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Maori Tools, Weapons and other Artefacts


The Maori of New Zealand have a rich culture, and this is carried through to their skilfully made and decorated tools and weapons. The ancestors of the Māori were fishers and gardeners, and had domesticated animals such as pigs. After arriving in New Zealand, the Māori had to rapidly adapt their material culture and agricultural practices to suit the climate of their new land - cold and harsh in comparison to the tropical islands they had come from, the Society and Cook Islands. Great ingenuity was required to grow the tropical plants they had brought with them, including taro, kumara, tī pore (or Ti), gourds, and yams; this was especially difficult in the chillier southern parts of the country. The harakeke (flax plant) served as a replacement for pandanus leaves, coconut fronds and fibre, as well as hibiscus bark in the manufacture of mats, baskets, rope, fishing nets and clothing.



Maori Clubs, weapons of war

Weapons of War

These Mere were meant to kill. They were used as thrusting weapons, not as one might use an axe or a club. Mere, and other patu, were used for close-quarter fighting. Held in one hand, these close-range striking weapons were used primarily for end-on thrusting or jabbing (tipi). In combat, jabbing thrusts or strikes would be directed at the ribs, neck or temple. It has been claimed that a strike to the skull combined with a twisting flick of the wrist could force or wrench the victim's skull open. They were also used to pierce the abdomen, then twisted to disembowel the opponent. The designed use of the mere for forward striking thrusts is an unusual characteristic of Maori patu, where in other parts of the world, clubs are generally wielded with an ax-like downward blow. The butt (reke) of a mere could also be used to strike an opponent's head. The object second from right is a ceremonial adze.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text: adapted from Wikipedia
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ






Maori Canoe

This waka or canoe is an example of a waka titi, a canoe used on rivers, lakes, or near the shore.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ



Maori Canoe Maori Canoe


The canoe was constructed from a single totara trunk, and may have had an outrigger attached in a manner similar to the diagram.

Podocarpus totara is a species of podocarp tree endemic to New Zealand. It grows throughout the North Island and northeastern South Island in lowland, montane and lower subalpine forest at elevations of up to 600 m. Tōtara is commonly found in lowland areas where the soil is fertile and well drained.

The tōtara is a medium to large tree which grows slowly to around 20 to 25 m, exceptionally to 35 m; it is noted for its longevity and the great girth of its trunk. The bark peels off in papery flakes, with a purplish to golden brown hue. The sharp, dull green needle-like leaves are stiff and leathery, 2 cm long. This plant produces highly modified cones with 2 to 4 fused, fleshy berry-like juicy scales, bright red when mature. The cone contains one or two rounded seeds at the apex of the scales.

The largest known living tōtara, the Pouakani Tree, near Pureora in the central North Island is over 35 meters tall and nearly 4 metres in trunk diameter at breast height. Other large trees are known in this area, while Whirinaki forest, to the East, but also on deep recent volcanic soils, has groves of very tall tōtara (> 40m in height).

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Origin: Catlins, NZ, Acc. No. M440




Maori Canoe



View of the canoe from the other end.

Waterways were an integral part of Southern Maori life as they were a source of food and could also be utilised for canoe transport when travelling between settlements and food gathering areas.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text: Wikipedia, Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Maori Canoe
Maori canoes were made in many different sizes and styles depending on their purpose. The ones shown in this painting are large war canoes.

The painting is 'War Speech', by Augustus Earle, depicting an event of 1827-1828. A Māori chief standing in a beached canoe, addressing a crowd of warriors, mostly seated, with a few standing. Two other long canoes are on the beach, one with a sail is in the water, and others are pulled up close to a pā or kāinga in the left background. A dog (kurī) sniffs the ground in the foreground.

Most men are armed with guns, although one on the far right holds a taiaha. A taiaha is a traditional weapon of the Māori of New Zealand. It is a wooden, or sometimes whale bone, close quarters, staff weapon used for short sharp strikes or stabbing thrusts with quick footwork on the part of the wielder. Taiaha are usually between 5 to 6 feet (1.5 to 1.8 m) in length. They have three main parts: the arero (tongue), used for stabbing the opponent and parrying, the upoko (head), the base from which the tongue protrudes, and the ate (liver) or tinana (body), the long flat blade which is also used for striking and parrying. A gourd and flax kit (basket woven from flax fibres - Don ) are centrally placed amongst one group of men.

Earle's text reads: "A party of warriors had collected at the Bay of Islands for the purpose of making a hostile visit to a Hauraki tribe. They were detained by contrary winds; and for several days were constantly engaged in listening to speeches from their chiefs, who addressed them from a canoe hauled on shore … one [canoe], which I measured, was 70 feet long, and carried one hundred fighting men."

Date 1838
Source: Alexander Turnbull Library, (Reference No. PUBL-0015-09).
Artist: Earle, Augustus, 1793-1838
Permission: Public Domain
Text: Adapted from Wikipedia




Maori Canoe Maori Canoe


Maori Canoe

A beautifully adzed and finished small dugout canoe, possibly used by the Maori for transport and fishing in small rivers and lakes.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2007
Source: Display, Wellington Airport




Maori Canoe


This elaborately carved Tau ihu (canoe prow) is thought to be about 400 years old. The carver's use of the unaunahi (fish scale) pattern, and a pair of small dorsal fins to the rear, suggest it represents some sort of sea creature. Its stylised head features a long mouth full of V shaped teeth.

It was found in 1996 on the west coast of Stewart Island at The Gutter, Te Hapua, Mason Bay, a safe haven along this treacherous piece of coastline. The intricate open-weave carving that would normally stand along the top of the tauihu is missing, but otherwise the piece is intact.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text: Wikipedia, Carrington et al. (2008), Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Source: Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Maori Canoe


The prow was recovered with a canoe thwart and other pieces, evidently the remains of a wreck. There was a village in the adjacent sand dunes. They may represent a settlement by people associated with Tukiauau or other Ngāti Mamoe. Kāti Mamoe, or Ngāti Mamoe, is an historic Māori iwi. Originally from the Heretaunga (Hastings) area they moved in the 16th century to the South Island which at the time was occupied by Waitaha. Many of our carved taonga (treasures) are related to waka (canoe) culture and highlight the importance of water travel, fishing and food gathering from the sea, lakes and rivers.

Attributed to Kati Mamoe, Matai wood. Acc. No. Z.4566

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text: Wikipedia, Carrington et al. (2008), Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Source: Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Tauihu (canoe prow) Tauihu (canoe prow)
Waka (canoes) were often decorated with tauihu (carved prows).

(left) New Zealand
Oldman Collection
Acc. No. D50.412

(right) Waiau River, Southland
Gift of Mr Morrison
Acc. No. B62.125

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Kauroti and kaurima fire making kit
Tauihu (canoe prow)

1750
Artist Unknown

This beautifully carved tauihu is the prow of a waka taua (war canoe). It is a fine example of the pītau style of tauihu, recognisable by the carved figure at the front, with its protruding and defiant tongue, and arms stretched out behind with clearly realised hands and fingers. The figure represents Tūmatauenga (the god of war), who is tasked with warning his brother Tangaroa (the god of the sea) that humans are crossing Tangaroa's domain in a war canoe. It is a very early example of tauihu construction and carving.

