawa, Temple 'T', circa 700 BC - 650 BC

Amenirdis, daughter of King Kasha, was the first female member of the Nubian royal family to be appointed to the office of 'God's Wife of Amun' at Thebes. She was adopted by Shepenupet I as her heir and successor. She went on to rule as high priestess, and is has been shown in several artefacts from the period.

Amenirdis was a Kushite princess, the daughter of Pharaoh Kashta and Queen Pebatjma. She is likely to have been the sister of pharaohs Shabaka and Piye. Kashta arranged to have Amenirdis I adopted by the Divine Adoratrice of Amun, Shepenupet I, at Thebes as her successor. This shows that Kashta already controlled Upper Egypt prior to the reign of Piye, his successor.

Amenirdis ruled as high priestess approximately between 714 BC and 700 BC, under the reigns of Shabaka and Shabataka, and she adopted Piye's daughter Shepenupet II as her successor. She also held the priestly titles of Divine Adoratrice of Amun and God's Hand. Upon her death, she was buried in a tomb in the grounds of Medinet Habu.

Shepenupet I was an ancient Egyptian high priestess during the reign of the 23rd Dynasty. She was the first 'hereditary' God's Wife or Divine Adoratrice of Amun to wield political power in ancient Thebes and its surrounding region.


Shepenupet I was the first to take on complete royal titulary with names in two cartouches, and although her successors followed her example, she remained the only one who also bore the royal titles 'Lord of the Two Lands' and 'Lord of Appearances', also, the only one whose throne name refers to Amun, not to his wife Mut.

Shepenupet I was the daughter of Osorkon III and Queen Karoadjet, and the (half- )sister of Takelot III and Rudamun. She was God's Wife during her father's whole reign.

When Kashta, a monarch of the 25th Dynasty, extended his influence to the Theban area, Shepenupet I was compelled to adopt Kashta's daughter Amenirdis I as her successor and name her as her chosen heir. Shepenupet and Amenirdis are depicted together in Wadi Gasus.

Height 277 mm, width 65 mm, length 110 mm

Catalog: EA46699
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia




img_8982statuesm
Upper part of a serpentine shabti figure of the 'God's Wife of Amun', Shepenwepet II

Early 26th Dynasty, about 650 BC

Catalog: EA65806
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




nuripyramidssm
Kushite royal cemetery at Nuri, Sudan.

Photo: © SARS Archive.
Source: https://blog.britishmuseum.org/category/egypt-and-sudan/ Text: https://blog.britishmuseum.org/category/egypt-and-sudan/
Additional text: Wikipedia




img_8953shabti img_8954senkamanisken
Two steatite shabtis of King Senkamanisken.

Napatan Period, circa 643 BC - 623 BC, from Nuri, pyramid Nu 3.

Left to right: 197 mm high, 204 mm high.

Senkamanisken was a Nubian king who ruled from 640 to 620 BCE at Napata. He used titles based on those of the Egyptian pharaohs. He was married to Queen Nasalsa who bore him two sons: Anlamani and Aspelta. Both sons would ultimately assume the Nubian/Kushite throne after his death at Napata, Nubia's capital city. His pyramid is Nu. 3 in Nuri.

Catalog (left to right): EA55493, EA55494
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia




img_8955shabtism img_8956shabtism
Two faience shabtis of King Senkamanisken.

Napatan Period, circa 643 BC - 623 BC, from Nuri, pyramid Nu 3

(left) Glazed composition shabti of Senkamanisken, height 248 mm.

(right) Blue glazed composition shabti of Senkamanisken; black wig, height 178 mm.

Statues of Senkamanisken have been found buried or hidden in the Jebel Barkal, presumably due to Psamtik II's attack on Kush in 592 BC. A sphinx has also been found which was inscribed with his name. Objects bearing the name of this king have also been found in Meroë indicating that he placed a degree of importance to this site which would be the political capital of the Kushite kingdom after Psamtik II's sack of Napata in 592 BC.

Catalog (left to right): EA55504, EA55506
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015 Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia




img_8957shabtism
Faience shabti of Queen Nasals (or Nasalsa), wife of Senkamanisken, Napatan Period, from Nuri, pyramid Nu 24, late 7th century BC.

Height 178 mm

From Nuri, pyramid Nu 24

Catalog: EA55516
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015 Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_8958taharqoshabti img_8958taharqoshabti img_8960taharqocalcite
(left, centre) Granite statue of King Taharqo, 25th Dynasty, circa 664 BC, height 260 mm.


(right) Calcite statue of King Taharqo, 25th Dynasty, circa 664 BC, height 324 mm.

From Nuri, pyramid Nu 1.



Catalog: EA55487, EA55482
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015 Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_8989wassceptre


Faience model was - sceptre

Napatan period, circa 700 BC - 300 BC, from Napata, 19 cm.

A short inscription on the back refers to the New Year.

The was ('power, dominion') sceptre is a symbol that appeared often in relics, art, and hieroglyphics associated with the ancient Egyptian religion. It appears as a stylised animal head at the top of a long, straight staff with a forked end.

Was sceptres were used as symbols of power or dominion, and were associated with the gods (such as Set or Anubis) as well as with the pharaoh. Was sceptres also represent the Typhonic beast or Set-animal (the mascot of the Egyptian deity Set). In later use, it was a symbol of control over the force of chaos that Set represented.

