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Maori Tools, Weapons and other Artefacts


The Maori of New Zealand have a rich culture, and this is carried through to their skilfully made and decorated tools. Great ingenuity was required to grow the tropical plants they had brought with them from Polynesia, including taro, kumara, tī pore, gourds, and yams; this was especially difficult in the chillier southern parts of the country. The harakeke (flax plant) served as a replacement for coconut fronds and hibiscus fibre in the manufacture of mats, baskets, rope, fishing nets and clothing. The Maori used ingenuity and skill to create tools which were not only durable and fit for the purpose, but were beautiful works of art. They used a wide range of raw materials to fashion the tools they needed, and knew the properties of those materials intimately.



Maori Clubs, weapons of war

Weapons of War

These Mere were meant to kill. They were used as thrusting weapons, not as one might use an axe or a club. Mere, and other patu, were used for close-quarter fighting. Held in one hand, these close-range striking weapons were used primarily for end-on thrusting or jabbing (tipi). In combat, jabbing thrusts or strikes would be directed at the ribs, neck or temple. It has been claimed that a strike to the skull combined with a twisting flick of the wrist could force or wrench the victim's skull open. They were also used to pierce the abdomen, then twisted to disembowel the opponent. The designed use of the mere for forward striking thrusts is an unusual characteristic of Maori patu, where in other parts of the world, clubs are generally wielded with an ax-like downward blow. The butt (reke) of a mere could also be used to strike an opponent's head. The object second from right is a ceremonial adze, identified by the nick in the side.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text: adapted from Wikipedia
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




mere
This mere, or fighting club, was given to Reverend Samuel Marsden's daughter Mary during his sixth voyage to New Zealand in 1830. It is reputed to have belonged to Ngāpuhi chief Hongi Hika. The legendary chief provided protection for Marsden while he established several missions in the Bay of Islands.

Collection of Auckland Museum [2012.1.1]

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




mere weapon
The 'Kronfeld Mere' 18th Century Greenstone Mere.

History: Known as the Kronfeld mere (also, the 'P&O mere') after the first collectors, Dr. and Mrs M. Kronfeld, who presented it to the NZ Shipping Company Ltd. Dr Kronfeld was the Port Health Officer in Wellington, which meant frequent contact with P&O crew and staff. This mere was displayed in a solid box especially made by the ships carpenter and placed under the board room clock on the R.M.S. Ruahine which went on the London passenger service run.


The plaque read: 'An old jade weapon of war (Patu Pounamu) from the pre-European period of New Zealand'. Pre-European meres were once owned by a chief of rank and authority.

Large well worn stone drilled hour-glass hole, medium green colour with waves of white feathering.

Provenance: Unknown Maori Chief; Dr Kronfeld; NZ Shipping Company Ltd.

Length 38 cm
Y10713

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)




mere
Kataore

Kai Tahu, Te Ati Awa

(Akaroa, Banks Peninsula)

When the fighting chief Te Rauparaha captured the Kai Tahu ariki, Tamaiharanui, with his wife and daughter in 1830, Tamaiharanui's Pā at Takapuneke was destroyed. Among those killed was a chief named Kataore whose mere, shown here, was taken and given his name.

Some years later, Reverend Riwai Te Ahu, a chief and preacher of the Te Ati Awa tribe, presented this mere to the Governor, Sir George Grey.

Dimensions: 420 x 120 mm

The mere has a large blade that tapers to a bulbous butt. The blade edge itself is worn. The stone is medium green in colour, with black specks throughout.

Catalog: 13925

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=94




mere
Tautorokiekie

Te Aupōuri (Takapaukura, Far North)

After passing through the hands of several Tai Tokerau chiefs early in the 19th century, this mere came into the possession of Nuku Takahia-te-Rangi, of Te Aupōuri. The mere was buried with him at Takapaukura, but was later recovered by his descendants.

Catalog: 6438

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




patu




Patu

Bishop Octavius Hadfield was a mentor to Henare Mātene Te Whiwhi and Tāmihana Te Rauparaha, who both converted to Christianity.

It is believed that this patu (striking weapon) was gifted to Hadfield in the 1850s or 1860s in recognition of his support during the construction of the Rangiātea Church.

Private collection
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington




mere
Patu Parāoa

Ngāti Maru (Thames)

A patu parāoa (whalebone club) of the Ngāti Maru People.

Catalog: 6355

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




mere
Patu Onewa

Maungapōhatu (eastern Bay of Plenty)

The hourglass shape for the wrist lashing on this patu ōnewa shows how the hole was originally drilled with stone tools before the use of modern metal drills.

Patu ōnewa are clubs made of stone. These resemble the mere in outline but are thicker, because the stone used was more easily broken than the resilient pounamu.

Catalog: 54605

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: Wikipedia




mere
Patu Parāoa

The exceptional length of this patu parāoa (whalebone club) would have given its user an advantage in close combat fighting.

Catalog: 30870.1

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




mere
Patu Onewa

(Thames, Coromandel)

This patu ōnewa (stone club) is believed to have come from Thames and formerly belonged to the Macdonald family, owners of the Queen of Beauty mine.

Catalog: 47187

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




mere



The four meres above in a group to show relative sizes.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




mere mere
4. Tikiraumati

Te Rarawa (Whangape, Far North)

Tikiraumati has a tribal history reaching back six generation to its earliest known owner, Kaha of the Ngāti Hinepawhero hapū of the Te Rarawa tribe. The patu ōnewa was used in battles against the tribes of Te Aupōri and Ngāti Kurī at Puketapu, Rangiputa, Ngaukai, Ngāmuturangi, Puketawa, Irimangumangu and Pukekauri.

Dimensions: 370 x 107 mm.

This patu onewa features narrow grooves around the flared butt. The stone used to create Tikiraumati is primarily grey, with reddish patches. The blade edge is very blunt and worn.

Catalog: 17260

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=245




mere mere
5. Paewhenua

Kai Tahu (Ruapuke Island, Southland)

The great southern Kai Tahu chief Tuhawaiki owned Paewhenua before it came into the possession of Sir George Grey. Tuhawaiki became involved in the Kai Tahu campaigns to seek revenge from Te Rauparaha for his capture of Kaiapoi.

In 1837 he defeated the war party of Te Rauparaha's ally, the Ngāti Tama chief Te Pūoho, at Tuturau, Southland.

Dimensions: 370 x 100 mm

Paewhenua has a slender blade that tapers sharply to the handle. The butt has three worn grooves. Paewhenua is medium green in colour, with a dark band across the centre and lighter colouration at the handle and the tip of the blade.

Catalog: 13928

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=95




meres


7. Ponaute

Te Rarawa (Ahipara, Far North)

The Te Rarawa chief, Poroa, was the original owner of Ponaute. On his death it was buried with him at Hokianga. Some years later his bones were exhumed. The mere was presented to the then chief, Puhipi Te Ripa, at Ngātatara.

Catalog: 7394


8. Te Kaoreore

This is one of the two mere in the Auckland museum's collections that bear this name.

Te Arawa, Ngāti Tunohopu.

(Ohinemutu, Rotorua)

The chief Raumati was given Te Kaoreore by his father, Tama-a-Hua, prior to returning to his homeland of Hawaiki. Raumati was involved in the burning of the Te Arawa canoe at Maketū, which led to war with Te Arawa.

Hatupatu of the Ngāti Whakaue tribe captured Raumati at Maunanui. Rather than be killed by a common weapon, Raumati presented Te Kaoreore to Hatupatu so that he could be slain with dignity.

Te Kaoreore is light to medium green in colour and has a tapered butt with six grooves and a countersunk wristcord hole. The blade edge is worn, with chips in some areas.

Dimensions: 430 x 130 mm

Catalog: 19432

9. Te Kihirangi

Ngāti Whakaue (Ohinemutu, Rotorua)

A Ngāti Tūmatawera (Tūhoe) man, who had married a Te Arawa woman, gifted Te Kihirangi to Ngāti Karenga (Te Arawa). In return the man was given land for his house, which he named Hurunga-te-Rangi in memory of this gift.

Te Kihirangi has a wide blade that tapers sharply to a narrow butt on which are three grooves. The stone has light to medium green colouring and a polished surface.

Dimensions: 330 x 107 mm

Catalog: 19433

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=110
and
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=111




mere
Ngātoto

Ngāti Ruānui (Waimate, Timaru)

This fine weapon bears the name Ngātoto - Blood. The Reverend John Aldred obtained it at Waimate in 1848. A fragment of the original dogskin wristcord remains in the butt.

The stone used to create Ngatoto is dark grey in colour, and is worn and polished. There are several small chips along the blade edge. There are six grooves around the flared butt.


Dimensions: 420 x 100 mm

Catalog: 6365

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=311




meres
(left) Mere Pounamu

This finely crafted mere pounamu (jade club) lacks the decorative grooves that often appear on the butt of this type of weapon.

Catalog: 13920

(centre left) Mere Pounamu

Ngāti Toa chief Haunga once owned this beautiful mere pounamu.

Catalog: 21996


(centre right) Mere Pounamu

This large mere is made of very dark green pounamu. It bears a sticker saying 'New Zealand' as though it was once part of another collection.

Catalog: 1284

(right) Mere Pounamu

Te Ati Awa (Parihaka, Taranaki)

The Māori prophet and Taranaki pacifist, Te Whiti-o-Rongomai of Parihaka, was the former owner of this Te Ati Awa tribal heirloom.

Catalog: 13913

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




wooden club
Patu Rākau

Ngāti Maru Tōtara Point, Thames)

This well balanced wooden club comes from the Ngāti Maru tribe's famous pā, Te Tōtara. It may have been used to defend Te Tōtara when the Ngāpuhi chief Hongi Hika and his warriors attacked the pā in 1821.

Catalog: 28064

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum




knife
(left) The Māripi is a knife with shark's teeth lashed to a wooden handle. It was used for cutting up whales, sharks, and dogs.

(right centre) Mere Pounamu

Kai Tahu (Akaroa)

This mere pounamu (jade club) was owned by Captain George Hempleman, who in 1837 set up a shore whaling station at Peraki Bay on Banks Peninsula - the first permanent European settlement in Canterbury.

Hempleman probably obtained this mere by trade from local Kai Tahu people. Before towns were established in the 1840s, shore-based whalers were an important source of European items for trade.


(right) Kotiate

Ngāti Ruanui, Pakakohe (Pātea)

Ngawaka Taurua, the chief of the Pakakohe people, obtained this kotiate parāoa (whalebone club) at the battle of Pātoka pā near Waitōtara in 1841. A Ngāti Tūwharetoa force under Tauteka and his son Te Herekiekie had occupied Pātoka, but were defeated by a combined army commanded by Matakatea of the Taranaki people.

During the battle Ngawaka overpowered Te Herekiekie, but spared his life and assisted the young chief's return to Taupō. Resolving never to fight again, Ngawaka became a Christian missionary. However, in October 1868 Ngawaka and his people reluctantly joined other Taranaki tribes under Titokowaur in their struggle against the pākehā (white people) to retain tribal lands. Ngawaka finally surrendered in December 1869 and was sent to prison for four years. On his release he returned to Taranaki, where he died in 1894.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




club




Wahaika

(Gisborne, Rongowakaata)

This wahaika (wooden club) of Rongowhakaata carving style was collected by the British explorer, James Cook, during his first visit to New Zealand in 1769.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




mere mere


Wahaika Parāoa

Ngāti Porou (East Cape, Gisborne)

Carved in the East Coast style and probably dating from the 19th century, this is a fine example of a wahaika parāoa (whalebone short club) shaped from heavy whalebone. The club was taken to England prior to World War 1, and some 50 years later it was returned to New Zealand and recently presented to the Auckland Museum.