Waka taua were truly impressive vessels. They could be up to 45 metres long and were the exceptional battleships of their day. They were expressively ornamented, with a well-defined and smooth-running hierachy among the kaihautū (leader) and the kaihoe (paddlers). They were also tribal statements of power, prestige, and war prowess.

Dimensions: Width 195 mm, height 420mm, depth 200 mm

Oldman Collection. Gift of the New Zealand Government, 1992

Photo and text: http://www.googleartproject.com/collection/te-papa/artwork/tauihu-canoe-prow-unknown/362204/#




Fish Talisman Fish Talisman

These objects are known as mauri (fish-shaped talismen) that contained spirits favourable to fishing. They were carried on fishing expeditions to ensure a good catch.

(left) Tuatapere, Southland
King Collection
Acc. Nos D46.71-72

(right) Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M93

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Fish Hooks

Matau (fishhooks) made from wood

Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. Nos M17 - M18

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Fish Hook

18th Century Maori Fish hook (Matau)

The wooden shank is extended to form most of the point limb, with a short bone point affixed.

Lashed snood and line. Length 13 cm.

Webster Collection No. 522
Y15607

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)






The following eight fish hooks are not identified, except as a group.

Matau (fishhooks) from:

Tokanui, Pahia, Greenhills, Haldane, and Southland.

Donors:

Mrs E. Gibbs (D43.12), Gibb Collection (D41.17, Halder Collection (B64.153), Ivan Sutherland (D43.16), McKay Collection (83.2130), Mrs M. J. Massey (83.2128), Stewart Collection (83.2124/6), Sorenson Collection (D46.2075, D46.1704, D33.145), and Gift of Anonymous (83.2125/7/9, 83.2119, 83.3363, DS.43.61)

Maori were expert fishermen, their knowledge of fish led to the development and manufacture of a wide variety of matau (fishhooks).

There are two main types of matau on display: early one-piece hooks (made from bone or shell) and later composite hooks made from a combination of bone, wood, or shell.

Pa Kahawai are lures, faced with paua shell that are designed to move around like a small fish in the water. Used to catch both kahawai and barracouta.

A large one piece copper hook illustrates how Maori adapted European methods.

Fish hooks Fish hooks Fish hooks Fish hooks


Bone, wood and stone fish hooks.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Fish Hook

Fish hook from the Captain Cook collection, taken to England by Captain Cook.

With Captain Cook label; provenance 'Ex Methodist Missy. Socy. Given to socy from Cassiobury Park Museum (Private) about 1900. Museum formed largely from Missionary Sources'.

Wooden shank, with very sharp bone point. Lashed snood and line.
Length 9 cm excluding line

Webster Collection No. 1015
Y15609

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)




Three Fish Hooks
(left) Pre-European Maori Barracuda Hook (Okooko).
Straight large shank with an unbarbed serrated bone point which is rendered more secure by a small wooden wedge driven into a hole. The shank has an outer snood knob. Length 17 cm
Webster Collection No. 452, Y15606

(centre) Contact Period Maori Large Trolling Fish Hook (Pa Kahawai). Paua shell shank decorated with notches with sharp bone point - could be bird beak Lashed snood and line. Length 12 cm excluding line. Webster Collection No. 1078, Y15604.

(right) Late 18th Century Maori One-Piece Shark Hook made of one piece of wood, most likely rimu. Inner and outer barbs. Width 14 cm, length 20 cm.
Webster Collection Y15601.

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)




Fish hooks Fish hooks Fish hooks Fish hooks


Bone and wood fish hooks.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Three Fish Hooks
(left) Late 18th Century Period Maori Composite Shark Hook.
Wooden shank limb with serrated bone point. Lashed snood and line, length 14 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 246, Y15602

(centre) Late 18th Century Period Maori Composite Shark Hook.
Full bodied wooden shank limb with beautifully carved snood knob, and small bone point. Lashed snood and line, length 16 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 521, Y15599

(right) Late 18th Century Period Maori Composite Shark Hook.
Wooden shank limb with bone point, lashed snood and line, length 10 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 1075, Y15612.

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)




Fish hook




Elaborately carved and beautifully made Maori fish hook.

Photo: http://www.jillsjottings.orconhosting.net.nz/Kennedy%20History.htm




Three Fish Hooks
(left) Late 18th Century Period Maori Composite Shark Hook.
Wooden shank limb with serrated bone point. Lashed snood and line, length 14 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 246, Y15602

(centre) Late 18th Century Period Maori Composite Shark Hook.
Full bodied wooden shank limb with beautifully carved snood knob, and small bone point. Lashed snood and line, length 16 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 521, Y15599

(right) Late 18th Century Period Maori Composite Shark Hook.
Wooden shank limb with bone point, lashed snood and line, length 10 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 1075, Y15612.

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)




Fish hook




Elaborately carved and beautifully made Maori fish hook.

Photo: http://www.jillsjottings.orconhosting.net.nz/Kennedy%20History.htm




Three Fish Hooks
(left) Late 18th Century Period Maori Composite Shark Hook.
Wooden shank limb with small serrated bone point. Lashed snood and line, length 13 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 382, Y15605

(centre) Late 18th Century Period Maori Composite Shark Hook.
Wooden shank limb with serrated bone point. Lashed snood and line, length 11 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 602, Y15603

(right) Early 19th Century Period Maori Shark Hook.
Metal 'U' shaped point with flax fibre snood and line, length 8 cm, width 6 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 1489?, Y15600.

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)




Three Fish Hooks
(left) Contact Period Maori Shark Hook.

Metal 'U' shaped point lashed with flax fibre snood and line. Width 6 cm.
Webster Collection Y15610

(centre) Pre-European Maori Barracuda Hook (Okooko).
Straight thick shank with an unbarbed bone point which is rendered more secure by a small wooden wedge driven through a hole. The shank has an outer snood knob. Length 15 cm.
Webster Collection Y15608

(right) Contact Period Maori Shark Hook.
Metal 'U' shaped point lashed with flax fibre snood and line broken off, width 45 mm.

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)




Fish Lures
The stone minnow lure shanks shown here are examples of the earliest known southern style of pa Kahawai (trolling fishhooks).
This type of lure would have had a makaa (point) made of bone attached to the end.

Clockwise from the left:

Crombie River, Fiordland
Gift of Larry O'Dea, Acc. No. D.S. 40.57

Gift of Anonymous Donor, Acc. No. D.S.40.57

Wakapatu, Southland
Sorenson Collection, Acc. No. D36.9

Banks Peninsula, Canterbury
Sorenson Collection, Acc. No. D46.2073

Southland
Gibb Collection Acc. No. 85.586

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Fish Lure
An old Maori stone minnow lure shank, made from finely ground dark grey argillite with triangular cross-section and bilateral perforation, the ventral surface at distal end is reduced with a wide groove to form the lashing grip extending around the end with two prominent lugs.