In a funerary context the was sceptre was responsible for the well-being of the deceased, and was thus sometimes included in the tomb equipment or in the decoration of the tomb or coffin. The sceptre is also considered an amulet. The Egyptians perceived the sky as being supported on four pillars, which could have the shape of the was. This sceptre was also the symbol of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome, the nome of Thebes (called Waset in Egyptian).

Catalog: EA52931
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia




img_8994ankhsm
Faience composite amulet inscribed with the names of Taharqo.

25th Dynasty, circa 690 BC - 664 BC.

Provenance unknown.

The amulet incorporates a was - sceptre within the outline of an ankh - sign.

Height 23 cm.

The inscription describes Taharqo as beloved of the god Amen-Re.

Catalog: EA49726
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_8992ankh
Faience ankh with the cartouche of Malenaqen.

Napatan Period, circa 555 BC - 542 BC.

The inscription on the shaft refers to the celebration of the New Year. The ankh was the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic sign for 'life'.

Green glazed composition ankh-symbol with a column of text on either side of the stem including the cartouche of Malonaqan.

Height 213 mm, width 93 mm

Catalog: EA65274
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




cartouchemelenaqen
Votive cartouche of the Nubian king Malonaqen, circa 555-542 BC, found at Kawa.

Photo and text: Udimu
Permission: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license
Source: Oxford, Ashmolean Museum




img_8990cartouche
Faience plaque containing the name of the Nubian pharaoh Malenaqen, circa 555-542 BC.

Napatan Period, found at Kawa.

Several plaques with the names of this king were found in the ruins of Temple 'A' at Kawa.

Catalog: EA63607 ( note that the card in the British Museum had been swapped in 2015 with that of the blue plaque below - Don )
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Additional text: Wikipedia




img_9008backbluefaienceplaquesm img_8991bluefaienceplaquesm
Pale blue faience cartouche-plaque, circa 700 BC - 300 BC.

Stamp made of glazed composition (pale blue).

The three decorative cartouches are surmounted by solar discs and ostrich plumes, handle-hollow on back, as can be seen in the photo on the left.

Width 70 mm, length 93 mm

From Kawa, Temple 'T'.

Catalog: EA63606 ( note that the card in the British Museum had been swapped in 2015 with that of the brown plaque above, and that the British Museum website has this image of the blue plaque reversed, as at 26.11.2016 - Don )
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_8995lotussm
Faience lotus-flower inlay, Napatan Period, circa 700 BC - 300 BC, from Kawa, Temple 'T' Egypt.

Glazed composition inlay in form of lotus flower, length 98 mm.

Catalog: EA63608
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_8997ramshead
Faience inlay in the form of a ram's head. Napatan Period, circa 700 BC - 300 BC, from Kawa, Temple 'T'.

Blue glazed composition inlay in the form of a ram's head.

Width 46 mm, length 88 mm.

Catalog: EA63612
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_8999libationstand
Faience libation stand

Napatan Period, about 700-300 BC From Kawa.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_9001bronzestatuesm bronzestatue2sm
Bronze statuette of a king presenting an image of Maat.

Napatan Period, about 700-300 BC From Kawa, Temple 'T'.

The necklace with three pendants in the form of rams' heads is depicted in many representations of Kushite rulers of the Napatan Period. The headdress originally included feathers, perhaps made of another material. The eyes were originally inlaid.

Catalog: EA63594
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): http://www.britishmuseum.org/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_9002kneeling img_9002kneeling
Bronze statuette of a kneeling king.

25th Dynasty, about 690 BC - 664 BC From Kawa, Temple 'T'.

The king kneels to present an offering to a god. He wears the double uraeus, a cap-like headdress and necklace with rams' head pendants typical of depictions of Napatan kings. An incised inscription on the belt has been read as the name of Taharqo.

Height 112 mm.

Catalog: EA63595
Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2015
Photo (right): http://www.britishmuseum.org/ © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




img_9005kingsm img_9005kingsm
Bronze statuette of a king with arms raised in adoration.

Napatan Period, about 700 BC - 500 BC, from Kawa, Temple 'T'.

The figure probably formed part of a group representing the king worshipping a deity.

Hollow-cast copper alloy figure of a king wearing a cap with a double uraeus, a necklet and a kilt; hands raised in adoration; the feet rest on v-shaped supports.

Height 120 mm, width 26 mm.

( Note that the statue has extensions to the soles of the feet, which would have been inserted into a ( perhaps wooden ) support for stability, the extensions were never meant to be seen - Don )

Catalog: EA63596
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




img_9007divinitysm
Bronze figure of a divinity.

Napatan Period, about 700 BC - 300 BC, from Kawa, Temple 'T'.

Perhaps representing the god Khona, the figure wears a headdress composed of a sun-disc and uraeus serpents and holds a staff which combines elements of the djed-pillar and the was-sceptre.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




img_9008doorhingesm
Bronze door-hinge with the names of the 'God's Wives of Amun', Amenirdis I and Shepenwepet II.

25th or 26th Dynasty, circa 700 BC - 650 BC, provenance unknown.

Shepenwepet II, daughter of King Piye, was adopted by Amenirdis I as her successor.

Length 380 mm, height 204 mm

Catalog: EA36301
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




img_9010statuette
Bronze figure of a god or king wearing a Nubian wig.

Napatan Period, circa 700 BC - 300 BC, from Nuri.

The figure holds a snake. The eyes are inlaid.

Catalog: EA57325
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




img_9012inlaysm img_9014inlaysm
Two bronze inlays representing the seated god Amun / Khnum.

Napatan Period, circa 700 BC - 300 BC, from Kawa, Temple 'T'.