Catalog: 54360

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




mere


Wahaika Rākau

Rongowhakaata (Gisborne)

Although undocumented, this wooden club is carved in the style of the Rongowhakaata people of Gisborne.

Catalog: 46856

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




mere


Kotiate Parāoa

This ancient kotiate parāoa (whalebone club) probably dates back to the 18th century.

Parāoa is the term for the sperm whale.

Catalog: 53344

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




mere


Kotiate Rākau

An excellent specimen of a highly polished kotiate rākau.

The wood used for this piece has a very wavy grain, probably chosen for its inherent toughness when used for warfare, since it would be unlikely to split.

The kotiate is a patu or club named for its shape, which resembled a split human liver ('koti' is cut and 'ate' is liver). It could be made from wood or whale bone.

Rākau is a generic term for weaponry.

Catalog: 36722

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/riri-traditional-maori-warfare/page-3




club
Tewhatewha

(left)

(Hokianga, Bay of Islands)

The tewhatewha was used in warfare, both as a lethal striking weapon and as a signalling device.

Haeana

(top right, number 4)

Many Māori took up whaling with enthusiasm, working on shore stations or shipping out on whaling vessels. The Haena rino (iron harpoon) was an important part of a whaler's equipment.

Kuru

(middle right, number 5)

The kuru pendant is one of a variety of pounamu (jade) ornaments that were suspended on flax cords and worn around the neck or hung from pierced ear lobes.

Pātiti

(bottom right, number 6)

(Waikato)

A pātiti (tomahawk) said to have belonged to Mātire Te Rārangi of the Ngāti Hikairo people of Kāwhia.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




 weapons
(left) Tewhatewha

Ngāpuhi (Northland)

Attached to the lower side of the tehatewha blade at the small hole were feathers that could be made to quiver in the wind to distract the enemy in close-combat fighting. The lethal part of the tewhatewha was the back of the blade. This weapon was only used by a chief. It was more often used in battle to communicate orders to the warriors rather than as an actual weapon.

This weapon tapers from the worn blade to a rounded point. There is a janus head three quarters of the way along the length. Otherwise it is uncarved. It is from the Sir George Grey collection.

Catalog: 22251

(centre) Taiaha

The original fibre work that once held feathers and dog hair, and the deeply carved spirals on the tongue of this taiaha, are excellent examples of the adornment applied to such weapons.

Catalog: 53489

(right) Hoeroa

(Matatā, Bay of Plenty)

The carving at the top of this hoeroa was probably intended to enhance the value and mana (prestige) of the rare symbol of chiefly authority - made from the jawbone of a whale.


A hoeroa is a whalebone long club (slightly curved baton / long spear). The tool was 120 cm to 150 cm in length and was used as a striking weapon, stabbing spear, and missile weapon.

Catalog: 27702

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=1436
and Wikipedia




mere
(left) Tehatewha

(Gate Pā, Tauranga)

In 1864 Robert Neilson, a member of the attacking British forces, found this tewhatewha at Gate Pā, Tauranga.

(second from left) Taiaha

Te Māhia (Gisborne)

Little is known about this taiaha, but the worn and damaged condition of the main blade (at the lower end of the taiaha in this image) suggests it is an old weapon.

(centre) Taiaha

Ngāti Hwi

(Whitianga, Coromandel)

Ngāti Hei chief Pineamene Tanui owned this finely balanced taiaha, an heirloom of the Ngāti Hei tribe. The decoration included kākā (Nestor meridionalis ) feathers sewn over European cloth, and tufts of dog hair.

(second from right) Pouwhenua Parāoa

Pātea (Taranaki)

Any weapon made from whalebone, as this is, was highly valued. It was difficult to find whalebone that was of the right length, weight, and strength to withstand the rigours of close-combat fighting. This one is particularly fine because of its straightness.


(right) Taiaha

Ngāpuhi (Northland)

The elaborately carved tongue at the jabbing end of this taiaha shows the skill and mastery of the craftsman who made it.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




Taiaha kura
Taiaha kura, Kimihia

A taiaha is a hand weapon usually made from hard wood, or sometimes whale bone, and usually about 1500 mm long. Taiaha have one end carved in the shape of an upoko (head) with a face on each side. The eyes of the two faces see all around, reflecting the alertness of the taiaha exponent. An arero (tongue) protruding from the upoko forms one end of the weapon. The upoko is adorned with a tauri (collar) of dog hair, the tassels of which form the awe. Below this, the tinana (body) provides the grip. The other end of the taiaha has a flat smooth blade, or rau, usually about five to seven centimetres wide, which is the main striking blade.

Kimihia is the famed personal taiaha of Te Rauparaha, one of the outstanding tribal leaders of his generation, and it is named after his paternal grandfather. Te Rauparaha's principal hapū (sub-tribe) is also named after his grandfather. Kimihia remains a symbol of Te Rauparaha's personal mana (chiefly authority and prestige) and identity. Naming the taiaha after his grandfather marked it as a source of power and inspiration that Te Rauparaha could call upon in times of need.

When his son Tamihana Te Rauparaha wrote his father's life story in 1845 he stated that Kimihia was carried by his father from Kawhia during the Ngāti Toa migration to Kapiti (about 1821), and was used by him during the battle of Whakapaetai at Waiōrua, Kapiti Island (1824). It later descended to Tamihana, who bequeathed it to his nephew, James Howard Wallace, who passed it to his daughters - Elsie, Amy, and Elva. The Wallace family collection, including Kimihia, was deposited with Te Papa's predecessor, the Dominion Museum, in 1943.

Carver: Te Rauparaha, circa 1820
Medium: Wood, doghair awe (tassles), cloth, muka, raupo strips
Dimensions: 1615 mm x 45 mm
Catalog: ME005220

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Text: http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/object/160286




Maori Rain Cape
Te Rauparaha's Pākē or rain cape

Owned by Te Rauparaha (about 1780-1849), made in the mid 1800s, made of harakeke (essentially untreated flax) and muka (prepared flax fibre, treated by scraping, pounding and washing)

This rain cape holds enormous prestige as it once belonged to Te Rauparaha, and later his son Tāmihana. Such capes were worn by warriors for three reasons: to keep dry, to provide camouflage, and to protect against the blows of weapons.

Such protection was vital during the tribe's strife-ridden migration south from Kāwhia to Kāpiti. Te Rauparaha and his allies were beset by changeable weather in rugged terrain, and they encountered a number of war parties along the way.


Dimensions: 1200 x 890 mm
Catalog: ME005223/B
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington




Te Rauparaha
Te Rauparaha, ca 1780 - 1849

Te Rauparaha was one of the most celebrated Ngāti Toa chiefs, and leader of the tribe's migration south. Even before he was conceived, great things were predicted of him.

When chief Werawera of most of the Ngāti Toa approached chief Korouaputa of Ngāti Raukawa to seek a wife, the latter lamented that only his youngest, Parekōhautu, remained eligible. He affectionately described her as his water carrier. But he also paid tribute to her, foretelling that she would give birth to a taniwha (great leader).

When the couple finally presented the last and tiniest of their babies to Korouaputa, it was revealed that Te Rauparaha had six toes on one foot. This was the sign of a taniwha.

Throughout his youth, Te Rauparaha displayed outstanding intelligence, determination, and independence. Young warriors were drawn to his aggressive charisma. The great Ngāti Huia chief Hape-ki-tū-ā-rangi recognised his potential, and mentored him.

At the chief's dying query 'Who will take my place?', his sons remained silent, but Te Rauparaha spoke up: 'Sir, go into the night and await the many things that will be said about me.'

Another version of his speech is: 'Listen, the assembly gathered here now, and to you Sir who now prepares himself for the endless sleep! I, Te Rauparaha, will succeed you as a chief for the people'

To signify the transfer of leadership, he was given the famous mere Amokura, shown below.


After Hape-ki-tua-a-rangi's death, Te Rauparaha was arranged in marriage to his widow, Te Akau (Tuhourangi), and presented with the mere pounamu Amokura. Te Rauparaha later presented Amokura to the Ngāti Raukawa chief Kiharoa, through whom it descended to his son Wi Perahama Te Mahauariki, and subsequently to his daughter Hiiria Amokura.

Amokura became the treasured ancestral heirloom of Hiiria and her husband Hoani Taipua Te Puna-i-rangi-riri, an important and influential leader of Ngāti Raukawa and the parliamentary representative for the Western Māori electorate from 1886 to 1893.

Te Rauparaha would later lead Ngāti Toa's southern migration to their base around Cook Strait, where they remain today.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Additional text: http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/object/108470




Te Rauparaha mere Amokura



Amokura

Mere pounamu (greenstone weapon) of the kawakawa variety 1500 - 1800.

From the Hemi Wārahi (J. H. Wallace) whānau.

Ngāti Huia/Ngāti Raukawa tribe, owned by Te Rauparaha, ca 1780 - 1849.

Kawakawa is the most common variety of pounamu. It comes in many shades, from strong rich green to dark green, and often has small dark inclusions which add to its character. This mere has six grooves on the reke (butt).

Dimensions: 406 x 100 x 15 mm
Catalog: ME011850
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Additional text: http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/exhibitions/pounamu/artworks.aspx?pirn=1964
http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/object/108470




mere
Strike the Water

Te Rauparaha was gifted Tuhiwai by Te Mātenga Taiaroa, a chief of the South Island's Ngāi Tahu tribe. The weapon was a peace offering in exchange for the waka taua (war canoe) Wai-ka-hua.

Tuhiwai means to 'strike the water'. In this manner, Te Rauparaha used Tuhiwai to divine the future and guide his decisions.

Tuhiwai is the famous mere-pounamu (greenstone hand club) of Te Rauparaha, the celebrated warrior chief of Ngāi Toa. It was gifted to him in exchange for the waka taua (war canoe) Wai-ka-hua by the Ngāi Tahu chief Te Matenga Taiaroa. As an example of the pre-European mere-pounamu, Tuhiwai remains unsurpassed in its perfection of form and exquisite manufacture.

It is made of Kahurangi, the rarest variety of pounamu. This greenstone variety is highly translucent and often comes in vivid shades of green.

Kahurangi is named after the clearness of the sky. Small, feather-like markings in the stone can give a cloud effect – although in order to be classed as kahurangi, this effect must not reduce the stone’s clarity. The word kahurangi also indicates nobility and refers to precious jewels.

Kahurangi pounamu is particularly esteemed by Māori. In the past, it was the preferred variety of stone for the blades of toki poutangata (ceremonial adzes) owned by rangatira (chiefs).


Tuhiwai means to 'strike the water', and it is in this manner that Te Rauparaha is said to have used Tuhiwai to divine the future and guide him in making decisions during his campaigns. Tuhiwai is considered extremely tapu by the Ngāti Toa, and has been known to change colour on the death of a member of the Wineera family, the descendants of Te Rauparaha.