Length 78 mm.

Provenance: Found by Murray Agnew, Pelorus Sounds, circa 1960s-70s
Photo: http://www.antiquesreporter.com.au/index.cfm/lot/518266-an-old-maori-stone-minnow-lure-shank-finely-ground-dark-grey-arg/




Maul


Maul
The stakes which held set lines or traps were driven in with a ta (maul), shown left and above.

Above, gift of Mrs J. Robertson acc. No. D42.28

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Maul
Ta, or Maori maul. When erecting a fish-weir the Maori generally uses stakes of manuka. The species known as white manuka provides good straight stakes in its sapling stage of growth. These stakes are pointed at one end and driven down into the stream-bed by means of striking them with a heavy wooden club, called a ta, used as a beetle or maul.

A piece of heavy, cross-grained hardwood was utilised as a ta, the shaft or hand-grip being worked down to a suitable thickness, while the outer end was left wide, thick, and heavy, to give the necessary weight. One face of it was flattened to serve as a striking-face, and by long use a hole would be worn in the middle of this face. I am not sure that a hollow was not formed in the face of a new ta prior to the implement being used. I have known this to be done. The roots of the maire tree form excellent material wherefrom to fashion a ta. In late times the iron-ringed maul of the pakeha has been much used in place of the old implement.

Photo: J. McDonald
Permission: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 New Zealand Licence
Source: http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/BesFish-fig-BesFish134a.html
Text: http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-BesFish-t1-body-d8-d3.html#BesFish-fig-BesFish134a
© Victoria University of Wellington




Fish points
Makaa (points) attached to lures and used to catch barracouta and kahawai.

Pahia, Southland,
Sorenson Collection
Acc. Nos D33.145, D46.1821-1825, D46.1876, D46.1819

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




kahawai
Kahawai, Arripis trutta.

The Bay of Plenty is an ideal habitat for kahawai and has some of the best catch rates. Kahawai are New Zealand’s second most commonly caught recreational species after snapper. They are keen to take the bait.

They are noticeable in the water, with speckled grey-blue to blue-green upper bodies. 'They are a solid, powerful, streamlined fish' says NIWA fisheries scientist, Bruce Hartill. 'They swim in small groups, and in schools in excess of a million fish, often weighing in excess of 200 tonnes.'

Kahawai can cover vast distances quickly because of their speed. They are fast growing, and are a very reproductively productive species compared to snapper. They eat other fish, but mainly live on krill. The average size of a kahawai is 40—50 cm and 1—2 kg in weight. Females grow larger (up to 60 cm in length), and can weigh up to 3 kg, often half a kilo heavier than males. Kahawai become reproductively mature at about 40 cm, at about four years of age. They can live to be 26, but anything over 20 is considered old age.

Photo: Erika Mackay
Source and text: http://sciblogs.co.nz/guestwork/2011/01/13/kahawai-the-people%E2%80%99s-fish/




Fish points
Makaa (points) attached to lures and used to catch barracouta and kahawai.

Stewart Island
Willa Collection
Acc. Nos. 86.277, 86.278

Pahia, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. Nos. D46.1678, D46.1728, D46.1854, D46.1874, D46. 1877, D46.1879

Haldane, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. No. 82.1373

Waipapa, Southland
Gibb Collection
Acc. No. 82.397

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




barracoutta

Barracouta, Thyrsites atun

Thyrsites atun is a long, thin, ocean predator. It is found in the seas of the Southern Hemisphere, and can grow up to 2 metres (79 in) long and weigh as much as 6.5 kilograms (14 lb). It is found near continental shelves or around islands and feeds mainly on crustaceans, cephalopods and also small fish like pilchard and anchovy. This predator species usually forms schools near the bottom or midwater, sometimes even near the surface at night. It is mainly found in South Africa, Namibia, Argentina, Chile, Australia and New Zealand.

Photo and text: http://bigfishesoftheworld.blogspot.com.au/2012/09/snoek-barracouta-thyrsites-atun.html




Fish points
Makaa (points) made from kekeno (seal) teeth.

Pahia, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. Nos. D46.1679, D46.1840, D46.1841, D46.1844, D46.1860, D46.1868

Orepuki, Southland
King Collection Ac. No. D46.134

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




seals seals
Seals were an important resource for the Maori living on suitable rocky coasts around New Zealand.

They were a very important source of meat, fat, skins, teeth and bone.

These seals are hauled out to rest at Milford Sound, on the West Coast Fiordland.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013




Seal Abel Tasman Seal Abel Tasman


Seal Abel Tasman

Seals at Abel Tasman National Park.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2007




Fish Points
Niwha (barbed and hooked points)

Pahia, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. Nos. D46.1673-1674, D46.1827-1828

Southland
Gift of Anonymous
Acc. No. 82.1374

Sandhill Point, Southland
Gift of Mr W. Woods
Acc. No. D49.13

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Fish points
Makaa (points) made from kuri (dog) jawbone.

Pahia, Southland
Gift of Mr J. Templeton and J.H. Sorenson
Acc. No. D46.1850

Pahia, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. Nos. D46.1861, D46.1869, D46.1878

Tokonui Mouth, Southland
Gift of John Milne
Acc. Nos. D41.20, D41.22

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Maori dog
Maori dog in a painting titled 'War Speech', by Augustus Earle

The Maori dog (kuri) was not indigenous to New Zealand but was probably introduced during the period of the Great Migration (c. 1350 A.D. ). Although little is known of its distribution, it seems evident that the breed failed to establish itself to any great degree. It became extinct some years after the arrival of the European settlers.

The Maori dog was a small, low-set animal, very ugly in appearance. Although it had a poor sense of smell, it was of some use in hunting night-moving birds such as the kiwi and also ducks in the moulting season. The Frenchman Crozet, who was at the Bay of Islands in June 1772, noted that: “The dogs are a sort of domesticated fox, quite black or white, very low on the legs, straight ears, thick tail, long body, full jaws, but more pointed than those of the fox, and uttering the same cry; they do not bark like our dogs”. According to Hutton, the dog was dull, lazy, and sullen in disposition. Yet it is credited with being a plaything or favourite of Maori women who regarded it with affection. The dog's carcass was put to a variety of uses. The flesh was considered a delicacy, the hair was used for ornaments and the adornment of weapons, the teeth served as ear pendants, and the skin for cloaks. These were made of skins either sewn together or else attached in strips to a piece of woven flax fibre.