Amun is represented both in human form and with a ram's head.

(right) Height 99 mm, width 35 mm.

Catalog: EA63588, EA63589
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




img_9015ramsm img_9016ramsm
Two bronze inlays representing ram-headed sphinxes.

Napatan Period, circa 700 BC - 300 BC, from Kawa, Temple 'T'.

Description for EA63590 (on left): Flat cast copper alloy inlay in the form of Khnum as a ram wearing the horned sun-disc.

Height 76 mm, width 87 mm ( probably the same dimensions for each, they look to be identical, cast from the same mould, and show the right and left sides - Don ).

Catalog: EA63590, EA63591
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




img_9017 hand


img_9018 hand
End of a bronze incense-burner in the form of a human hand. Napatan Period, 700 BC - 300 BC.

From Kawa, Temple 'T'. A cup for the incense was once attached to the palm by a rivet.

Catalog: EA63600
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




img_9019crocodilesm
Bronze crocodile, Napatan Period, circa 700 BC - 300 BC

From Kawa

Catalog: EA63604
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




img_9021gazellesm
Bronze pendant in the form of a gazelle, Napatan Period, circa 700 BC - 300 BC

From Kawa

Catalog: EA63603
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




Metalwork from the Kushite cemetery at Gematon.

The copper-alloy objects on display here were excavated in 2009 and 2011 within the cemetery at Kawa in Northern Sudan, the site of an important Egyptian and Kushite town occupied from at least 1350 BC until AD 350. The excavations by the Sudan Archaeological Research Society, in conjunction with the British Museum, are currently part of the Qatar-Sudan Archaeological Project. They will be returned in the near future to the Sudan National Museum in Khartoum for permanent curation and display. Made in Kush, the offering table and beaker are highly unusual and testify to the skill of local metalworkers and of their innovative designs.

The town at Kawa was probably founded by the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaton but the earliest building is a temple built a little later during the reign of Tutankhamen. Another large temple on the site was constructed on the orders of Taharqo, the most famous of the Kushite rulers who conquered and controlled Egypt in the 8th and 7th centuries BC.

Text above: Poster at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

img_8965winefiltersm
Wine strainer.

The tube has a disc at one end pierced by a hole. At the other is a disc to which was affixed the strainer with a domed lid pierced by small holes. The strainer is immersed into the liquid which is filtered as it passes into the container.

The thumb then seals the hole at the end of the tube forming a vacuum allowing the strainer to be withdrawn. On releasing the thumb the strained contents flow into another vessel.


Catalog: Kawa SF:1240
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




img_8968beakersm
Beaker

Around the rim of this beaker runs a border consisting of stylised plant motifs. Below is a horizontal frieze of six compartments, each containing a figure of a mammiform deity squatting on its haunches interspersed with six brief hieroglyphic texts.

Catalog: Kawa SF:1448
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015 Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




img_8966beakersm
The inscriptions are very similar, reading 'A Happy New Year' followed perhaps by 'All Happiness'. Only the ram-headed figure is identified by name, as Amun.

Catalog: Kawa SF:1448
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015 Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




img_8964tofferingtable
This offering table depicts in the lower part eight offering bread loaves. Above is a scene of the tomb owner moving left offering incense and a liquid libation to the god Osiris, behind whom stands a goddess, probably Isis.

This unique object with clear royal connotations must have belonged to a member of the Kushite elite, perhaps a prince of the royal house.

Catalog: Kawa SF:721
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015 Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum




 shabti Taharqo
Quartzite shabti of King Taharqo from Nuri, pyramid Nu 1, 25th Dynasty, circa 690 BC - 664 BC.

Culture/period Napatan / Kushite

Height 508 mm

Catalog: EA55485
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




 Nuri Pyramids
Nuri pyramids from the northeast. Near Jebel Barkal, Sudan.

Photo: Bertramz
Permission: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
Text: Wikiepedia




shabti Anlamani
Glazed composition, faience shabti of King Anlamani, Napatan Period, from Nuri, Pyramid 6.

Circa 623 BC - 593 BC.

Height 26 cm.

Catalog: EA55510
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




shabti Aspelta
Glazed composition faience shabti of King Aspelta, Napatan Period, from Nuri, Pyramid 6.

Circa 623 BC - 593 BC.

Height 273 mm.

Aspelta was a ruler of the kingdom of Kush, circa 600 BC – 580 BC).

Aspelta used titles based on those of the Egyptian Pharaohs.

Horus name: Neferkha ('Whose Appearances are Beautiful')
Nebty Name: Neferkha ('Whose Appearances are Beautiful')
Golden Horus Name: Userib ('Whose heart is strong')
Prenomen: Merykare ('Re is one whose ka is loved')
Nomen: Aspelta

More is known about him and his reign than most of the rulers of Kush. He left several stelae carved with accounts of his reign. He was the son of Senkamanisken and brother of Anlamani, who immediately preceded him.

According to his inscriptions, Aspelta was selected as ruler by a committee of twenty-four religious and military leaders. He then set out north to Napata to be selected as king by the gods and crowned. Another stele that might date from Aspelta's reign recounts how a group of priests were put to death, likely for conspiring against the king. In 592 BC, Kush was invaded by an Egyptian military expedition initiated by Pharaoh Psamtik II, perhaps because Aspelta posed a threat to this pharaoh's authority over Upper Egypt. The invaders sacked Napata, and some historians believe that because of this attack, Aspelta decided to move the Nubian capital to the more secure city of Meroe.