According to one Ngāti Toa legend, Tuhiwai was also the weapon used by Te Rangihaeata during the execution of Captain Arthur Wakefield in April 1843 at the Wairau Affair. The conflict was precipitated by European encroachment onto Ngāti Toa lands on the Wairau plain and resulted in the accidental shooting of Te Rangihaeata's wife, Te Rongopāmamao. Te Rangihaeata, aggrieved at his wife's death, demanded the customary right to execute the prisoners as compensation.

Tuhiwai, mere pounamu, 1500 -1800
Owned by Te Rauparaha, about 1780-1849
Kahurangi variety of greenstone, from the Westland area
Dimensions: 410 x 119 x 25 mm
Catalog: ME010922

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Additional text: http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/object/71840
http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/exhibitions/pounamu/Artworks.aspx?pirn=1963




Te Rauparaha
(left) Wahaika Parāoa (whale bone club) owned by Te Rauparaha, ca 1780 - 1849. The sharp curved end could smash bone, and a wahaika was particularly effective when thrust at the face or temples.

Chief Te Rauparaha encouraged productivity, and spurred the construction of the Rangiātea Church in Ōtaki by threatening to castrate tardy workers with the whale bone weapon shown on the left here.

(right) Patu parāoa (whale bone club) 1700s, owned by Pōmare Ngātata, Ngāti Mutunga tribe.

The whale bone club on the right is a weapon of conquest, and belonged to Pōmare Ngātata of Ngāti Mutunga, With Ngāti Toa, he led the 1827 conquest of Wellington's Ngāti Ira people. In 1835, he commandeered the brig Lord Rodney and led Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama to the Chatham Islands, east of the mainland. His weapon was passed to his grandson Sir Māui Pōmare. It was one of SIr Māui's most treasured possessions.

Both are from private collection​s
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Additonal text: Anderson et al. (2014)




Te Rauparaha


R​ama Kōhatu (stone whale-oil lamp), early 1800s, owned by Te Rauparaha (ca 1780-1849)

Private collection​

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington




mere
Tawhito-whenua is an old and famous mere pounamu (greenstone weapon) from the Wellington region. During the early nineteenth century, the chief Te Kotuku (Muaupoko, Ngāti Ira-kai-pütahi, Rangitāne, Ngāti Kahungunu) presented Tawhito-whenua to Te Kekerengu.

Te Kekerengu (Ngāti Ira) was a chief of great importance in the greater Wellington district. His father was Te Whānake, also known as Te Hukatai-o-Ruatapu, paramount chief of Ngāti Ira of Wellington and closely related by descent to the Wairarapa tribes and those in the Kapiti and Horowhenua districts and the upper South Island.

Te Kekerengu's mother, Tamairangi, was a celebrated ariki tapairu (high born chieftainess). She was associated with the senior descent lines of the tribes from Wellington and the Wairarapa, and also Ngāti Kuia of Arapaoa in the South Island. It is said that when travelling between villages her male attendants always carried her on a litter so that her feet would not have to touch the ground. Such was Tamairangi's fame that she was celebrated in waiata (song) throughout New Zealand.

Shortly after Ngāti Toa settled in the Kapiti district during the 1820s, a combined force of Ngāti Mutunga, Ngāti Hinetuhi, and Ngāti Kaitangata migrated from Taranaki to reinforce and consolidate Ngāti Toa's position. Ngāti Toa allocated Wellington to them as a suitable residence for their relatives. Tensions between the Taranaki tribes and the resident Ngāti Ira quickly ignited as they both competed for control of the natural resources.

The Taranaki tribes, assisted by Ngāti Toa, attacked the Ngāti Ira at Rangitatau pā (fortified village), situated on Wellington's southern coastline near present-day Island Bay. A small band of survivors, including Tamairangi and her son Te Kekerengu, retreated to the small island of Tapu-te-ranga, where they were eventually overwhelmed. When the invading chiefs gathered to execute their esteemed prisoners, Tamairangi, with perfect dignity, asked leave to sing her poroporoaki (song of farewell) to her ancestral lands. It is said that she sang with such pathos that the Ngāti Toa chief Te Rangihaeata was moved to spare her and her son's lives. It was at this moment that Te Kekerengu presented Tawhito-whenua to Te Rangihaeata.


Following Te Rangihaeata's death in 1855, Tawhito-whenua passed to his first cousin Hohepa Tamaihëngia (died 1871). History is vague until 1880, when Tawhito-whenua was placed upon the coffin of the Ngāti Kahungunu chief Tareha Te Moananui (died 19 December 1880) by Ngāti Kahungunu, Ngai Te Upokoiri chief Renata Kawepo. Tawhito-whenua then passed to Tareha and Kawepo's grandniece, Airini Karauria Tonore (Donnelly), daughter of the chief Karauria Pupu. Tawhito-whenua was purchased at auction by Te Papa's predecessor, the National Museum of New Zealand, in 1991.

The battle of Tapu-te-ranga

This weapon recalls a battle on Wellington's south coast in 1827, in which Ngāti Toa expanded its authority over the region. In seizing Kāpiti Island, Ngāti Toa had been aided by several northern Taranaki tribes. After the battle they allocated the Wellington area to these allies, including Ngāti Mutunga. But tensions grew with Wellington's resident Ngāti Ira people. The alliance attacked and overwhelmed Ngāti Ira on the south coast, in a battle named after the island of Tapu-te-ranga.

As Ngāti Ira awaited their fate, chieftaness Tāmairangi asked if she might sing a song of farewell to her ancestral lands. This she did with such pathos that the Ngāti Toa chief Te Rangihaeata spared her and her children. Her son, Chief Kekerungū, then presented Tawhito Whenua to mark the transfer of mana (authority) to Ngāti Toa and Ngāti Mutunga.

Mere pounamu
1500-1800
Muaūpoko, Ngāto Ira Kaipūtahi, Ngāti toa Ranagatira, and Ngāti Pārau/Ngāti Kahungunu tribes owned by Te Rangihaeata (1780s- 1855)
Pounamu (greenstone) inanga variety

The inanga variety of pounamu takes its name from inanga – a native freshwater fish (Galaxias maculatus ). The young of this species are commonly known as whitebait. Inanga pounamu resembles the pale colour and transparency of the mata (young whitebait).

Inanga pounamu is described as pearly-white or grey-green, and varies from translucent to opaque. It can change colour over time, developing a light-olive tint as it ages and oxidises. The mere pounamu (nephrite weapon) is an example of this ageing.

Maori sometimes heat-treated other varieties of pounamu at low temperatures to give them inanga's silvery characteristics.

Inanga is found in most of New Zealand’s seven pounamu source areas, and is especially prized by southern Maori.

Catalog: ME015415
Dimensions: 525 x 97 x 17 mm

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Additional text: http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/object/49354
http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/exhibitions/pounamu/artworks.aspx?pirn=1962




Mere





Te Uru mere pounamu

1500 -1800

Owned by Wī Parata.

Wiremu Parata Te Kakakura, also known as Wī Parata (ca 1830s – 29 September 1906) was a New Zealand politician of Māori and Pākehā descent. During the 1870s he was a member of the House of Representatives and a Minister of the Crown.

This magnificent mere has been made of the highest quality kahurangi greenstone, with feather-like and cloud markings.

Private collection
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Additional text: Wikipedia




Feather Cloak
Clouds of war - Te Rangi Topeora's feather cloak, mid 1800s.

This cloak belonged to Te Rangi Topeora (early 1800s - 1873), niece of Te Rauparaha and sister of Te Rangihaeata, also a famed leader. It is called Tūrangi-marumaru, overcast skies, alluding to the clouds of war.

It is made of muka (flax fibre), feathers of tūī, kererū (the grey breast feathers, which represent cloudy skies) as well as pheasant feathers.

Topeora was a leading participant in warfare. She played a prominent role in the 1824 battle of Waiōrua, on Kāpiti Island, in which Ngāti Toa successfully defended their own territory.

She was also renowned for composing kaioraora, cursing songs, which were intended to both threaten the enemy and to incite Ngāti Toa warriors. Te Rauparaha and Te Rangihaeata were strongly influenced by her songs and would often respond by bringing her the object of her anger.

Catalog: Private Collection

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington




Feathers
These feathers, from the now extinct huia, once adorned the head of Te Rangi Topeora (early 1800s - 1873).

Huia feathers were an emblem of supreme status and were worn only by high chiefs.

According to family tradition, Topeaora is wearing these very feathers in the photograph below.

Catalog: Private Collection

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington




Portrait
Te Rangi Topeora in the 1860s as an older woman. She is wearing two cloaks, with the taniko boders at the top, and feathers in her hair. She has two tiki, a pekapeka and a whakakai-taringa suspended around her neck on a cord.

By E.S. Richards (active 1862-73), New Zealand.

Catalog: 0.004282

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Original carte-de-visite photograph: E.S. Richards
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Additional text: http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/Object/267098




Portrait





This superb painting of Te Rangi Topeora by Gottfried Lindauer was taken from the photograph by Edward Smallwood Richards (1834-1917) shown above.

The artist has brought the photograph to life in a wonderful manner.

Original painting: Gottfried Lindauer
Date: Around 1863
Source and additional text: http://www.lindaueronline.co.nz/




Rangi Topeora was born at Kawhia probably early in the nineteenth century. Her mother was Waitohi, of Ngāti Toa and Ngāti Raukawa, and her father Te Ra-ka-herea. Her hapu were Ngāti Kimihia and Ngāti Te Maunu. As a young woman she migrated south with these tribes to Kapiti Island and the adjacent mainland coast. Four marriages are recorded and the traditions tell of many other relationships. The first, in 1818, was to Te Ra-tu-tonu, of Ngāti Mahanga in Taranaki; he died about 1822. The second was to Rangikapiki, of Te Arawa; Matene Te Whiwhi, celebrated for his advocacy of a Maori king in the 1850s, was a child of this marriage. Another husband, Te Wehi-o-te-rangi, of Te Arawa, was the father of her daughter Rakapa Kahoki, like her mother a notable composer. Yet another husband, Hauturu, had an affair in 1840 with a slave on Kapiti Island; Rangi Topeora saw to it that she was killed and eaten.

As a very young woman, before the southward migration, Rangi Topeora had made her mark as a composer of waiata. In the course of the wars between Ngāti Toa and other Waikato tribes, Ngāti Pou killed a number of Ngāti Toa women, including Topeora's sisters. She composed a cursing song, predicting violent and degrading deaths for the chiefs of Ngāti Pou. Her uncle, Te Rauparaha, fulfilled the prophecy, killing and eating those named in the curse.

On their way from Kawhia to the Cook Strait area, Ngāti Toa passed through Taranaki. Armed with muskets, they captured many Taranaki pa. As a result the Taranaki people gathered into a strong pa, Tapuinikau (near Opunake), where they were besieged by Te Rauparaha and his allies. Among those in the pa was Te Ra-tu-tonu, who had been Rangi Topeora's lover. He was summoned from the pa so that she could marry him. But Nekepapa, a woman of Te Ati Awa, decided that Te Ra-tu-tonu should marry her and tried to reach him first. Rangi Topeora won the race and threw her dogskin cloak over him. Although the marriage did not at once bring peace, later negotiations enabled those inside the pa to slip quietly away. These memories of Rangi Topeora's deeds show her to have been from an early age a leader and a woman of great strength.