The dog figured a great deal in Maori tradition and even had its place in ritual as, for example, when the aid of Tu, the war-god, was sought before a battle took place. Sometimes a human victim was selected as a suitable offering. But there were times when a dog was accepted as a substitute. Buck states that the dog's heart was cooked on a spit and that, after the god had been appeased by the savour, the priest ate the flesh. Another war-god, Maru, was satisfied with a dog on all occasions.

Date 1838
Source: Alexander Turnbull Library, (Reference No. PUBL-0015-09).
Artist: Earle, Augustus, 1793-1838
Photo permission: Public Domain

Text: http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/dog-maori
Text permission: 'DOG, MAORI', from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, edited by A. H. McLintock, originally published in 1966.
Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 22-Apr-09
URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/dog-maori
All text licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 New Zealand Licence




bone levers bone levers
Ripi (bone levers) used to prise paua (abalone/Haliotis) from the rocks.

Pahia, Southland
Gift of J.H. Sorenson and C. Frentz
Acc. No. D46.1728

New Zealand
Gift of Mrs Thompson
Acc. No. B79.569

Sandhill Point, Southland
Gift of J.H. Sorenson
Acc. Nos. D46.1729, D46.1730

Sandhill Point, Southland
Gift of Mr W. Woods
Acc. No. D49.11

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Sand Hill Point





Hakapureirei or Sand Hill Point

This is a very important location which has yielded a lot of the artefacts shown on this page.

Photo: Walter and Jacomb (2005)




bone levers


Artefacts excavated at Hakapureirei or Sandhill Point by Peter Coutts. a. Paua lever or ripi – SHP/4 A/6; b. Paua lever or ripi – SHP/4 layer 2; c. Mid-section of moa-bone harpoon point – SHP/2 A/1 layer 2; d. Point fragment of bone bird-spear point – SHP/1 layer 1 spoil; e. Butt end of paua ripi – SHP/4 A/4 layer 2 ( Coutts (1972) fig. 4-167).

Photo: Walter and Jacomb (2005)




foods
Shellfish made up an important part of southern Maori diet.

Examples include (left to right):

Toheroa (Paphies ventricosa ), kina (sea-egg) and kuka (mussel)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




sinkers sinkers
Mahe (line sinkers), karihi (grooved) net sinkers and punga (drilled) net sinkers were manufactured from naturally rounded stones.

Portland, Whangerei
King Collection, Acc. No. D46.410

Pahia, Southland
Sorenson Collection, Acc. No. D46.1615

The Neck, Stewart Island
Willa Collection, Acc. No. 86.323

Hikuraki, Banks Peninsula
Sorenson Collection, Acc. No. D46.1725

Southland
King Collection, Acc. No. D46.394

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor, Acc. Nos. M86-M90

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




sinkers



(This hanging example out of frame in the photo above appears to be the Portland artefact, note the pencilled writing on the face.

Note also the decorative grooves added to the edge of what appears to be originally a natural shingle found on the beach.  - Don 
)

Portland, Whangerei
King Collection, Acc. No. D46.410

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




maori seine net



The other method of catching inanga, Galaxias gracilis , a small freshwater fish of the North Island, was by means of a net. This net was known as a kupenga, and it was used in almost the same way as the seine or large drag-net of European use. The length of the inanga net varied from 50 to 100 yards, and its depth from 6 ft. to 8 ft.

An Inanga net was made of very thin strips of flax worked into a small mesh; this, the central part of the net itself, was called a kaka. The rope along the top was called kaharunga, the bottom rope kahararo, the floats poito, and the sinkers karihi. There were two methods of using the net - one from a canoe tied by the middle thwart to a pole firmly fixed in a shallow spot, the other from the shore. When used from a canoe, another canoe started out from the bow of the anchored canoe with from 200 to 500 yards of rope. When this was all out the net was put overboard, roughly at right angles to the line, and when all the net was out the canoe returned to the stern of the anchored canoe with another long length of line. The net was then pulled steadily in towards the anchored canoe. The same process was used from the shore, but in the case of the canoe the lines were coiled up in the bow and stern, leaving the centre free for the inanga to be emptied out of the net.

Photo: http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-BesFish-t1-body-d2.html
Text: Fletcher (1919)
© Victoria University of Wellington




whau


The wood for fishing floats

Entelea arborescens or whau is a species of malvaceous tree endemic to New Zealand. E. arborescens is the only species in the genus Entelea. A shrub or small tree to 6 metres with large lime-like leaves giving a tropical appearance, whau grows in low forest along the coast of the North Island and the northern tip of the South Island. The dry fruit capsules are very distinctly brown and covered with spines. The common name whau is a Māori word that appears to derive from the common Polynesian word for hibiscus, other malvaceous trees which whau superficially resembles. Alternate names include 'New Zealand mulberry', 'corkwood' and 'evergreen lime'.

Whau has very light wood, rivalling balsa (Ochroma pyramidale) for lightness, and less dense than cork, and is pale brown in colour. The wood was used by Māori for the floats of fishing nets and the like.

Photo: Kahuroa
Permission: Public domain
Text: Adapted from Wikipedia




bodkin



Auwai (bodkin) made from bone and used to string fish together.

Wakapatu, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. No. D46.1788

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




harpoon points

Haeana (harpoon points) made from bone

(Note that the lowest point in particular appears to have been carved in the shape of a fish, perhaps to give it extra magic - Don )

South Island
Gift of Michael Trotter
Acc. No. B61312

Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. No. D46.1800

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. Nos. M70-M71

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




bird trap
This mutu kaka (parakeet snare) was used for catching parakeets. A long pole was lashed to the shank of the snare and a shorter stick, tied at an angle, served as a bram hook. The noose lay along the perch and was held in place by twigs.

(I have been unable to find the definition of bram or bram hook.

However, note the small human head carved on the snare. This is typical of mutu kaka. The carved human heads are usually distinguished by having eyes set in slanting sockets, lips tending to meet in front, and a large outthrust tongue - Don 
)

Hunters would select a suitable tree, hang snares in position, and then conceal themselves in a shelter/hide below the trap. Once a bird settled on the perch the hunter pulled the noose tight, catching the bird about the legs and holding it securely against the carved head. The fowler then unhooked the snare, took off the catch, reset the noose and hooked the snare back into position.

The mutu käkä form of bird snare was a simple but effective method of snaring large numbers of the noisy, socially garrulous, and inquisitive käkä (parrots: Nestor meridionalis ). A plaited muka (flax fibre) cord would be jerked trapping the legs of the käkä against the protruding upright of the mutu käkä.

Mökai (tamed birds): Young käkä were easily captured and tamed. They were held captive by a small leg ring called a pöria, which had a small cord attached to prevent the bird flying off. Käkä pöria (leg rings) could be quite ornate and were also worn as pendants. Mökai were made to call out to attract wild birds in the vicinity, who would come in great numbers upon hearing the cry of the captured bird. Mutu käkä were then used to capture birds as they alighted on the horizontal perch of the snare.