Aspelta's tomb was located at Nuri and is the second largest burial structure here. His tomb was excavated by George A. Reisner in 1916 and many items were discovered within it, most of which are now in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. The palace built by him and his brother was excavated by Reisner in 1920.

Catalog: EA55512
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: Card with the display at the British Museum, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0, Wikipedia




Itineb
Anthropoid coffin of sycomore fig wood, made for a man named Itineb.

The exterior surfaces are covered with painted stucco. The face is painted green, and Itineb wears a striped wig, on top of which is a figure of the goddess Nut. She wears a solar disc on her head and holds an ankh sign in each hand. Her wings are extended down the sides of the coffin face, over the stripes of the wig. On the breast is a large collar with terminals in the shape of falcon heads.

Below the collar are:

1. A central figure of the goddess Nut, kneeling, holding feathers and spreading her wings in protection over the coffin; at the extremities of the scene are kneeling figures of the goddesses Isis and Nephthys and two jackal figures.

2. Painted on a black background, a scene showing the judgement of Itineb. At right, his heart is weighed in a balance, and to the left of this he is conducted by Thoth and Anubis towards Osiris, who sits enthroned.

3. A single line of hieroglyphic text extending to the toes divides the lower body field. The inscription contains the 'hetep di nesu' offering formula. At each side are ten compartments, in each of which Itineb is depicted adoring a different deity. The associated texts explain that his various bodily members are identified with those of the deity depicted. On the foot of the coffin lid, in inverse orientation, are two images of Anubis as a jackal seated on a plinth, with texts above requesting offerings from the god. The feet of the coffin are supported by a rectangular plinth, the corners of which have been cut away.

Catalog: EA 6693
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Itineb
Painted wooden coffin of Itineb.

26th Dynasty or later, after 664 BC, from Saqqara.

The green face associates the dead man with Osiris. Below the collar are painted the winged goddess Nut, a scene showing the judgement of the deceased before Osiris, and twenty small vignettes, in each of which Itineb adores a different deity. The back of the coffin shows the Djed pillar, symbol of Osiris, equipped with human eyes and torso and grasping the crook and flail sceptres. Above, the sun-disc in a barque is raised up at dawn and received by the arms of the sky-goddess.

The back of the coffin is carved in high relief to represent a dorsal column running from the base of the wig to the foot. On this column is painted a djed pillar wearing an atef crown and provided with human eyes and torso, the hands grasping crook and flail sceptres. Above the djed is an image of a god raising the solar barque into the sky at dawn, worshipped by baboons. At each side of the dorsal column is a series of compartments containing figures of deities, some of them adored by Itineb. The interior of the coffin is undecorated; fragments of linen and blue faience beads adhere to the interior surface.

Catalog: EA 6693
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Original, British Museum
Text: http://www.britishmuseum.org/, card at the display in the British Museum, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0




Egypt
This wooden coffin belonged to the priest of Amun Ankh-f-n-Khonsu. Note that there were many individuals with this name.

650 BC.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark
Identification: http://picturemixture.wordpress.com/2009/08/26/di-mut-shep-n-ankh/




canopic jars


Baba, daughter of the priest of Amun Bes-n-Mut, praying to the sun gods Atum (left) and Re-Harakhte.

Funerary stela of wood. Luxor, late period, 650-640 BC.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark




Stela
Tomb stela, made for the 'Leader of the chorus of Karnak', Ta-Ikhert, dressed in a tight fitting wrap around dress. The woman is worshipping Osiris, god of the Underworld, and the four sons of Horus.

Wood, Luxor, 650 BC.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark




Egypt Egypt
This is the inside of the Ancient Egyptian coffin for the mummy of Peftjauneith, 664-525 BC (26th dynasty); the left image shows the sky goddess Nut, the sun, moon and stars and hours of day and night; the right shows the goddess of the West.

The mummy of Peftjauneith, inspector of temple estates in the Egyptian Nile delta, was found lying in this beautifully painted coffin. The decoration is an indication of his high function in society. The coffin is made of solid wood which must have cost a fortune in Egypt. Such beautiful timber had to be imported, for instance from the forests of the Lebanon. Moreover, the coffin is exquisitely painted in extraordinarily fine detail.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Text: http://www.rmo.nl/english/collection/highlights/egyptian-collection/coffin-mummy-peftjauneith




Egypt
The inside of the lid features another picture of the celestial goddess Nut. Here she is represented as the nocturnal sky, black-skinned and strewn with stars. She gives birth to the moon crescent and is swallowing the round evening sun. She is flanked by the twelve hours of day and night. On the bottom of the coffin there is a picture of the goddess of the West, the quarter where the realm of the dead was thought to be.

Object: Mummy coffin
Dating from: c. 650 B.C.
Material: Wood
Size: 36 x 63 x 240 cm
Origin: Saqqara

Photo and text: http://www.rmo.nl/english/collection/highlights/egyptian-collection/coffin-mummy-peftjauneith




Egypt Egypt
Mummy of Peftjauneith.

The area of the face and chest is covered by beadwork.

Location unknown, 664-525 BC, 26th Dynasty

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.




Egypt Egypt Egypt
The outside of the coffin shows how Peftjauneith was depicted in the guise of the god Osiris himself. This is indicated by the striated divine wig, the divine beard, and the green face (in Egypt green was the colour of vegetation and new life).

A splendid collar lies on the chest, with underneath a depiction of the sky goddess, Nut, with her outspread wings. A spell from the Book of the Dead has been written on the abdomen. Each individual hieroglyph is a self-contained picture full of detail.