The tribes which invaded and occupied the Cook Strait area were frequently in conflict with one another and with the tribes they found already there. Rangi Topeora played an important part in Ngāti Toa's tangled relationships with their neighbours. After Ngāti Tama went from Te Horo on the mainland to Kapiti, fighting broke out on the island in the later 1820s between them and Ngāti Toa, allied to Ngāti Raukawa. After suffering losses, Ngāti Tama sent the daughter of their chief, Pehitaka, to make peace. She was received by Rangi Topeora, who in turn conferred with Te Rauparaha. As a result her son Matene Te Whiwhi was sent to make peace, and Ngāti Tama retired to the mainland.

But Rangi Topeora had a warlike side to her nature. Muaupoko, the people already established in Horowhenua, strenuously resisted the northern invaders. Te Rauparaha had at least three of his children killed by them. Rangi Topeora and her mother, Waitohi, played a full part in planning vengeance. Muaupoko were hunted down and killed in great numbers.

On 14 May 1840 Rangi Topeora signed a copy of the Treaty of Waitangi, taken to Kapiti by Henry Williams. She was one of only five women to sign. Despite this and her later acceptance of the presence of Pakeha, in 1846 (according to the contemporary account of a British soldier) she denounced the Pakeha settlers and upbraided those Maori in the Otaki district who welcomed settlement and did not support her brother Te Rangihaeata's resistance. On this occasion an old chief is said to have told her to sit down, that she was the silly sister of a sillier brother, and no better than a dog's daughter. He went on to compare the benefits of peace – pigs and potatoes, warm fires and tobacco – with the discomforts and tribulations of war, and seems to have won the day.

Rangi Topeora was evidently a woman with considerable control over property and land. On Kapiti she over-rode the opposition of Te Rauparaha and Te Rangihaeata and insisted on allowing a whaler, William Mayhew, to use a piece of land. Her uncle and brother, however, having lost the argument, made sure of a share of the goods Mayhew paid. Later, living near the mouth of the Otaki River, she rented land to Pakeha settlers and offered it for sale; she and her son Matene Te Whiwhi were reputed to be considerable landowners among the people who lived at Katihiku, near the mouth of the Otaki River.

Rangi Topeora inherited her mother's capacities for leadership. She was an important figure among her people, influential in the decisions they made, whether for war or for peace. She was an orator who claimed and was accorded the right to speak at meetings, a singer whose support any speaker was glad to have, and a poet whose songs are still sung. She was, too, a passionate woman of many marriages and many other relationships. She gives a striking self-portrait in one of her waiata:

A notorious one, indeed, am I
Because of my heart's desires,
And so utterly consumed with love.

When she was baptised at Otaki on 2 May 1847, no name would satisfy her but Te Kuini (the Queen); one of her husbands was given the name Arapeta (Albert), after Queen Victoria's consort. Later Rangi Topeora was commonly known as 'Queen of the South'. Her portrait by Gottfried Lindauer shows her, in her later years, as a woman of proud, imperious bearing, with strong, handsome features, clad in the traditional clothing she is said never to have given up.

She died probably some time between 1865 and 1873, at Otaki, after a long, eventful and energetic life, during which she had been a major figure in the turbulent history of her people in the disturbed first half of the nineteenth century.


Text above: http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/1t103/topeora-rangi-te-kuini
Citation: Teremoana Sparks and W. H. Oliver. 'Topeora, Rangi Te Kuini', from the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 30-Oct-2012

Feather Cloak



Kahu huruhuru (feather cloak) 1850 - 1900

Unfortunately, very little is known about this magnificent feather cloak.

The cloak is made from muka (prepared flax fibre) and feathers of kerurū, kākā and kākāriki.

Kahu huruhuru (feather cloaks) were made from birds such as kerekerū. Māori harvested Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae for its meat and feathers. It is a large (55 cm, 850 g) member of the pigeon family, with distinctive white and iridescent green feathers.

But by the 1860s, kererū were in rapid decline. The destruction of forests in which they lived and the introduction of predators such as Norway rats significantly reduced numbers. Because of this, the customary harvest of kererū by Māori is no longer allowed - the birds are protected by law.

If kererū are endangered, then the cloak of native forests itself is endangered. These are the only birds able to swallow and disperse the large seeds of trees such as miro, tawa, and kohekohe.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Additional text: Wikipedia




Feather Cloak
This Hawaiian feathered cloak and helmet were given to British explorer Captain James Cook in 1779.

Kalani'opu'u, high chief on the island of Hawaii, took off the cloak that he was wearing and put it, along with this helmet, on Cook. The Hawaiians believed Cook was an incarnation of their supreme god, Lono.

Not only were the feathers beautiful, they were a connection to the gods. Red feathers were particularly sacred. Yellow feathers came from the 'Ō'ō and Mamo birds. These birds only had a few yellow feathers, which were plucked out - then the birds were set free. The 'Ō'ō is now extinct, the victim of hunting following European entry to Hawaii in the 1800s. The red feathers came from the i'iwi bird. In total, it probably took feathers from more than 20 000 birds to make this cloak.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Additional text: Wikipedia




o'o bird hawaii
Male and female Moho nobilis - Hawaii Ō'ō

The Hawaii 'Ō'ō was first described by Blasius Merrem in 1786. It had an overall length of 32 centimetres (13 in), wing length of 11–11.5 centimetres (4.3–4.5 in), and tail length of up to 19 centimetres (7.5 in).

The colour of its plumage was glossy black with a brown shading at the belly. It was further characterized by yellowish tufts at the axillaries. It had some yellowish plumes on its rump, but lacked yellow thigh feathers like the Bishop's 'Ō'ō, and also lacked the whitish edgings on its tail feathers like the O'ahu 'Ō'ō. However it had the largest yellow plumes on its wings out of all the species of 'Ō'ō.


At the time of discovery by Europeans, it was still relatively common on the Big Island, but that was soon to change. The Hawai'i 'Ō'ō was extensively hunted by Native Hawaiians. Its striking plumage was used for 'a'ahu ali'i (robes), 'ahu 'ula (capes), and kāhili (feathered staffs) of ali'i (Hawaiian nobility). The Europeans too saw the striking beauty of this bird and hunted many of them for specimens in personal collections. Some were even caught and put in cages to be sold as song birds only to live for a few days or weeks before diseases from mosquitoes befell them.

The decline of this bird was hastened by both natives and Europeans by the introduction of the musket which allowed hunter and collectors to shoot birds down from far away places and from great heights and numbers. As late as 1898, hunters were still able to kill over a thousand of the birds, but after that year the 'Ō'ō population declined rapidly. The birds became too rare to be shot in any great quantities, but continued to be found for nearly 30 years. The last known sighting was in 1934 on the slopes of Mauna Loa.

Artist: John Gerrard Keulemans (1842–1912)
Date: 1893
Source http://www.sil.si.edu/digitalcollections/nhrarebooks/rothschild/CF/description-search-results-all.cfm
Permission: Public Domain
Text: Wikipedia




presents for Cook
Kalaniopuu, King of Hawaii, (Tereoboo on the engraving) bringing presents to Captain Cook.

The engraving shows a Hawaiian canoe with a 'crab-claw' sail and many oarsmen, carrying Kalaniopuu, the Hawaiian chief, to visit Captain Cook aboard the 'Resolution'.

The main canoe, an outrigger, is followed by two double-hulled canoes without sails, full of oarsmen, and one boat is carrying wrapped carved figures. The Hawaiian coastal hills can be seen in the right background.

Artist: John Webber (1751–1793), drawn 1779, published 1784
Permission: Public Domain
Source: Wikipedia
Text: Wikipedia




axe
Rākau - weaponry

One of the most well-known Māori weapons is the taiaha. It is usually made from wood, though sometimes it is made from whale bone. Due to its shape, it is sometimes mistakenly referred to as a spear. The staff has a pointed, carved end, and a main blade, and is usually between 1.5 and 1.8 metres long. The pointed end (the arero or tongue) comes out of the upoko (head) which then becomes the ate (liver) or tinana (body) although this ornate end is not much used in battle. The weapon is used for stabbing, parrying (warding off blows) and striking.

(Note that the first two descriptions from the museum case do not match the objects displayed. I have created the descriptions for these objects.

My descriptions of the left and centre objects follow:
 )

The object on the left appears to have originally been a Taiaha (fighting staff). At some point the main blade has become damaged, and the owner has added a steel tomahawk head (rather ineptly it seems) to the other, carved end, the upoko, not normally used much in battle. This is unlikely to have been a successful modification. The taiaha is a light but long weapon, and the addition of the weight of the tomahawk head would have made it very unwieldy. If the bearer managed to swing it, and connect with his opponents head or neck, certainly the opponent would have been decapitated, or if to the body, immediately incapacitated if not killed.

However a skilled fighter would simply have had to either step forward and deflect the handle of the long handled tomahawk with his own Taiaha, or step back and avoid the swinging tomahawk head, before driving his weapon into the unprotected body of his assailant, as the attacker left himself completely open as his weapon continued its swing.


The addition of a lot of weight to the end of the staff would have made it difficult to swing quickly, since the effective length when swung is increased when regarded as a pendulum. A long pendulum has a long 'period', effectively slowing the rate at which the weapon could be swung.

There is a good reason that tomahawks have short handles - they can be swung very fast, and at close quarters, since they are a short 'pendulum' with a short 'period'.

The other weapon is a tewhatewha, a long-handled Māori club weapon. It is shaped like an axe and, formerly used in battle, is now used in ceremonies. Like Pouwhenua and Taiaha, this long club was designed for scientific sparring and lightning strokes and thrusts, aided by quick footwork on the part of the wielder. The blows were not struck with the blade as one would with an axe, but rather with the thicker straight front edge.

It was common for tewhatewha to be decorated with a bunch of split pigeon or hawk feathers which hang from a drilled hole near the lower edge of the extension. This decoration may have also had the added benefit of distracting or confusing the wielder's opponent.

(The third description, below, from the case label is accurate - Don )


Hotunui

Ngāti Manuaute hapū, Ngāti Maru

(Parawai, Thames)

This carving belongs to Hotunui, the ancestral house now on display in the museum. It was part of the carved panel located beneath the eaves on the exterior of the meeting house. This square pou takes the form of a carved face whose mouth and eyebrows feature a rauponga design. The face has been outlined in black and white paint.

Catalog: 49394.1

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=194
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/riri-traditional-maori-warfare/page-3
Wikipedia




Fish Hooks

Matau (fishhooks) made from wood

Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. Nos M17 - M18

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Fish Hook

18th Century Maori Fish hook (Matau)

The wooden shank is extended to form most of the point limb, with a short bone point affixed.

Lashed snood and line. Length 13 cm.

Webster Collection No. 522
Y15607

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)






The following eight fish hooks are not identified, except as a group.

Matau (fishhooks) from:

Tokanui, Pahia, Greenhills, Haldane, and Southland.

Donors:

Mrs E. Gibbs (D43.12), Gibb Collection (D41.17, Halder Collection (B64.153), Ivan Sutherland (D43.16), McKay Collection (83.2130), Mrs M. J. Massey (83.2128), Stewart Collection (83.2124/6), Sorenson Collection (D46.2075, D46.1704, D33.145), and Gift of Anonymous (83.2125/7/9, 83.2119, 83.3363, DS.43.61)

Maori were expert fishermen, their knowledge of fish led to the development and manufacture of a wide variety of matau (fishhooks).

There are two main types of matau on display: early one-piece hooks (made from bone or shell) and later composite hooks made from a combination of bone, wood, or shell.