New Zealand
Oldman Collection
Acc. No. D50.423

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Additional text: http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/objectdetails.aspx?oid=159623, Phillips (1951)




bird spearpoints bird spearpoints
Makoi (spear points) made from bone.

(Note the double ring on the bottom right, a Käkä pöria (leg ring). The large ring would be for the parrot leg, and the smaller to attach a leg cord. See below - Don )

Maori were excellent fowlers. Birds were snared or speared in great numbers for food. The most favoured birds were kereru (wood pigeons), titi (muttonbirds, or sooty shearwaters), and tui, kaka, kakapo and kea (parakeets).

Dogs may also have been used to hunt for the flightless birds such as weka (woodhens) and kiwi.

Wakapatu, Southland
Teviotdale Collection
Acc. Nos. D50.307 (M417), D50.308 (M418), D50.311 (M420), D50.317 (M415)

Cannibal Bay, Catlins
Gift of Guy Murrell
Acc. No. D40.2 (M416)

Haldane, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. No. D46.1736 (M419)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




bird leg ring

Poria (leg ring) used when snaring kaka.

When snaring kaka, Maori frequently made use of a tame bird which acted as a decoy. A poria made of bone or greenstone, with a pona (string) attached, was slipped over the decoy's foot. The kaka was trained to screech whenever the string was pulled, attracting any other wild kaka in the vicinity. If no trained birds were available, the first bird caught during the day would be kept for the same purpose.

New Zealand
OM
Acc. No. D24.1677 (M414)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ






long spear point

An unusually long makoi (spear point) found at Pahia.
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013

Pahia, Southland, Sorenson Collection, Acc. No. D37.24 (M421)
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ





bowl lee island


Kumete (food bowl) made from rimu wood.

Lee Is., Lake Te Anau
Gift of Lynette Williams
Acc. No. Z.3724

Photo (bowl): Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Aerial photo of Lee Island: Google Earth




rimu tree





The bowl shown above is made of Dacrydium cupressinum, Rimu, endemic to New Zealand, growing in habitat in the Waitakere Ranges, west Auckland, New Zealand.

The trunk of this tree is covered with Rata vines (Metrosideros) spp.

Photo: Kahuroa
Permission: Public Domain




basket


Poha are containers made for the preservation and storage of titi (juvenile mutton birds or sooty shearwaters), and weka.

The interior is an inflated bag of bull kelp packed full of cooked titi. Hot fat from the cooking process is poured into the poha which seals and preserves the contents. The bag is then put into the woven basket and surrounded with strips of totara bark.

Stored in this way the contents of poha titi could remain fresh for up to two years.

Pōhā are made from blades of rimurapa (bull kelp). Ngāi Tahu, a South Island iwi (tribe), gathers the long broad blades of rimurapa that grow around the coast of Te Wai Pounamu. The outer skin of the blades is airtight and traps air in the honeycomb-like structure inside each blade. Food preserved inside a pōhā can be kept safely for up to two to three years.

According to Ngāi Tahu tradition, January or February is the time to start making pōhā. First, the rimurapa blades are cut to the right length and hollowed out. Then, in March, the pōhā hau (the hollowed out blades) are inflated and placed outside to soften in the night dew. Finally, the pōhā are rolled up and taken to the Tītī Islands for the start of the mutton bird season in April.

Weka (wood-hens) and tītī (mutton birds) are prepared by wrapping the birds in pouaka (fescue grass), leaving them in a trench for a few days, and then soaking them in an ipu (wooden bowl) in water heated by hot stones. The birds are kept there until their fat has seeped out and is lying at the bottom of the ipu. Once this process is complete, the birds are placed into pōhā and covered with their own fat. The top of the pōhā is plugged with a wooden plug and the outside is protected with kiri tōtara (tōtara bark), before the whole pōhā is placed in a flax kete (bag) and bound. The finished pōhā has a distinctive shape designed to be easy to throw and catch because there are no beaches on which to land supplies on the Tītī Islands. Pōhā are often made to hold up to 110 birds, although the average size would hold 40 to 50.

Southland
Gift of Graham Metzger
Acc. No. M193

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Additional text from http://www.tepapa.govt.nz/Education/OnlineResources/Matariki/FoodGathering/Pages/Poha.asp




bull kelp bull kelp

Bull Kelp, Durvillea antarctica, used to make the Poha above.

(left) floating straps in a coastal environment.

(right) Cross-section and cut-away view of sun-dried kelp (Durvillaea antarctica), showing its internal honeycomb structure. Kelp found on Muriwai beach, near Auckland, New Zealand.

Photo (left): B.navez
Permission: GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2

Photo (right): Avenue
Permission: licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.




sooty shearwater
Sooty Shearwater (Puffinus griseus ) off Kaikoura, New Zealand

The name shearwater is applied to that sub–division of the Procellariidae, petrels, family whose members have a skimming flight pattern, a flap and rapid glide, close to the surface of the sea. There are five known in New Zealand waters, the sooty shearwater being the most common and in season the most numerous sea–bird in southern New Zealand waters.

The sooty shearwater is quite heavily built, almost the size of a mallard duck but more streamlined. It is dark brown above, black–looking in flight and a little paler underneath with conspicuous silvery white linings to the under part of the narrow wings. The upper bill is curved to a sharp hook. The webbed feet are a surprising shade of lilac with brown markings. As it only comes to land to breed, the legs are feeble so that on land the bird is never erect but always in a squatting position. The melting dark brown eye and the classic shape and poise of its fine neck and head are things of great beauty.

The sooty shearwater is found in oceans throughout the world but its only known breeding areas are in the Southern Hemisphere. It breeds in the sub Antarctic and temperate zones on islands off the coast of Chile and around Cape Horn, on Kidney Island, Falklands, on Tristan da Cunha, on islands off Tasmania and New South Wales and on numerous New Zealand islands and some headlands on the mainland. Sub fossil and midden evidence, as well as historical records, suggest that sooty shearwaters formerly bred in large colonies on the mainland. In the Bay of Plenty a few still breed on Whale Island.

Charles Darwin in The Voyage of the Beagle, noted that; 'the sooty shearwater generally frequents the inland sounds [of southern Chile] in very large flocks: I do not think I ever saw so many birds of any other sort together, as I once saw of these behind the island of Chiloe. Hundreds of thousands flew in an irregular line for several hours in one direction. When part of the flock settled on the water the surface was blackened, and a noise proceeded from them as of human beings talking in the distance.'

Photo: Sabine's Sunbird
Permission: This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
Text: © 2005 Narena Olliver, new zealand birds limited, Greytown, New Zealand, http://www.nzbirds.com/birds/titi.html




bird spearpoints bird spearpoints



The Weka was also preserved in Poha, although it was not available in such numbers, or as easily caught, as were the juveniles of the Sooty Shearwater.

The Weka is a fearless thief of bushwalkers' (trampers', hikers') food!