650 BC, 36 x 63 x 240 cm
Photo (left and centre): Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.

Photo (right): https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/mummy-coffin-of-peftjauneith/fgHXTUWHOSv4wg?projectId=art-project
Text: http://www.rmo.nl/english/collection/highlights/egyptian-collection/coffin-mummy-peftjauneith




Egypt


The face depicted on the coffin is full of character, and the photographer has done a wonderful job.

Photo: © Michiel 2005, http://www.ipernity.com/doc/288839/18779571




Egypt Egypt
Mummy coffin of Haytemhat 700 BC - 332 BC

27 x 58 x 186 cm

Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.

Photo (right): https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/mummy-coffin-of-haytemhat/nAEZIWwJ0HkEIA?projectId=art-project




Each part of the mummy coffin has a story to tell:

Egypt
Divine wig:

The deceased has become one with the gods, particularly Osiris, and now wears the divine wig.

Often, the deceased is also wearing the crooked divine beard. In this case, it is absent, as it involves a woman.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.


Egypt
Facial colours:

Yellow is the skin colour of women, red of men. Green is the skin colour of Osiris, the colour of plants and new life. Gold is the skin colour of the gods.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.


Egypt
Collar:

The collar protects the chest and the heart. Floral motifs are a symbol of new life. The falcon heads on the shoulders represent Re-Horakhty, the reborn sun god.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.


Egypt
Goddess of heaven:

The goddess Nut spreads her wings across the deceased to take them up to heaven.

The lid of the coffin itself symbolises heaven.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.


Egypt
Death demons:

These gods keep watch over the body of Osiris, and therefore of this mummy.

In the text column in front of each god, a magic spell is written which he recites to protect the deceased.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.


Egypt
Anubis:

This god is depicted with a jackal's head or as a prostrate jackal. He protects the embalming and the cemetery.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.




Egypt


This burial casket shows a man with the divine wig, divine beard, and arms originally holding sceptres, obviously an important person.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.




It should be realised that these magnificent burial caskets, and the religion that was part and parcel of it, was something which applied only to the rich, to the elite, the ruling classes. The ordinary workers knew nothing of the religion, nor could they aspire to the excesses of the burial rituals and associated caskets and grave goods:
Excavating a shallow grave in sandy soil and getting a few rocks ready to cover the ground after the burial to protect the corpse from scavenging jackals was a matter of a few hours, performed close to the burial itself. Such tombs satisfied the needs of the vast majority of Egyptians throughout history.

Those who could afford it, may have preferred a more substantial tomb, built underground of mudbrick or even of stone. These were typically simple structures containing one or two small rooms, sometimes with a staircase for easy access. People aspiring to a genteel after-life-style beyond their means, bought at times themselves space in a neighbour's tomb:

List of valuables given to the owner of this tomb by Sebekhotep for burying his father in it: Small barley: 2 sacks; emmer: 3 sacks; tigernuts; 1 sack; setep-cloth: 50 square cubits; axe: 1; wab-garment: 1 (Things) which Wamet has given to his father which he will give to whomever he wants to: Small barley: 4 sacks; des-vessels: 2

But already in predynastic times such unimpressive graves did not satisfy the elite. The tomb itself became deeper, the superstructure more massive, culminating in the pyramids of the 4th dynasty. After the excesses of Khufu and his successors better judgment prevailed, and the tombs of subsequent kings and their families were more reasonably sized. Still, they required years of planning and execution at great expense.

After the Middle Kingdom the royals abandoned pyramids, opting instead for burials in graves cut into the living rock of the Upper Egyptian mountains. These tombs were at times similar to huge warrens with many passage ways and rooms, capable of accommodating large numbers of deceased family members. If the reason for hiding the burial places under mountains was to afford better protection from tomb robbers, then they were a sad disappointment: almost all the graves were broken into and robbed, sometimes only decades after they had been excavated.

Those who could afford it generally preferred to get their own tomb ready in time. The more substantial abodes of eternity could take years to build. The Old Kingdom companion of the house, the keeper of secrets, Mehi, wrote:

I made this tomb actually while I was alive and on my feet, as the favoured one of the king and beloved one of men; I paid the masons so that they were satisfied with it...
Text above from http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/funerary_practices/burial.htm



Egypt Egypt


Inner coffin and mummy of Petesis.

Petesis, son of Semtheus, 644 - 513 BC, was king of Athribis, near the apex of the Nile Delta.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.


Egypt Egypt
Outer coffins of Petesis.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.




Egypt Egypt

Horus, the falcon headed god, appears painted on the inside of one of the coffins.

Horus is one of the oldest and most significant deities in ancient Egyptian religion, who was worshipped from at least the late Predynastic period through to Greco-Roman times.

He was usually depicted as a falcon-headed man wearing the pschent, the double crown, as a symbol of kingship over the entire kingdom of Egypt.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Additional text: Wikipedia




Egypt
Tomb Relief.

The figure is highly stylised and looks like a hieroglyph. The representation follows examples from the Old Kingdom, nearly 2000 years earlier. That makes this a fine example of the Egyptian Renaissance. Limestone, location unknown, ca 595-589 BC (26th Dynasty).

The 26th Dynasty was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC (although others followed). The dynasty's reign (664–525 BC) is also called the Saite Period after the city of Sais, where its pharaohs had their capital, and marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden
Additional text: Wikipedia




Egypt
Temple statues of Osiris.

The hollow cast statues are fully inlaid and covered with gold leaf.