Pa Kahawai are lures, faced with paua shell that are designed to move around like a small fish in the water. Used to catch both kahawai and barracouta.

A large one piece copper hook illustrates how Maori adapted European methods.

Fish hooks Fish hooks Fish hooks Fish hooks


Bone, wood and stone fish hooks.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Fish Hook

Fish hook from the Captain Cook collection, taken to England by Captain Cook.

With Captain Cook label; provenance 'Ex Methodist Missy. Socy. Given to socy from Cassiobury Park Museum (Private) about 1900. Museum formed largely from Missionary Sources'.

Wooden shank, with very sharp bone point. Lashed snood and line.
Length 9 cm excluding line

Webster Collection No. 1015
Y15609

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)




Three Fish Hooks
(left) Pre-European Maori Barracuda Hook (Okooko).
Straight large shank with an unbarbed serrated bone point which is rendered more secure by a small wooden wedge driven into a hole. The shank has an outer snood knob. Length 17 cm
Webster Collection No. 452, Y15606

(centre) Contact Period Maori Large Trolling Fish Hook (Pa Kahawai). Paua shell shank decorated with notches with sharp bone point - could be bird beak Lashed snood and line. Length 12 cm excluding line. Webster Collection No. 1078, Y15604.

(right) Late 18th Century Maori One-Piece Shark Hook made of one piece of wood, most likely rimu. Inner and outer barbs. Width 14 cm, length 20 cm.
Webster Collection Y15601.

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)




Fish hooks Fish hooks Fish hooks Fish hooks


Bone and wood fish hooks.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




hooks
14. Wooden hook - large hooks were made from living branches, twisted to grow in the preferred shape.

15. Trolling lures - Barbed points were lashed to bone or stone lures in the shape of small fish, which were pulled through the sea to attract surface feeding fish such as kahawai.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




Three Fish Hooks
(left) Late 18th Century Period Maori Composite Shark Hook.
Wooden shank limb with serrated bone point. Lashed snood and line, length 14 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 246, Y15602

(centre) Late 18th Century Period Maori Composite Shark Hook.
Full bodied wooden shank limb with beautifully carved snood knob, and small bone point. Lashed snood and line, length 16 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 521, Y15599

(right) Late 18th Century Period Maori Composite Shark Hook.
Wooden shank limb with bone point, lashed snood and line, length 10 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 1075, Y15612.

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)




Fish hook




Elaborately carved and beautifully made Maori fish hook.

Photo: http://www.jillsjottings.orconhosting.net.nz/Kennedy%20History.htm




Three Fish Hooks
(left) Late 18th Century Period Maori Composite Shark Hook.
Wooden shank limb with serrated bone point. Lashed snood and line, length 14 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 246, Y15602

(centre) Late 18th Century Period Maori Composite Shark Hook.
Full bodied wooden shank limb with beautifully carved snood knob, and small bone point. Lashed snood and line, length 16 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 521, Y15599

(right) Late 18th Century Period Maori Composite Shark Hook.
Wooden shank limb with bone point, lashed snood and line, length 10 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 1075, Y15612.

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)




Three Fish Hooks
(left) Late 18th Century Period Maori Composite Shark Hook.
Wooden shank limb with small serrated bone point. Lashed snood and line, length 13 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 382, Y15605

(centre) Late 18th Century Period Maori Composite Shark Hook.
Wooden shank limb with serrated bone point. Lashed snood and line, length 11 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 602, Y15603

(right) Early 19th Century Period Maori Shark Hook.
Metal 'U' shaped point with flax fibre snood and line, length 8 cm, width 6 cm excluding line.
Webster Collection No. 1489?, Y15600.

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)




Three Fish Hooks
(left) Contact Period Maori Shark Hook.

Metal 'U' shaped point lashed with flax fibre snood and line. Width 6 cm.
Webster Collection Y15610

(centre) Pre-European Maori Barracuda Hook (Okooko).
Straight thick shank with an unbarbed bone point which is rendered more secure by a small wooden wedge driven through a hole. The shank has an outer snood knob. Length 15 cm.
Webster Collection Y15608

(right) Contact Period Maori Shark Hook.
Metal 'U' shaped point lashed with flax fibre snood and line broken off, width 45 mm.

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)




Fish Lures
The stone minnow lure shanks shown here are examples of the earliest known southern style of pa Kahawai (trolling fishhooks).

This type of lure would have had a makaa (point) made of bone attached to the end.

Clockwise from the left:

Crombie River, Fiordland
Gift of Larry O'Dea, Acc. No. D.S. 40.57

Gift of Anonymous Donor, Acc. No. D.S.40.57

Wakapatu, Southland
Sorenson Collection, Acc. No. D36.9

Banks Peninsula, Canterbury
Sorenson Collection, Acc. No. D46.2073

Southland
Gibb Collection Acc. No. 85.586

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Fish Lure
An old Maori stone minnow lure shank, made from finely ground dark grey argillite with triangular cross-section and bilateral perforation, the ventral surface at distal end is reduced with a wide groove to form the lashing grip extending around the end with two prominent lugs.

Length 78 mm.

Provenance: Found by Murray Agnew, Pelorus Sounds, circa 1960s-70s
Photo: http://www.antiquesreporter.com.au/index.cfm/lot/518266-an-old-maori-stone-minnow-lure-shank-finely-ground-dark-grey-arg/




fish hooks



This kit was found in 1932 in a cave at Karekare on Auckland's west coast. Rolled up in a piece of flax matting were 30 fishhooks made of wood or bone, lashed with fine flax line.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




fish hooks


Other pieces of wood and bone found with them would have been for making new hooks or repairing old ones.

Catalog: 18066, 31701-11

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




Maul


Maul
The stakes which held set lines or traps were driven in with a ta (maul), shown left and above.

Above, gift of Mrs J. Robertson acc. No. D42.28

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Maul
Ta, or Maori maul. When erecting a fish-weir the Maori generally uses stakes of manuka. The species known as white manuka provides good straight stakes in its sapling stage of growth. These stakes are pointed at one end and driven down into the stream-bed by means of striking them with a heavy wooden club, called a ta, used as a beetle or maul.

A piece of heavy, cross-grained hardwood was utilised as a ta, the shaft or hand-grip being worked down to a suitable thickness, while the outer end was left wide, thick, and heavy, to give the necessary weight. One face of it was flattened to serve as a striking-face, and by long use a hole would be worn in the middle of this face. I am not sure that a hollow was not formed in the face of a new ta prior to the implement being used. I have known this to be done. The roots of the maire tree form excellent material wherefrom to fashion a ta. In late times the iron-ringed maul of the pakeha has been much used in place of the old implement.

Photo: J. McDonald
Permission: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 New Zealand Licence
Source: http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/BesFish-fig-BesFish134a.html
Text: http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-BesFish-t1-body-d8-d3.html#BesFish-fig-BesFish134a
© Victoria University of Wellington




Fish points
Makaa (points) attached to lures and used to catch barracouta and kahawai.

Pahia, Southland,
Sorenson Collection
Acc. Nos D33.145, D46.1821-1825, D46.1876, D46.1819

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




kahawai
Kahawai, Arripis trutta.

The Bay of Plenty is an ideal habitat for kahawai and has some of the best catch rates. Kahawai are New Zealand’s second most commonly caught recreational species after snapper. They are keen to take the bait.

They are noticeable in the water, with speckled grey-blue to blue-green upper bodies. 'They are a solid, powerful, streamlined fish' says NIWA fisheries scientist, Bruce Hartill. 'They swim in small groups, and in schools in excess of a million fish, often weighing in excess of 200 tonnes.'

Kahawai can cover vast distances quickly because of their speed. They are fast growing, and are a very reproductively productive species compared to snapper. They eat other fish, but mainly live on krill. The average size of a kahawai is 40—50 cm and 1—2 kg in weight. Females grow larger (up to 60 cm in length), and can weigh up to 3 kg, often half a kilo heavier than males. Kahawai become reproductively mature at about 40 cm, at about four years of age. They can live to be 26, but anything over 20 is considered old age.

Photo: Erika Mackay
Source and text: http://sciblogs.co.nz/guestwork/2011/01/13/kahawai-the-people%E2%80%99s-fish/




Fish points
Makaa (points) attached to lures and used to catch barracouta and kahawai.

Stewart Island
Willa Collection
Acc. Nos. 86.277, 86.278

Pahia, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. Nos. D46.1678, D46.1728, D46.1854, D46.1874, D46. 1877, D46.1879

Haldane, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. No. 82.1373

Waipapa, Southland
Gibb Collection
Acc. No. 82.397

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




barracoutta

Barracouta, Thyrsites atun

Thyrsites atun is a long, thin, ocean predator. It is found in the seas of the Southern Hemisphere, and can grow up to 2 metres (79 in) long and weigh as much as 6.5 kilograms (14 lb). It is found near continental shelves or around islands and feeds mainly on crustaceans, cephalopods and also small fish like pilchard and anchovy. This predator species usually forms schools near the bottom or midwater, sometimes even near the surface at night. It is mainly found in South Africa, Namibia, Argentina, Chile, Australia and New Zealand.

Photo and text: http://bigfishesoftheworld.blogspot.com.au/2012/09/snoek-barracouta-thyrsites-atun.html




Fish points
Makaa (points) made from kekeno (seal) teeth.

Pahia, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. Nos. D46.1679, D46.1840, D46.1841, D46.1844, D46.1860, D46.1868

Orepuki, Southland
King Collection Ac. No. D46.134

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




seals seals
Seals were an important resource for the Maori living on suitable rocky coasts around New Zealand.

They were a very important source of meat, fat, skins, teeth and bone.

These seals are hauled out to rest at Milford Sound, on the West Coast Fiordland.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013




Seal Abel Tasman Seal Abel Tasman


Seal Abel Tasman

Seals at Abel Tasman National Park.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2007




Fish Points
Niwha (barbed and hooked points)

Pahia, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. Nos. D46.1673-1674, D46.1827-1828

Southland
Gift of Anonymous
Acc. No. 82.1374

Sandhill Point, Southland
Gift of Mr W. Woods
Acc. No. D49.13

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Fish points
Makaa (points) made from kuri (dog) jawbone.

Pahia, Southland
Gift of Mr J. Templeton and J.H. Sorenson
Acc. No. D46.1850

Pahia, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. Nos. D46.1861, D46.1869, D46.1878

Tokonui Mouth, Southland
Gift of John Milne
Acc. Nos. D41.20, D41.22

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Maori dog
Maori dog in a painting titled 'War Speech', by Augustus Earle

The Maori dog (kuri) was not indigenous to New Zealand but was probably introduced during the period of the Great Migration (c. 1350 A.D. ). Although little is known of its distribution, it seems evident that the breed failed to establish itself to any great degree. It became extinct some years after the arrival of the European settlers.

The Maori dog was a small, low-set animal, very ugly in appearance. Although it had a poor sense of smell, it was of some use in hunting night-moving birds such as the kiwi and also ducks in the moulting season. The Frenchman Crozet, who was at the Bay of Islands in June 1772, noted that: “The dogs are a sort of domesticated fox, quite black or white, very low on the legs, straight ears, thick tail, long body, full jaws, but more pointed than those of the fox, and uttering the same cry; they do not bark like our dogs”. According to Hutton, the dog was dull, lazy, and sullen in disposition. Yet it is credited with being a plaything or favourite of Maori women who regarded it with affection. The dog's carcass was put to a variety of uses. The flesh was considered a delicacy, the hair was used for ornaments and the adornment of weapons, the teeth served as ear pendants, and the skin for cloaks. These were made of skins either sewn together or else attached in strips to a piece of woven flax fibre.