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2007




basket
Hue wai (water gourd)

The gourd plant cultivated by the natives of New Zealand was undoubtedly introduced from the Pacific Isles, where its cultivation is, or was, widespread. It is the Cucurbita lagenaria of Linnaeus. It may have originated in India, and was not in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans.

It is known as Hue wai in the Hawaiian islands as well.

The gourd was cultivated to a considerable extent by the Maori in pre-European days, in all suitable localities, but it did not flourish in some high lying districts, and was not a success in the South Island, where seaweed vessels (poha, bull kelp vessels as above - Don ) appear to have largely taken the place of the calabash. The Maori put the fruit of the gourd plant to three different uses, as a food, as domestic vessels, and occasionally as floats. They were seen and commented on by Banks and Cook.

New Zealand
Gift of Sir Robert Anderson
Acc. No. D51.60

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Additional text: http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-BesAgri-t1-body-d7.html
© Victoria University of Wellington




basket
The hard husk of the edible bracken fern root/rhizome was removed by pounding with a patu aruhe (fern root beater).

Morrinsville, North Island
Gift of Mr R.A.S. Browne
Acc. No. D45.119

Mataura, South Island
Gift of Mr Gimblett
Acc. No. D43.1

New Zealand
Gift of Mr J. Higham
Acc. No. 61.50

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




bracken fern nz

Bracken Fern from New Zealand, Pteridium esculentum.

Preparation involved washing, beating to remove the husk and to turn the rhizome into a paste, moulding into cakes and finally roasting in hot ashes.

Photo: Grapeman4
Permission: licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.




basket
A patua or papa totara, a bark basket.

(Note that, when compared with the diagrams and text below, this very small example is missing the cord securing the peg on the right hand end, and missing the peg on the left hand end  - Don )

How the Patua Bark Vessels were made.

While some of the men were engaged in the bird trapping, others were engaged in making patua, a sort of bark basket in which birds were preserved. These patua were usually made of the inner bark of the totara tree; when this material was unprocurable hinau bark was used, but this was avoided if possible on account of the bark being too thick to bend well. The bark of young trees only was used, and the section of bark was removed from the sunny side of the tree (the northern side), as this came off more easily, and was more flexible than that on the shady side. It was taken off in the winter, but my informant had forgotten the months in which this was done.

Two cuts were made through the bark, half encircling the tree, one about ten or twelve feet above the other, long enough for two patua, according to the size required. Two perpendicular cuts were then made, opposite each other, and meeting the horizontal cuts. The two bottom corners were then slightly wrenched free to give a start to the stripping, after which a piece of karewao (supplejack) was tied round the portion operated upon, to prevent it falling down, and perhaps splitting. In a short time the bark would come away without further treatment; sometimes, when in a hurry, the whole piece was wrenched off in one operation, after first beating it all round, but it had to be done very carefully, to avoid splitting. The piece of bark removed and corrected to length was called kiripāro.

In many places where totara forests still exist, the old scars can be seen where bark was removed by a former generation. This has, in our district, given rise to a mistaken belief among the European settlers that half a totara tree was killed by being barked thus in the process of canoe-making. Examples of these barked trees can be seen in the Borough reserve, south of Taumarunui.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Extra text: Downes (1928)




basket
When the kiripāro was carried back to camp, slight bruises were made at equal distances from each end, in straight lines across the fibre, showing where the bends were to start. This was done by bending inwards once or twice. The ends were then made pliable by being placed alternately in a fire, and before getting cold the ends, from the marked line, were folded, first one end, then the other, the middle first with an outward bend, then alternately each side of the middle and end for end, five folds in all at each end. Unless done in this way it is said the bark would split, when the whole thing would be rendered useless; consequently the utmost care was used in working out these folds.

In a large patua the width allowed for a complete fold at the end was one whanganga and a huka, otherwise one and a half spans, a whananga being a full span of the fingers, the huka being the distance from the end of the middle finger to the knuckle. That would be, roughly, about a foot; consequently the width of the bark required for a large patua would be about five feet. Many were, however, considerably smaller.

The fold was termed potipoti. The folds were next brought together at the top, and a hole bored through the bunch, in which was inserted a manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) or kopuka (L. ericoides) pin, called a titi, perhaps three-quarters of an inch in diameter. A length of aka whiriwhiri or twisted vine was next prepared, in length three wahanga, a wahanga in this district signifying a measurement from the centre of the breast to the finger tips, arm outstretched.

Text and diagram: Downes (1928)




basket
The prepared vine, called herekaka was passed seven times round the lug, known as poitu, and on both sides of the titi in a ripeka or crossed design, drawing the folds together as tight as it was possible to get them. The top of the poitu was then neatly rounded off.

The length of the patua varied considerably; those for small birds, such as mata karaihe (probably 'glass eye,' the blight-bird, Zosterops caerulescens), being only about 12 to 18 inches long, and of about the same width, while large ones for pigeons or kaka would often be 3 feet or more. All the large patua made for presentation were given special names. It is said that the two largest ever made in this district were known as Taratuia and Pohoare. They were made near Reretaruke, and presented, full of preserved pigeons, to the lower river natives during the marriage celebrations of one Tamahina, about seven generations ago. It is said that both of these, when empty, were large enough to hold four men. The lower river people were unable to fill these again for a return present, but it is said that they were afterwards used for huahua tangata (preserved human flesh). After once being used for holding human flesh, patua were never again used for birds or for holding water, but were usually broken up.

Text and diagram: Downes (1928)




adze



Flat pieces of pounamu (greenstone) were ground to the required thickness by rubbing back and forth with hoanga (grindstones) made of sandstone or schist, and water.

Note that the worked Pounamu found at Maori Beach shown in this image would have been carried to the beach by canoe from the South Island, since there are no deposits of greenstone on Stewart Island.

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous donor
Acc. Nos. M192, M193, M200

Worked Pounamu
Maori Beach, Stewart Island
Gift of W. Barnford
Acc. No. 2001.936

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Maori Beach Maori Beach



Maori Beach where the greenstone pieces above were found is on Stewart Island, a relatively large island to the south of the main South Island.

It is a magical spot, with a lot of flat land behind the beach which would be ideal for camping or for putting up a more permanent structure.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2007




Maori Beach



There is a fresh water stream at the eastern end, and a salt water estuary and pool at the western end which would provide a good safe place for canoes to be pulled out of the water.

A wire swing bridge has been built across the estuary to allow trampers/hikers to cross with safety.

Photo: Google Earth




Maori Beach



Travellers from the South Island would have been very glad to reach the sanctuary of Maori Beach, since the strait between Stewart Island and the mainland is usually rough. It is only about 40 - 50 metres deep, lies below 46° South latitude and is exposed to the full force of the roaring forties.

Even travellers on the modern catamaran ferry are often glad to complete the crossing of the strait in safety!