Made of bronze, from the Thebes site, possibly Medinet Habu. 664-525 BC (26th Dynasty)

( Note that the statue on the left looks like it is made of stone rather than gold covered bronze - Don )

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source and text: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden




Stela

Stela

Pent-ta-hut-hetep sarcophagus, 664-332 BC

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Ägyptische Museum der Universität Bonn



Egypt
Hor-wedja was the son of Vizier Sasobek, the highest-ranking official during the reign of King Psammetichus I. Hor-wedja's son Meryptah commissioned this temple sculpture for him. Hor-wedja kneels, presenting only himself to his god. He abases himself in the deity's presence but keeps his head erect, expressing respect and confidence.

A hieroglyphic inscription gives the lineage and titles of Hor-wedja running in a horizontal band around the base, in a line across the top of the base and in a single vertical column on the back pillar. Hor-wedja kneels upon a rectangular base and his toes are splayed out in an unnatural way. He wears a belted shendyt kilt and a simple bag wig. The wide width of the wig is common for the Saite Period. The orientation of the wig onto the top of the back pillar is echoed in other sculptures from the 26th Dynasty through the reign of Apries.

As is characteristic for the period his image is quite idealised. The body appears strong but the definition of the musculature is subtle. A strong median line is visible. His hands are placed flat upon his thighs and appear unusually plump. His facial features are also typical for the Saite Period: long almond-shaped eyes with straight brows above, long smooth cheeks, a long straight nose and a softly smiling mouth. The statue is well preserved and the polish is only marred by a few minor nicks.



ca. 640-620 BC (Late Period)
Medium: graywacke
375 x 113 x 198 mm
Place of discovery: Memphis, Egypt (?)

[Translation] His son, who makes his name live, the prophet-priest, the chief overseer of the estate, Mery-ptah;

[Translation] An offering which he gives to Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, that he may give funerary offerings of bread, beer, oxen and fowl to the prophet-priest and leader of the houses, Hor-wedja;

[Translation] The revered before Ptah-Sokar, the prophet-priest of Anubis of Ro-setaw, the leader of the houses (of Neith of Sais), the great one of the Two Lands, his beloved son, the priest of Neith...Hor-wedja. The revered before Hathor, the mistress of the Southern Sycamore, the prophet-priest, Hor-wedja, son of a man with the same titles, the prophet-priest of Ptah, the governor of the capital, the vizier, Sa-Sobek.

Photo and text: The Walters Art Museum, http://art.thewalters.org/detail/8349/kneeling-figure-of-hor-wedja/
Permission: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License and the GNU Free Documentation License.




canopic jars
Canopic jars. The embalmed interior organs were placed in four jars, protected by four different gods, whose heads adorn their lids. The jars are often made of so-called 'Egyptian alabaster', i.e. calcite.

A - Jars belonging to the priest of Month Bes-n-Mut II, the uncle of Ankh-f-n-Khonsu VIII. Luxor, Late Period, ca 650 BC.

B - Jar brought to Denmark in 1737 by the envoy of Christian VI, naval lieutenant F.L. Norden (on the left) and in 1767 by lieutenant of the engineers Carsten Niebuhr, who was sent out to 'Arabia felix' by Frederik V. Late Period, 664-332 BC.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Københavns (Copenhagen) Museum, National Museum of Denmark




Egypt
Ushabtis or Shabtis were placed in tombs among the grave goods and were intended to act as servants or minions for the deceased, should he/she be called upon to do manual labor in the afterlife. The figurines frequently carried a hoe on their shoulder and a basket on their backs, implying they were intended to farm for the deceased.

They were usually written on by the use of hieroglyphs typically found on the legs. Called 'answerers', they carried inscriptions asserting their readiness to answer the gods' summons to work. The practice of using shabtis originated in the Old Kingdom (ca. 2600 to 2100 BC) with the use of life-sized reserve heads made from limestone, which were buried with the mummy. Most ushabtis were of minor size, and many produced in multiples – they sometimes covered the floor around a sarcophagus. Exceptional shabtis are of larger size, or were produced as a one of-a-kind master work.

Shabti from this period have a back pillar and plinth underfoot.

Faience, site Mendes, Sakkara Haward, ca 600-350 BC, 26th - 30th dynasty.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
Text: Wikipedia




Seshepenmehyt
Seshepenmehyt, circa 600 BC.

Base and lid of an anthropoid inner coffin of Seshepenmehyt. It is made of sycomore fig wood, with elaborate polychrome painted decoration. The coffin is a well-proportioned and fully three-dimensional image of a mummified entity standing upon a plinth and supported at the back by a pillar. The face is painted green.


Catalog: circa 600 BC, Thebes, EA22814
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2017
Text: Card, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Exhibition by the British Museum at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra


Seshepenmehyt
Below the collar Nut spreads her wings over Seshepenmehyt, and the scene of judgement and presentation to the gods is on the breast. In a small panel below, the Ba of the deceased is shown returning to the mummy, laid on its bier within the tomb, with canopic jars below. Otherwise the exterior of the coffin is dominated by blocks of inscriptions running vertically and laterally. These texts are written on backgrounds coloured alternately red and pale yellow.

Height: 300 mm, width 1770 mm, depth 550 mm (Dimensions of lid when horizontal)

Catalog: circa 600 BC, Thebes, EA22814
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Text: Card, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Exhibition by the British Museum at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra


Seshepenmehyt
The inscriptions tell us little of Seshepenmehyt beyond the fact that she was 'lady of the house' and that she played the sistrum to accompany rituals in the temple of Amun-Ra at Thebes.