The dog figured a great deal in Maori tradition and even had its place in ritual as, for example, when the aid of Tu, the war-god, was sought before a battle took place. Sometimes a human victim was selected as a suitable offering. But there were times when a dog was accepted as a substitute. Buck states that the dog's heart was cooked on a spit and that, after the god had been appeased by the savour, the priest ate the flesh. Another war-god, Maru, was satisfied with a dog on all occasions.

Date 1838
Source: Alexander Turnbull Library, (Reference No. PUBL-0015-09).
Artist: Earle, Augustus, 1793-1838
Photo permission: Public Domain

Text: http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/dog-maori
Text permission: 'DOG, MAORI', from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, edited by A. H. McLintock, originally published in 1966.
Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 22-Apr-09
URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/dog-maori
All text licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 New Zealand Licence




bone levers bone levers
Ripi (bone levers) used to prise paua (abalone/Haliotis) from the rocks.

Pahia, Southland
Gift of J.H. Sorenson and C. Frentz
Acc. No. D46.1728

New Zealand
Gift of Mrs Thompson
Acc. No. B79.569

Sandhill Point, Southland
Gift of J.H. Sorenson
Acc. Nos. D46.1729, D46.1730

Sandhill Point, Southland
Gift of Mr W. Woods
Acc. No. D49.11

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Sand Hill Point





Hakapureirei or Sand Hill Point

This is a very important location which has yielded a lot of the artefacts shown on this page.

Photo: Walter and Jacomb (2005)




bone levers


Artefacts excavated at Hakapureirei or Sandhill Point by Peter Coutts. a. Paua lever or ripi – SHP/4 A/6; b. Paua lever or ripi – SHP/4 layer 2; c. Mid-section of moa-bone harpoon point – SHP/2 A/1 layer 2; d. Point fragment of bone bird-spear point – SHP/1 layer 1 spoil; e. Butt end of paua ripi – SHP/4 A/4 layer 2 ( Coutts (1972) fig. 4-167).

Photo: Walter and Jacomb (2005)




whalebone pendant
Nga Tohu Tawhito a Oruarangi Pa (Traditional items from Oruarangi Pa)

10. (left) Matau - the bone points of hundreds of two-piece fishhooks were recovered from the Oruarangi settlement site.

11. Here - bone points of birdspears.

12. Harpoon - the tip of a broken harpoon point was a rare find among Oruarangi material.

13. Needles - needles were used for the fine sewing of skins.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




weights
Stone fishing sinkers.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




foods
Shellfish made up an important part of southern Maori diet.

Examples include (left to right):

Toheroa (Paphies ventricosa ), kina (sea-egg) and kuka (mussel)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




sinkers sinkers
Mahe (line sinkers), karihi (grooved) net sinkers and punga (drilled) net sinkers were manufactured from naturally rounded stones.

Portland, Whangerei
King Collection, Acc. No. D46.410

Pahia, Southland
Sorenson Collection, Acc. No. D46.1615

The Neck, Stewart Island
Willa Collection, Acc. No. 86.323

Hikuraki, Banks Peninsula
Sorenson Collection, Acc. No. D46.1725

Southland
King Collection, Acc. No. D46.394

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor, Acc. Nos. M86-M90

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




sinkers



(This hanging example out of frame in the photo above appears to be the Portland artefact, note the pencilled writing on the face.

Note also the decorative grooves added to the edge of what appears to be originally a natural shingle found on the beach.  - Don 
)

Portland, Whangerei
King Collection, Acc. No. D46.410

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




maori seine net



The other method of catching inanga, Galaxias gracilis , a small freshwater fish of the North Island, was by means of a net. This net was known as a kupenga, and it was used in almost the same way as the seine or large drag-net of European use. The length of the inanga net varied from 50 to 100 yards, and its depth from 6 ft. to 8 ft.

An Inanga net was made of very thin strips of flax worked into a small mesh; this, the central part of the net itself, was called a kaka. The rope along the top was called kaharunga, the bottom rope kahararo, the floats poito, and the sinkers karihi. There were two methods of using the net - one from a canoe tied by the middle thwart to a pole firmly fixed in a shallow spot, the other from the shore. When used from a canoe, another canoe started out from the bow of the anchored canoe with from 200 to 500 yards of rope. When this was all out the net was put overboard, roughly at right angles to the line, and when all the net was out the canoe returned to the stern of the anchored canoe with another long length of line. The net was then pulled steadily in towards the anchored canoe. The same process was used from the shore, but in the case of the canoe the lines were coiled up in the bow and stern, leaving the centre free for the inanga to be emptied out of the net.

Photo: http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-BesFish-t1-body-d2.html
Text: Fletcher (1919)
© Victoria University of Wellington




whau


The wood for fishing floats

Entelea arborescens or whau is a species of malvaceous tree endemic to New Zealand. E. arborescens is the only species in the genus Entelea. A shrub or small tree to 6 metres with large lime-like leaves giving a tropical appearance, whau grows in low forest along the coast of the North Island and the northern tip of the South Island. The dry fruit capsules are very distinctly brown and covered with spines. The common name whau is a Māori word that appears to derive from the common Polynesian word for hibiscus, other malvaceous trees which whau superficially resembles. Alternate names include 'New Zealand mulberry', 'corkwood' and 'evergreen lime'.

Whau has very light wood, rivalling balsa (Ochroma pyramidale) for lightness, and less dense than cork, and is pale brown in colour. The wood was used by Māori for the floats of fishing nets and the like.

Photo: Kahuroa
Permission: Public domain
Text: Adapted from Wikipedia




bodkin



Auwai (bodkin) made from bone and used to string fish together.

Wakapatu, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. No. D46.1788

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




harpoon points

Haeana (harpoon points) made from bone

(Note that the lowest point in particular appears to have been carved in the shape of a fish, perhaps to give it extra magic - Don )

South Island
Gift of Michael Trotter
Acc. No. B61312

Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. No. D46.1800

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. Nos. M70-M71

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




bird trap
This mutu kaka (parakeet snare) was used for catching parakeets. A long pole was lashed to the shank of the snare and a shorter stick, tied at an angle, served as a bram hook. The noose lay along the perch and was held in place by twigs.

(I have been unable to find the definition of bram or bram hook.

However, note the small human head carved on the snare. This is typical of mutu kaka. The carved human heads are usually distinguished by having eyes set in slanting sockets, lips tending to meet in front, and a large outthrust tongue - Don 
)

Hunters would select a suitable tree, hang snares in position, and then conceal themselves in a shelter/hide below the trap. Once a bird settled on the perch the hunter pulled the noose tight, catching the bird about the legs and holding it securely against the carved head. The fowler then unhooked the snare, took off the catch, reset the noose and hooked the snare back into position.

The mutu kākā form of bird snare was a simple but effective method of snaring large numbers of the noisy, socially garrulous, and inquisitive kākā (parrots: Nestor meridionalis ). A plaited muka (flax fibre) cord would be jerked trapping the legs of the kākā against the protruding upright of the mutu kākā.

Mōkai (tamed birds): Young kākā were easily captured and tamed. They were held captive by a small leg ring called a pōria, which had a small cord attached to prevent the bird flying off. Kākā pōria (leg rings) could be quite ornate and were also worn as pendants. Mōkai were made to call out to attract wild birds in the vicinity, who would come in great numbers upon hearing the cry of the captured bird. Mutu kākā were then used to capture birds as they alighted on the horizontal perch of the snare.

New Zealand
Oldman Collection
Acc. No. D50.423

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Additional text: http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/objectdetails.aspx?oid=159623, Phillips (1951)




Bird trap
Waka Kererū (Waikaremoana)

Kererū (pigeons) gather in early winter to feed on ripe miro berries. Troughs of water were placed high in the trees for the thirsty birds, after other sources of water nearby were covered over. To drink, they must put their heads through a noose.

Catalog: 13906

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




bird spearpoints bird spearpoints
Makoi (spear points) made from bone.

(Note the double ring on the bottom right, a Kākā pōria (leg ring). The large ring would be for the parrot leg, and the smaller to attach a leg cord. See below - Don )

Maori were excellent fowlers. Birds were snared or speared in great numbers for food. The most favoured birds were kereru (wood pigeons), titi (muttonbirds, or sooty shearwaters), and tui, kaka, kakapo and kea (parakeets).

Dogs may also have been used to hunt for the flightless birds such as weka (woodhens) and kiwi.

Wakapatu, Southland
Teviotdale Collection
Acc. Nos. D50.307 (M417), D50.308 (M418), D50.311 (M420), D50.317 (M415)

Cannibal Bay, Catlins
Gift of Guy Murrell
Acc. No. D40.2 (M416)

Haldane, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. No. D46.1736 (M419)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




bird leg ring

Poria (leg ring) used when snaring kaka.

When snaring kaka, Maori frequently made use of a tame bird which acted as a decoy. A poria made of bone or greenstone, with a pona (string) attached, was slipped over the decoy's foot. The kaka was trained to screech whenever the string was pulled, attracting any other wild kaka in the vicinity. If no trained birds were available, the first bird caught during the day would be kept for the same purpose.

New Zealand
OM
Acc. No. D24.1677 (M414)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ






long spear point

An unusually long makoi (spear point) found at Pahia.
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013

Pahia, Southland, Sorenson Collection, Acc. No. D37.24 (M421)
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ





bowl lee island


Kumete (food bowl) made from rimu wood.

Lee Is., Lake Te Anau
Gift of Lynette Williams
Acc. No. Z.3724

Photo (bowl): Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Aerial photo of Lee Island: Google Earth




rimu tree





The bowl shown above is made of Dacrydium cupressinum, Rimu, endemic to New Zealand, growing in habitat in the Waitakere Ranges, west Auckland, New Zealand.

The trunk of this tree is covered with Rata vines (Metrosideros) spp.

Photo: Kahuroa
Permission: Public Domain




bowl bowl


bowl
Kumete, Ngāti Haua (Ohura, Taranaki)

Wooden bowls such as this were used in the preparation and serving of food, and in dyeing fibres to be used in weaving. Food preparation included the pounding of berries such as hinau and tutu, collecting fat off birds, and boiling by means of hot stones.

Hinau (Elaeocarpus dentatus ) was prepared by pounding or soaking the fruits to separate the flesh from the stones, the flesh being dried and made into cakes which were steamed in an earth oven.

All parts of the tutu plant, Coriaria arborea, are poisonous except for the carefully strained juice of the berries, which Maori once valued to make sauces to accompany bland foods and to make fermented liquor. They also used it as a medicine to treat dysentery but knew that the flesh and tiny seeds of the berries, like the stems and foliage, contained a poison we now call tutin.


This kumete is from Ohura, inland Taranaki, the territory of the Ngāti Haua tribe. The simple massive form is reminiscent of bowls in other parts of Polynesia such as Hawaii and the Marquesas Islands. The abstract faces on the handles suggest an early development of the north Taranaki style of carving.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/plants-edible-native and http://www.terrain.net.nz/friends-of-te-henui-group/table-1/tutu.html




basket


Poha are containers made for the preservation and storage of titi (juvenile mutton birds or sooty shearwaters), and weka.