Photo: Google Earth




adze




The hammerstone (under the club blank) has been used to try to make a mere (short fighting club) from pounamu, greenstone. The bruising has had little effect on the original shape of the slab.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
(There are two greenstone blanks shown, with a sandstone rasp in position over the lower, purplish coloured one, illustrating how pounamu was cut into symmetrical, even slabs. The technique needed huge amounts of time and effort - Don )

Worked pounamu
Southland
Gift of Waihopai School

Worked pounamu
New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor

Kani (sandstone rasp)
Gift of Anonymous Donor

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




mallet mallet
(left) Ta whakairo (mallet)

Andrew Burn, Southland
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. B62.105

Whao (small chisels) and Tikaro (gouges) were lashed to short straight handles and tapped with a wooden mallet.

(right) Chisel (replica)
Southland Museum and Art Gallery Collection
Acc. No. M203

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




scrapers and knives


Kota (scrapers) and maripi (knives) made from pounamu.

(left to right)

Locations: Pahia, Southland, Waikuku and Birdlings Flat, Canterbury, New Zealand

Donors:
Kingsland Collection (D39.114), Sorenson Collection (D46.1424, D46.2057, D46.2029, D46.2034, D46.2049), John Thompson Jnr. (D39.263), and Gift of Anonymous Donor (D37.113), M264-5, M267)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adzes


Toki (adzes)

Locations:
Frankton, Haldane Mokomoko, Pahia, Southland, Heathcote River and Birdlings Flat, Canterbury

Donors:
Mrs M.D. Bell (B67.1), Mr W. Birse (B70.316), King Collection (D46.73), Mr Rex M. Royds (B67.168), Sorenson Collection (D46.1034, D46.1074, D46.1094), and Gift of Anonymous (M234-5)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




NZ map greenstone






Tools made of stone which fractures easily were made using stone on stone flaking methods. Stone types that could be easily flaked such as argillite, chert, and silcrete, were struck with hammerstones made from rocks such as granite and garnet, or from bone. The worked stone was then polished and finished with wet stone rasps and grindstones of schist or sandstone.

Pounamu (greenstone) was highly prized for tool and ornament making as it was tougher and more durable than any other stone type found in New Zealand. However due to its fibrous structure it had to be shaped by grinding rather than flaking methods.

The South Island is known as Te Wai Pounamu (The Greenstone Waters) or Te Wahi Pounamu (The Place of Greenstone). Most of the pounamu gathered in these locations shown on the map comes from river boulders.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Wiri, whao, tikaro

Wiri (drill points) whao (chisels) and tikaro (gouges)

Locations:
Orepuki, Pahia, Tokonui, Waikawa, Southland, and Catlins, South Otago.

Donors:
Chas Campbell (D39.9, Mr I. Halder (B64.143-5), King Collection (D46.74), Kuhuwai Russell (D50.301), Sorenson Collection (D46.1870, D33.184, D46.1078), Mrs E.J. Wilson (D47.7), and Gift of Anonymous (M247-9, M252-3, M256-7, D.S.39.312)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Adzes

Toki (adzes)

Left to Right:
New Zealand, Gibb Collection, Acc. No. 127

Brydon, Southland, Gift of Mr E.J. Genge, Acc. No. b64.56

Tokonui, Southland, Sorenson Collection, Acc. No. D46.2077

Pahia, Southland, Sorenson Collection, Acc. No. D46.1089

Otautau, Southland, Gift of D. Hogg, Acc. No. M220

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adzes

Toki (adzes)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze

Toki (adze)

New Zealand
Dunlop Collection (Otago Museum)
Acc. No. D49.21

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adzes

Toki (adzes)

(Note the sandstone grindstone on which the superb adze is sitting - Don )

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adzes

Flywheel and wiri (drill) illustrates the skill required by Maori to bore a hole in stone, wood or bone. The type of drill shown consists of a shaft with a stone point used as follows:

Two people are required to operate this equipment. The hands pull out and down, spinning the drill as the cord unwinds, and putting pressure on the drill bit. When the hands are fully extended, the drill continues to spin with the momentum of the flywheel, causing the cords to rewind, the hands are then brought together again and the cycle repeats.

When drilling in stone, fine wet quartz sand was used as an abrasive. This produced a blunt tapered cavity which made it necessary to drill from both sides of the work to produce a hole.

Flywheel and wiri (replica)
Southland Museum and Art Gallery Collection
Acc. No. M217

Mere (replica)
New Zealand
Gift of Mrs M.J. Massey
Acc. No. D40.3

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Wiri drill

Wiri (cord drill)

Artist: Unknown

A wiri or tūwiri (also known as the pīrori) was a cord drill that Māori used to create holes in hard materials such as basalt, pounamu (New Zealand greenstone) or bone. The holes were made by applying downward pressure and a twirling motion by pulling cords, creating friction at the drill point to bore through solid material. Making holes in hard materials especially important in the manufacture of pounamu adornments and suspension holes in wrist weapons.

There are five individual components to a wiri: 1. the pou (central spindle); 2. the porotiti (circular whirl); 3. the mata (stone drill point); 4. the aho (dressed fibre cords); and 5. the haupae (balance weight of stones tied to the central pou to add additional downward pressure).

While there are different types of drills throughout the Pacific similar in style, cord drills were unique to Māori. They leave a signature suspension hole, identifiable by the hourglass-shaped hole through the drilled material.

This drill was possibly recovered from a settlement on the East Cape of New Zealand by a collector before being acquired by Te Papa. It is in very good condition and a fine example of early technological innovation by Māori.

Photo and text: http://www.googleartproject.com/collection/te-papa/artwork/wiri-cord-drill-unknown/371018/




adzes



Wiri (stone drill points)

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. Nos. M269, M270, M272, M274-5, D46.5745

Pahia, Southland
King Collection
Acc. No. D46.350

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




grindstones



Using Hoanga (grindstones) with sand and water as an abrasive, pounamu was sawn to shape with flaked stone cutters as shown. Deep cuts were made on both sides of the work until the opposing grooves met or were close enough to be broken, leaving a ridge to be ground off later.

Kani (sandstone rasps)
Gift of Anonymous Donor
D.S.39.338, D.S.39.351, D37.113

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Hoanga (grindstones) and Kani (rasps and files)



Hoanga (grindstones) and Kani (rasps and files)

Examples show both fine and coarse grained tools. Sand and water were used as grinding agents between the grindstone and tool.

Location:
Orepuki, Pahia, Tokanui, Wakapatu, Southland, Stewart Island, Otago, New Zealand.

Donors:
Mr I. Halder (B64.142), King Collection (D46.90, D46.92, D46.89), Mr Leslie MacKay (B67.374), Mrs R. Russell (B65.102), Sorenson Collection (B67.314, D.37.55) and Gift of Anonymous (D.S.39.305, D33.177, D36.43, D38.188, D37.70, M276, M282, M285, M286-M289, M297, M299-M301, M333).

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Drills, awls and scrapers



Drills, awls and scrapers
- flake tools showing retouching

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Maripi (knives) made from silcrete and argillite flakes

Maripi (knives) made from silcrete and argillite flakes, used for cutting meat.