Catalog: circa 600 BC, Thebes, EA22814
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2017
Text: Card, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Exhibition by the British Museum at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra


Seshepenmehyt
X-rays of the mummy show that beneath the wrappings is the body of an adult, who died between 25 and 40 years of age.

Catalog: circa 600 BC, Thebes, EA22814
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Text: Card, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Exhibition by the British Museum at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra


Seshepenmehyt
Base of the coffin.

Catalog: circa 600 BC, Thebes, EA22814
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2017
Text: Card, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Exhibition by the British Museum at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra


Seshepenmehyt Seshepenmehyt
Inside of the coffin, top and bottom.

The insides of the inner coffin are also decorated, but in a simple style, with 'hotep-di-nesu' formula and figures of Nut drawn in black line on a white ground.

Catalog: circa 600 BC, Thebes, EA22814
Photo: © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Text: Card, http://www.britishmuseum.org/, © Trustees of the British Museum, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Source: Exhibition by the British Museum at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra






basalt sarcophagus basalt sarcophagus
Sarcophagus of Wahibreemakhet.

600 - 525 BC, 105 x 94 x 230 cm.

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC (although others followed). The dynasty's reign (c. 685–525 BC) is also called the Saite Period after the city of Sais, where its pharaohs had their capital, and marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt. In this period the great stone sarcophagi came back into use. This basalt sarcophagus belonged to Wahibreemakhet, a man of a Greek immigrant family.

The massive basalt sarcophagus of Wahibreemakhet is a typical expression of the Sais renaissance. Stone sarcophagi had become completely obsolete at the end of the New Kingdom; even the kings of the Third Intermediate Period made ​​do usually with usurped specimens from previous periods. Among the Renaissance kings However, we find a renewed production of huge granite or basalt coffins. They are clearly inspired by examples from the New Kingdom, though the stocky shape with wide flat faces, surrounded by heavy wigs, are in fact quite ungainly. By contrast, very sophisticated decoration with an almost metallic perfection could be realised in this hard material.

Wahibreemakhet's parents were Arkskares and Sentiti which are recognised Greek names. This sarcophagus will therefore have belonged to the son of a Greek immigrant family. The 26th dynasty maintained close contact with a number of Greek cities. Many Greeks took mercenary service in the Egyptian army and hoped to become a merchant in the capital Memphis (where an entire Greek quarter arose) or in the special free port Naukratis in the Delta.


Yet Wahibreemakhet betrays nothing in this case of his Greek descent. The decoration is thoroughly Egyptian, with his beard and severe wig, the sky goddess Noetop on the chest, and Horuszonenen and other gods and demons below. The sarcophagus probably comes from Giza and Saqqara, where at this time of tens of metres of deep shaft graves were dug. The casket would have contained a wooden inner coffin, which contained the mummy, which at this time were often provided with rich jewels and amulets. Of these, however, in this case, nothing is left. We do not have the shabtis of Wahibreemakhet.



Photo (left): Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.

Photo (right): https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/asset-viewer/sarcophagus-of-wahibreemakhet/6gF2eBYBDb2csg?hl=en
Text: http://www.rmo.nl/onderwijs/museumkennis/verhalen/sarcofaag-van-wahibre%C3%ABmachet




basalt sarcophagus
Basalt sarcophagus of Amasis II (or Ahmose II), (reigned ca 570 BC - ca 526 BC), pharaoh of the twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt.

According to the Greek historian Herodotus, he was of common origins. A revolt which broke out among native Egyptian soldiers gave him his opportunity to seize the throne. These troops, returning home from a disastrous military expedition to Cyrene in Libya, suspected that they had been betrayed in order that Apries, the reigning king, might rule more absolutely by means of his Greek mercenaries; many Egyptians fully sympathized with them.

General Amasis, sent to meet them and quell the revolt, was proclaimed king by the rebels instead, and Apries, who had now to rely entirely on his mercenaries, was defeated. Apries was either taken prisoner in the ensuing conflict at Memphis before being eventually strangled and buried in his ancestral tomb at Sais, or fled to the Babylonians and was killed mounting an invasion of his native homeland in 567 BC with the aid of a Babylonian army. An inscription confirms the struggle between the native Egyptian and the foreign soldiery, and proves that Apries was killed and honourably buried in the third year of Amasis (ca 567 BC). Amasis then married Chedebnitjerbone II, one of the daughters of his predecessor Apries, in order to legitimise his kingship.

Basalt sarcophagus, AM 5-a.

135 x 130 x 246 cm

Photo and text: http://www.rmo.nl/collectie/zoeken?object=AM+5-a
Additional text: Wikipedia




Egypt

Canopic jars of Hor-wedja

alabaster; site unknown; 664-525 BC, 26th Dynasty

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.




Egypt


Coffin and mummy of Keref.

Keref was only 3 years old, yet he was given an expensive funeral.

Wood, location unknown; 525 BC

26th Dynasty

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.




Pent-ta-hut-hetep

Gold mask of the priest Pen-ta-hut-hetep.

Since the New Kingdom, the dead were equated with Osiris and should, like the god, reach a godly status in the realm of the dead. Thus, the mummy and the coffin are decorated so that the deceased appears as a forever-young god. Belonging to the typical burial objects are relatively small masks out of cartonnage, which lay around the head of the mummy. The gold plate on the face symbolizes the gold flesh of the gods and is thus everlasting.