The interior is an inflated bag of bull kelp packed full of cooked titi. Hot fat from the cooking process is poured into the poha which seals and preserves the contents. The bag is then put into the woven basket and surrounded with strips of totara bark.

Stored in this way the contents of poha titi could remain fresh for up to two years.

Pōhā are made from blades of rimurapa (bull kelp). Ngāi Tahu, a South Island iwi (tribe), gathers the long broad blades of rimurapa that grow around the coast of Te Wai Pounamu. The outer skin of the blades is airtight and traps air in the honeycomb-like structure inside each blade. Food preserved inside a pōhā can be kept safely for up to two to three years.

According to Ngāi Tahu tradition, January or February is the time to start making pōhā. First, the rimurapa blades are cut to the right length and hollowed out. Then, in March, the pōhā hau (the hollowed out blades) are inflated and placed outside to soften in the night dew. Finally, the pōhā are rolled up and taken to the Tītī Islands for the start of the mutton bird season in April.

Weka (wood-hens) and tītī (mutton birds) are prepared by wrapping the birds in pouaka (fescue grass), leaving them in a trench for a few days, and then soaking them in an ipu (wooden bowl) in water heated by hot stones. The birds are kept there until their fat has seeped out and is lying at the bottom of the ipu. Once this process is complete, the birds are placed into pōhā and covered with their own fat. The top of the pōhā is plugged with a wooden plug and the outside is protected with kiri tōtara (tōtara bark), before the whole pōhā is placed in a flax kete (bag) and bound. The finished pōhā has a distinctive shape designed to be easy to throw and catch because there are no beaches on which to land supplies on the Tītī Islands. Pōhā are often made to hold up to 110 birds, although the average size would hold 40 to 50.

Southland
Gift of Graham Metzger
Acc. No. M193

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Additional text from http://www.tepapa.govt.nz/Education/OnlineResources/Matariki/FoodGathering/Pages/Poha.asp




bull kelp bull kelp

Bull Kelp, Durvillea antarctica, used to make the Poha above.

(left) floating straps in a coastal environment.

(right) Cross-section and cut-away view of sun-dried kelp (Durvillaea antarctica), showing its internal honeycomb structure. Kelp found on Muriwai beach, near Auckland, New Zealand.

Photo (left): B.navez
Permission: GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2

Photo (right): Avenue
Permission: licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.




sooty shearwater
Sooty Shearwater (Puffinus griseus ) off Kaikoura, New Zealand

The name shearwater is applied to that sub–division of the Procellariidae, petrels, family whose members have a skimming flight pattern, a flap and rapid glide, close to the surface of the sea. There are five known in New Zealand waters, the sooty shearwater being the most common and in season the most numerous sea–bird in southern New Zealand waters.

The sooty shearwater is quite heavily built, almost the size of a mallard duck but more streamlined. It is dark brown above, black–looking in flight and a little paler underneath with conspicuous silvery white linings to the under part of the narrow wings. The upper bill is curved to a sharp hook. The webbed feet are a surprising shade of lilac with brown markings. As it only comes to land to breed, the legs are feeble so that on land the bird is never erect but always in a squatting position. The melting dark brown eye and the classic shape and poise of its fine neck and head are things of great beauty.

The sooty shearwater is found in oceans throughout the world but its only known breeding areas are in the Southern Hemisphere. It breeds in the sub Antarctic and temperate zones on islands off the coast of Chile and around Cape Horn, on Kidney Island, Falklands, on Tristan da Cunha, on islands off Tasmania and New South Wales and on numerous New Zealand islands and some headlands on the mainland. Sub fossil and midden evidence, as well as historical records, suggest that sooty shearwaters formerly bred in large colonies on the mainland. In the Bay of Plenty a few still breed on Whale Island.

Charles Darwin in The Voyage of the Beagle, noted that; 'the sooty shearwater generally frequents the inland sounds [of southern Chile] in very large flocks: I do not think I ever saw so many birds of any other sort together, as I once saw of these behind the island of Chiloe. Hundreds of thousands flew in an irregular line for several hours in one direction. When part of the flock settled on the water the surface was blackened, and a noise proceeded from them as of human beings talking in the distance.'

Photo: Sabine's Sunbird
Permission: This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
Text: © 2005 Narena Olliver, new zealand birds limited, Greytown, New Zealand, http://www.nzbirds.com/birds/titi.html




bird spearpoints bird spearpoints



The Weka was also preserved in Poha, although it was not available in such numbers, or as easily caught, as were the juveniles of the Sooty Shearwater.

The Weka is a fearless thief of bushwalkers' (trampers', hikers') food!

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2007




basket
Hue wai (water gourd)

The gourd plant cultivated by the natives of New Zealand was undoubtedly introduced from the Pacific Isles, where its cultivation is, or was, widespread. It is the Cucurbita lagenaria of Linnaeus. It may have originated in India, and was not in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans.

It is known as Hue wai in the Hawaiian islands as well.

The gourd was cultivated to a considerable extent by the Maori in pre-European days, in all suitable localities, but it did not flourish in some high lying districts, and was not a success in the South Island, where seaweed vessels (poha, bull kelp vessels as above - Don ) appear to have largely taken the place of the calabash. The Maori put the fruit of the gourd plant to three different uses, as a food, as domestic vessels, and occasionally as floats. They were seen and commented on by Banks and Cook.

New Zealand
Gift of Sir Robert Anderson
Acc. No. D51.60

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Additional text: http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-BesAgri-t1-body-d7.html
© Victoria University of Wellington




basket
The hard husk of the edible bracken fern root/rhizome was removed by pounding with a patu aruhe (fern root beater).

Morrinsville, North Island
Gift of Mr R.A.S. Browne
Acc. No. D45.119

Mataura, South Island
Gift of Mr Gimblett
Acc. No. D43.1

New Zealand
Gift of Mr J. Higham
Acc. No. 61.50

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




bracken fern nz

Bracken Fern from New Zealand, Pteridium esculentum.

Preparation involved washing, beating to remove the husk and to turn the rhizome into a paste, moulding into cakes and finally roasting in hot ashes.

Photo: Grapeman4
Permission: licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.




bark basket
Pātua

Waipa

Made from a single piece of totara bark, a pātua (food basket) was used to hold manu huahua (preserved birds).

Pātua were commonly seen in large numbers at huge feasts. In May 1879 this pātua was used with several hundred others at a large hui in Te Kopua, Upper Waipa.

Catalog 205

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




bark basket
Pātua

Tōtara bark baskets were used to hold birds preserved in their own fat. Such delicacies were the food of chiefs and visitors.

This patua was formed by folding up short lengths of totara bark and lashing the two ends together with supplejack, forming a handle. This basket has been adorned with hawk feathers.

Dimensions: 620 x 430 x 420 mm

Catalog: 840

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=920




rat trap
Traps for kiore (Polynesian rat) are baited with berries. The noose is tripped when the kiore takes the bait.

Catalog: 51027

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




basket
A patua or papa totara, a bark basket.

(Note that, when compared with the diagrams and text below, this very small example is missing the cord securing the peg on the right hand end, and missing the peg on the left hand end  - Don )

How the Patua Bark Vessels were made.

While some of the men were engaged in the bird trapping, others were engaged in making patua, a sort of bark basket in which birds were preserved. These patua were usually made of the inner bark of the totara tree; when this material was unprocurable hinau bark was used, but this was avoided if possible on account of the bark being too thick to bend well. The bark of young trees only was used, and the section of bark was removed from the sunny side of the tree (the northern side), as this came off more easily, and was more flexible than that on the shady side. It was taken off in the winter, but my informant had forgotten the months in which this was done.

Two cuts were made through the bark, half encircling the tree, one about ten or twelve feet above the other, long enough for two patua, according to the size required. Two perpendicular cuts were then made, opposite each other, and meeting the horizontal cuts. The two bottom corners were then slightly wrenched free to give a start to the stripping, after which a piece of karewao (supplejack) was tied round the portion operated upon, to prevent it falling down, and perhaps splitting. In a short time the bark would come away without further treatment; sometimes, when in a hurry, the whole piece was wrenched off in one operation, after first beating it all round, but it had to be done very carefully, to avoid splitting. The piece of bark removed and corrected to length was called kiripāro.

In many places where totara forests still exist, the old scars can be seen where bark was removed by a former generation. This has, in our district, given rise to a mistaken belief among the European settlers that half a totara tree was killed by being barked thus in the process of canoe-making. Examples of these barked trees can be seen in the Borough reserve, south of Taumarunui.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Extra text: Downes (1928)




basket
When the kiripāro was carried back to camp, slight bruises were made at equal distances from each end, in straight lines across the fibre, showing where the bends were to start. This was done by bending inwards once or twice. The ends were then made pliable by being placed alternately in a fire, and before getting cold the ends, from the marked line, were folded, first one end, then the other, the middle first with an outward bend, then alternately each side of the middle and end for end, five folds in all at each end. Unless done in this way it is said the bark would split, when the whole thing would be rendered useless; consequently the utmost care was used in working out these folds.

In a large patua the width allowed for a complete fold at the end was one whanganga and a huka, otherwise one and a half spans, a whananga being a full span of the fingers, the huka being the distance from the end of the middle finger to the knuckle. That would be, roughly, about a foot; consequently the width of the bark required for a large patua would be about five feet. Many were, however, considerably smaller.

The fold was termed potipoti. The folds were next brought together at the top, and a hole bored through the bunch, in which was inserted a manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) or kopuka (L. ericoides) pin, called a titi, perhaps three-quarters of an inch in diameter. A length of aka whiriwhiri or twisted vine was next prepared, in length three wahanga, a wahanga in this district signifying a measurement from the centre of the breast to the finger tips, arm outstretched.

Text and diagram: Downes (1928)




basket
The prepared vine, called herekaka was passed seven times round the lug, known as poitu, and on both sides of the titi in a ripeka or crossed design, drawing the folds together as tight as it was possible to get them. The top of the poitu was then neatly rounded off.

The length of the patua varied considerably; those for small birds, such as mata karaihe (probably 'glass eye,' the blight-bird, Zosterops caerulescens), being only about 12 to 18 inches long, and of about the same width, while large ones for pigeons or kaka would often be 3 feet or more. All the large patua made for presentation were given special names. It is said that the two largest ever made in this district were known as Taratuia and Pohoare. They were made near Reretaruke, and presented, full of preserved pigeons, to the lower river natives during the marriage celebrations of one Tamahina, about seven generations ago. It is said that both of these, when empty, were large enough to hold four men. The lower river people were unable to fill these again for a return present, but it is said that they were afterwards used for huahua tangata (preserved human flesh). After once being used for holding human flesh, patua were never again used for birds or for holding water, but were usually broken up.

Text and diagram: Downes (1928)




adze



Flat pieces of pounamu (greenstone) were ground to the required thickness by rubbing back and forth with hoanga (grindstones) made of sandstone or schist, and water.

Note that the worked Pounamu found at Maori Beach shown in this image would have been carried to the beach by canoe from the South Island, since there are no deposits of greenstone on Stewart Island.

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous donor
Acc. Nos. M192, M193, M200

Worked Pounamu
Maori Beach, Stewart Island
Gift of W. Barnford
Acc. No. 2001.936

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Maori Beach Maori Beach



Maori Beach where the greenstone pieces above were found is on Stewart Island, a relatively large island to the south of the main South Island.