The Neck, Stewart Island
Gift of Mr Robert Russell

New Zealand
Southland Museum and Art Gallery Collection

Pahia, Southland

New Zealand
Southland Museum and Art Gallery Collection

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Silicified wood





Silicified wood

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Obsidian and quartz
(left) Obsidian

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. D38.33


(right) Quartz

New Zealand
Gift of Russel Beck
Acc. No. B67.353

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Chert and Silcrete
(left) Chert

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M334


(right) Silcrete

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M332

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




The grooves on the Toki (adze) butts below provide a secure surface for lashing to the wooden handles.

adze
Toki (adze) with grooved butt

New Zealand
Gift of Mr E.M. Lyon
Acc. No. D53.10

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ


adze
Toki (adze) with grooved butt

Seaward Bush, Southland
Gift of Mr C.H. Powell
Acc. No. B62.94

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ


adze
Toki (adze) with grooved butt

Waimatuku, Southland
Gift of Mr Nicholson
Acc. No. D44.35

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ






adze
A side cutting Toki (adze), used for cutting in a narrow space.

Southland
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M342

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Toki made of materials other than greenstone were made in four stages, as was elucidated at an adze making site at Tiwai Point opposite Bluff about 500 years ago:

Stage 1
Stone is quarried and flaked into workable sizes using granite hammer stones.

Stage 2
The toki is roughed out by flaking with smaller hammerstones.

Stage 3
The toki is then hammer-bruised to the required shape by using hard garnet hammerstones.

Stage 4
The toki is finally polished and sharpened with wet sandstone rasps.



adze
Toki (adze)

Edendale, Southland
Gift of Mrs R.H. Gray
Acc. No. B68.43

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

Orepuki, Southland
King Collection
Acc. No. D46.202

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze

Shovel-shaped toki (adze)

Pahia, Southland
King Collection
Acc. No. M344

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze

Toki (adze)

Southland
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. B81.2

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

New Zealand
Sorenson Collection
Acc. No. D46.1463

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

Thomson's Crossing, Southland
Gift of Anonymous Donor

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Hafted toki (adze)

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M366

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

Southland
Gift of Dr D.F. Thomson
Acc. No. B69.147

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

Seaward Bush, Southland
Gift of Mr C.H. Powell
Acc. No. B62.94

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

Forest Hill, Southland
Gift of Mrs W.D. McArthur
Acc. No. D40.11

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

Pahia, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. No. D46.1407

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

Makarewa, Southland
Gift of Mr W. Davidson
Acc. No. D45.73

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

Waituna Lagoon, Southland
Gift of Mr & Mrs C. Hansen
Acc. No. D53.29

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Toki poutangata (ceremonial adze)

Toki poutangata (ceremonial adze)

1500-1800
Artist Unknown

The toki poutangata is a symbol of chiefly authority and tribal leadership. Made from an elegantly fashioned pounamu blade, often decorated with ornamental kaniwha notches that may be a mnemonic device to assist in the recitation of genealies; and fastened to carved wooden handle. Toki poutangata are tribal heirlooms and ascribed personal names, and even magical powers.

Toki poutangata were used on ceremonial occasions, such as the felling of a great tree for a significant waka (canoe) or for the ridgepole of a wharenui or meeting house. The first chips cut from the tree were taken by the tohunga to a special place where karakia of thanksgiving were recited to the god of the forest, Tanemahuta in acknowledgement of the sacrifice of his offspring. The chips might also be returned ceremonially to the forest to nurture new growth.

It is believed that the toki poutangata was originally used for the ceremonial execution of captives. Upon the death of its owner, the special handle was buried with them while the pounamu blade remained with the tribe. Once it had been decided who would succeed the chief, another handle was fashioned and lashed to the adze. This toki poutangata has a carved wooden handle.

Photo and text: http://www.googleartproject.com/collection/te-papa/artwork/toki-poutangata-ceremonial-adze-unknown/357210/




Waka kereru (pigeon snare)


Waka kereru (pigeon snare)
Waka kereru (pigeon snare)

Wooden troughs were filled with water and berries with loop snares positioned on the top section. The waka kereru was then positioned in the branches of the tree, so when a kereru (pigeon) tried to drink, its neck was caught in the loop.

Lake Hauroko, Fiordland
Gift of R.A. Brookes
Acc. No. 88.19

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Kauroti and kaurima fire making kit


Kauroti and kaurima fire making kit
Kauroti and kaurima fire making kit

For fire making, a kaurima (hardwood stick) was rubbed vigorously against a kauroti (grooved batten) to create smouldering sawdust. Tinder was then applied to the smoking area and gently blown on to produce fire.

Lake Te Anau
Gift of Kim Morrison
Acc. No. Z.4113

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ








mere weapon
The 'Kronfeld Mere' 18th Century Greenstone Mere.

History: Known as the Kronfeld mere (also, the 'P&O mere') after the first collectors, Dr. and Mrs M. Kronfeld, who presented it to the NZ Shipping Company Ltd. Dr Kronfeld was the Port Health Officer in Wellington, which meant frequent contact with P&O crew and staff. This mere was displayed in a solid box especially made by the ships carpenter and placed under the board room clock on the R.M.S. Ruahine which went on the London passenger service run.


The plaque read: 'An old jade weapon of war (Patu Pounamu) from the pre-European period of New Zealand'. Pre-European meres were once owned by a chief of rank and authority.

Large well worn stone drilled hour-glass hole, medium green colour with waves of white feathering.

Provenance: Unknown Maori Chief; Dr Kronfeld; NZ Shipping Company Ltd.

Length 38 cm
Y10713

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)








References

  1. Carrington, H., Te Maire Tau, Anderson A. , 2008 (Vol. i): Ngāi Tahu : a migration history : the Carrington text  Bridget Williams Books, 2008. 272 pp.
  2. Coutts, P., 1970: The Port Craig-Sand Hill Point Regions of Southland: A Preliminary Archaeological Report Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania  V(1): 53-59.
  3. Coutts, P., 1972: The emergence of the Foveaux Strait Maori from prehistory: a study of culture contact  Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Anthropology Department, University of Otago.
  4. Downes, T., 1928: Bird-snaring, etc., in the Whanganui river district The Journal of the Polynesian Society Volume 37 No. 145, 1928
  5. Dunbar and Sloane, 2011: Tribal Art Auction Including Kenneth Athol Webster Collection Part III, Artefacts returned to New Zealand from England, Auckland, Tribal Art Auction 22nd March 2011
  6. Fletcher, H., 1919: Art. XXVI. - The Edible Fish, etc, of Taupo-nui-o-Tia Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 1868-1961 Volume 51, 1919
  7. Walter, R., Jacomb C., 2005: An Archaeological Survey of Hakapureirei (Sand Hill Point) Southern Pacific Archaeological Research August 2005


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