Gilded and painted cartonnage
QH 207, cult chamber, burial 12 (Pen-ta-hut-hetep)
died at the age of 54 to 63 years
Late Ptolemaic Period, Dynasty 30/31, Ca 380-250 BC.
Inv. No BoS QH 207/119
Gold-plated cartonnage mask of Pen-ta-hut-hetep
Late Period/Ptolemaic Era (ca. 380-250 BCE), from a tomb in Qubbet el-Hawa

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Ägyptische Museum der Universität Bonn
Additional text: http://www.aegyptisches-museum.uni-bonn.de/Collection/highlights?set_language=en




Bonn excavations at Qubbet el-Hawa - Grave QH 207 - The Priest Pen-ta-hut-hetep

Golden in colour, the delicate features framed by a greenish-blue wig - the mummy mask of the Khnum-priest Pent-ta-hut-hetep reflects the afterlife after the Old Kingdom. The Egyptians wanted the person to be resurrected after death by the god Osiris, and therefore gave the deceased idealised images of masks to match this and other gods. Green and blue, colours of vegetation, as well as the emergence of new life, as well as the gold of the colour of divine flesh are typical aspects of such face masks. This mummy mask belonged to the Late Period (664-332 BC) originating in the aboveground burial chamber of the tomb QH 207, which was originally created in the Old Kingdom, 2707 - 2202 BC.

Pent-ta-hut-hetep died at the age of between 54 and 63 years, and may be identified by his burial in a separated room, and by a high quality, interlocking nested coffin ensemble with special decorations as well as the size, quantity and craftsmanship of the grave goods as a man of high social status. In addition, there is a full list of his relatives and ancestors, so that the names of the parents of the deceased are known. It was very probably his brother who was buried in the casket right next to him.

Text: translated from the display at the Ägyptische Museum der Universität Bonn


Khnum

Pent-ta-hut-hetep was a priest dedicated to the service of the god Khnum.

Khnum was one of the earliest Egyptian deities, a ram-headed god who was originally the god of the source of the Nile River. Since the annual flooding of the Nile brought with it silt and clay, and its water brought life to its surroundings, he was thought to be the creator of the bodies of human children, which he made at a potter's wheel, from clay, and placed in their mothers' wombs. He later was described as having moulded the other deities, and he had the titles Divine Potter and Lord of created things.

Photo: Jeff Dahl
Permission: GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
Text: Wikipedia




gold mask gold mask



Gold Masks from Qubbet el-Hawa. These were stand alone pieces placed near the sarcophagus of the deceased.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Ägyptische Museum der Universität Bonn




Egypt
This foot sleeve is remarkably richly decorated. On the bottom are images of conquered foreigners: an Asian and an African. Originating from a much earlier period in which that hostility was still productive, they have become symbols repelling evil here.

From the 30th Dynasty (380-343 BC).

Around the plastically shaped feet with gilt nails we can see sandal straps. The feet are surrounded by a checkered pattern. The sides of the base sleeve are decorated with rosettes and the eye of Horus. The bottom also shows a pattern that had already been in use for thousands of years at this time. On the soles are the painted figures of two foreign prisoners. On the left is an Asian with light skin and long hair and a growth of beard. On the right is depicted a darker person, possibly an African. Both are traditional enemies of Egypt, and the images are placed in a denigrating position. Under the feet of the mummy they would be pushed down in the dust.


Figures of foreigners in Egypt more often adorn sandals, ottomans, chair legs or walking sticks. As destroyers of peace in Egypt, they were seen as enemies of the ruler and the people. This ancient enemy symbolism under the political relations of the Roman Imperial period, of course, was no longer meaningful. The decorations on the foot shell had become a symbol to safeguard against the evil forces that could threaten the survival of the dead person in the afterlife.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Original, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.




nuripyramidssm
Pyramid K.1 of the 4th century BC at El-Kurru, south of Jebel Barkal, North Sudan.

Pyramids dating to the time of the Kingdom of Napata (circa 750 BC - 650 BC) and later.

K.1 - Unknown King. One of the largest pyramids. Located just south and adjacent to the pyramid of Piye (K.17) Dated to circa 362 BC - 342 BC (after Harsiotef, before Akhraten).

Photo: Bertramz
Permission: GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version
Text: Wikipedia









References

  1. Harer W., 1985: Pharmacological and Biological Properties of the Egyptian Lotus, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Vol. 22 (1985), pp. 49-54 Published by: American Research Center in Egypt DOI: 10.2307/40000390
  2. Kákosy L., 1995: 'The Soter Tomb in Thebes', in S.P, Vleeming (ed.), Hundred-Gated Thebes: Acts of a Colloqium on Thebes and the Theban area in the Graeco-Roman Period, Leiden: Brill, 61- 67
  3. Martin G., 1991: Hidden Tombs of Memphis, Thames and Hudson, London 1991
  4. Maspero G., 1903: History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, London : Grolier Society
  5. Pommerening, T., Marinova, E., Hendrickx, S., 2010: The Early Dynastic origin of the water-lily motif, Chronique d’Egypte, 85 (2010): 14-40
  6. Raven M., 1980: Papyrus-sheaths and Ptah-Sokar-Osiris Statues, RMO, 1980 - 296 pages
  7. Robins G., 2008: The Art of Ancient Egypt, Harvard University Press, 2008 - Art - 271 pages
  8. Strudwick N., 2006: Masterpieces of Ancient Egypt, University of Texas Press, 1 Nov. 2006 - Social Science - 352 pages
  9. Taylor J., 2010: Journey Through the Afterlife: Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, Harvard University Press, 2010 - History - 320 pages



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