It is a magical spot, with a lot of flat land behind the beach which would be ideal for camping or for putting up a more permanent structure.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2007




Maori Beach



There is a fresh water stream at the eastern end, and a salt water estuary and pool at the western end which would provide a good safe place for canoes to be pulled out of the water.

A wire swing bridge has been built across the estuary to allow trampers/hikers to cross with safety.

Photo: Google Earth




Maori Beach



Travellers from the South Island would have been very glad to reach the sanctuary of Maori Beach, since the strait between Stewart Island and the mainland is usually rough. It is only about 40 - 50 metres deep, lies below 46° South latitude and is exposed to the full force of the roaring forties.

Even travellers on the modern catamaran ferry are often glad to complete the crossing of the strait in safety!

Photo: Google Earth




unfinished adzes
Toki, adzes

(Opito Bay, Coromandel Peninsula)

These unfinished adzes were found with a male skeleton on the Coromandel coast, uncovered by strong winds blowing across the sand dunes. It is likely that the craftsman died before he could complete the adzes. As the adzes were in his possession when he died, and were therefore tapu (sacred) because of his rank and status, they would have been buried with him.

Catalog: 5661.1-14

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




adze greenstone




Toki Pounamu (nephrite adze blade) from Nelson.

Catalog: ME004240

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Additional text: http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/Object/158127




adze greenstone




(left) Toki pounamu, adze, possibly Waitaha or Kāti Māmoe iwi from Anatori.

(right) Toki pounamu, adze, possibly Waitaha or Kāti Māmoe iwi from Lake Marchant, Otago.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Additional text: http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/Object/158127




adze




The hammerstone (under the club blank) has been used to try to make a mere (short fighting club) from pounamu, greenstone. The bruising has had little effect on the original shape of the slab.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
(There are two greenstone blanks shown, with a sandstone rasp in position over the lower, purplish coloured one, illustrating how pounamu was cut into symmetrical, even slabs. The technique needed huge amounts of time and effort - Don )

Worked pounamu
Southland
Gift of Waihopai School

Worked pounamu
New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor

Kani (sandstone rasp)
Gift of Anonymous Donor

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




mallet
Patu Whakairo, carver's mallet
Te Aitanga ā Māhaki (Gisborne)

Wiremu Pere, a prominent chief of Te Aitanga-ā-Māhaki owned this patu whakairo (whalebone carver's mallet). Although not a carver himself, Wiremu is remembered as the organiser of the Rongopai meeting house, renowned for its remarkable paintings, at Waituhi in 1887.

Born in 1837, Wiremu was elected to Parliament in 1884 representing the eastern Maori electorate, gaining much support from the Ringatū Church which was founded by Te Kooti.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




mallets
Tā Rakau

On the left is a decorated mallet used in fine carving.

Catalog: 1413

(right) Tā Paraoa

Ngāti Whakaue (Ōhinemutu, Rotorua)

Taupua Te Whanoa, a famous chief and wood-carver of Ngāti Whakaue of Te Arawa was the owner of this tā paraoa (whalebone mallet). Taupua was one of the carvers of the well known meeting house Tama-Te Kapua, at Ōhinemutu, which was completed in 1873.

Catalog: 25064

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




mallet mallet
(left) Ta whakairo (mallet)

Andrew Burn, Southland
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. B62.105

Whao (small chisels) and Tikaro (gouges) were lashed to short straight handles and tapped with a wooden mallet.

(right) Chisel (replica)
Southland Museum and Art Gallery Collection
Acc. No. M203

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




scrapers and knives


Kota (scrapers) and maripi (knives) made from pounamu.

(left to right)

Locations: Pahia, Southland, Waikuku and Birdlings Flat, Canterbury, New Zealand

Donors:
Kingsland Collection (D39.114), Sorenson Collection (D46.1424, D46.2057, D46.2029, D46.2034, D46.2049), John Thompson Jnr. (D39.263), and Gift of Anonymous Donor (D37.113), M264-5, M267)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adzes


Toki (adzes)

Locations:
Frankton, Haldane Mokomoko, Pahia, Southland, Heathcote River and Birdlings Flat, Canterbury

Donors:
Mrs M.D. Bell (B67.1), Mr W. Birse (B70.316), King Collection (D46.73), Mr Rex M. Royds (B67.168), Sorenson Collection (D46.1034, D46.1074, D46.1094), and Gift of Anonymous (M234-5)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




NZ map greenstone






Tools made of stone which fractures easily were made using stone on stone flaking methods. Stone types that could be easily flaked such as argillite, chert, and silcrete, were struck with hammerstones made from rocks such as granite and garnet, or from bone. The worked stone was then polished and finished with wet stone rasps and grindstones of schist or sandstone.

Pounamu (greenstone) was highly prized for tool and ornament making as it was tougher and more durable than any other stone type found in New Zealand. However due to its fibrous structure it had to be shaped by grinding rather than flaking methods.

The South Island is known as Te Wai Pounamu (The Greenstone Waters) or Te Wahi Pounamu (The Place of Greenstone). Most of the pounamu gathered in these locations shown on the map comes from river boulders.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Wiri, whao, tikaro

Wiri (drill points) whao (chisels) and tikaro (gouges)

Locations:
Orepuki, Pahia, Tokonui, Waikawa, Southland, and Catlins, South Otago.

Donors:
Chas Campbell (D39.9, Mr I. Halder (B64.143-5), King Collection (D46.74), Kuhuwai Russell (D50.301), Sorenson Collection (D46.1870, D33.184, D46.1078), Mrs E.J. Wilson (D47.7), and Gift of Anonymous (M247-9, M252-3, M256-7, D.S.39.312)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Adzes

Toki (adzes)

Left to Right:
New Zealand, Gibb Collection, Acc. No. 127

Brydon, Southland, Gift of Mr E.J. Genge, Acc. No. b64.56

Tokonui, Southland, Sorenson Collection, Acc. No. D46.2077

Pahia, Southland, Sorenson Collection, Acc. No. D46.1089

Otautau, Southland, Gift of D. Hogg, Acc. No. M220

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adzes

Toki (adzes)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze

Toki (adze)

New Zealand
Dunlop Collection (Otago Museum)
Acc. No. D49.21

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adzes

Toki (adzes)

(Note the sandstone grindstone on which the superb adze is sitting - Don )

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adzes

Flywheel and wiri (drill) illustrates the skill required by Maori to bore a hole in stone, wood or bone. The type of drill shown consists of a shaft with a stone point used as follows:

Two people are required to operate this equipment. The hands pull out and down, spinning the drill as the cord unwinds, and putting pressure on the drill bit. When the hands are fully extended, the drill continues to spin with the momentum of the flywheel, causing the cords to rewind, the hands are then brought together again and the cycle repeats.

When drilling in stone, fine wet quartz sand was used as an abrasive. This produced a blunt tapered cavity which made it necessary to drill from both sides of the work to produce a hole.

Flywheel and wiri (replica)
Southland Museum and Art Gallery Collection
Acc. No. M217

Mere (replica)
New Zealand
Gift of Mrs M.J. Massey
Acc. No. D40.3

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Wiri drill

Wiri (cord drill)

Artist: Unknown

A wiri or tūwiri (also known as the pīrori) was a cord drill that Māori used to create holes in hard materials such as basalt, pounamu (New Zealand greenstone) or bone. The holes were made by applying downward pressure and a twirling motion by pulling cords, creating friction at the drill point to bore through solid material. Making holes in hard materials especially important in the manufacture of pounamu adornments and suspension holes in wrist weapons.

There are five individual components to a wiri: 1. the pou (central spindle); 2. the porotiti (circular whirl); 3. the mata (stone drill point); 4. the aho (dressed fibre cords); and 5. the haupae (balance weight of stones tied to the central pou to add additional downward pressure).

While there are different types of drills throughout the Pacific similar in style, cord drills were unique to Māori. They leave a signature suspension hole, identifiable by the hourglass-shaped hole through the drilled material.

This drill was possibly recovered from a settlement on the East Cape of New Zealand by a collector before being acquired by Te Papa. It is in very good condition and a fine example of early technological innovation by Māori.

Photo and text: http://www.googleartproject.com/collection/te-papa/artwork/wiri-cord-drill-unknown/371018/




drill



This reproduction stone-tipped drill is made of a manuka wood shaft, a balancing weight comprising part of a whale vertebra, and a chert point lashed into place with two-ply muka (New Zealand flax) cordage.

Catalog: 50968

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




adzes



Wiri (stone drill points)

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. Nos. M269, M270, M272, M274-5, D46.5745

Pahia, Southland
King Collection
Acc. No. D46.350

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




grindstones



Using Hoanga (grindstones) with sand and water as an abrasive, pounamu was sawn to shape with flaked stone cutters as shown. Deep cuts were made on both sides of the work until the opposing grooves met or were close enough to be broken, leaving a ridge to be ground off later.

Kani (sandstone rasps)
Gift of Anonymous Donor
D.S.39.338, D.S.39.351, D37.113

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Hoanga (grindstones) and Kani (rasps and files)



Hoanga (grindstones) and Kani (rasps and files)

Examples show both fine and coarse grained tools. Sand and water were used as grinding agents between the grindstone and tool.

Location:
Orepuki, Pahia, Tokanui, Wakapatu, Southland, Stewart Island, Otago, New Zealand.

Donors:
Mr I. Halder (B64.142), King Collection (D46.90, D46.92, D46.89), Mr Leslie MacKay (B67.374), Mrs R. Russell (B65.102), Sorenson Collection (B67.314, D.37.55) and Gift of Anonymous (D.S.39.305, D33.177, D36.43, D38.188, D37.70, M276, M282, M285, M286-M289, M297, M299-M301, M333).

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Drills, awls and scrapers



Drills, awls and scrapers
- flake tools showing retouching

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Maripi (knives) made from silcrete and argillite flakes

Maripi (knives) made from silcrete and argillite flakes, used for cutting meat.

The Neck, Stewart Island
Gift of Mr Robert Russell

New Zealand
Southland Museum and Art Gallery Collection

Pahia, Southland

New Zealand
Southland Museum and Art Gallery Collection

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Silicified wood





Silicified wood

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Obsidian and quartz
(left) Obsidian

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. D38.33


(right) Quartz

New Zealand
Gift of Russel Beck
Acc. No. B67.353

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Chert and Silcrete
(left) Chert

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M334


(right) Silcrete

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M332

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




The grooves on the Toki (adze) butts below provide a secure surface for lashing to the wooden handles.

adze
Toki (adze) with grooved butt

New Zealand
Gift of Mr E.M. Lyon
Acc. No. D53.10

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ


adze
Toki (adze) with grooved butt

Seaward Bush, Southland
Gift of Mr C.H. Powell
Acc. No. B62.94

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ


adze
Toki (adze) with grooved butt

Waimatuku, Southland
Gift of Mr Nicholson
Acc. No. D44.35

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ






adze
A side cutting Toki (adze), used for cutting in a narrow space.

Southland
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M342

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Toki made of materials other than greenstone were made in four stages, as was elucidated at an adze making site at Tiwai Point opposite Bluff about 500 years ago:

Stage 1
Stone is quarried and flaked into workable sizes using granite hammer stones.

Stage 2
The toki is roughed out by flaking with smaller hammerstones.

Stage 3
The toki is then hammer-bruised to the required shape by using hard garnet hammerstones.

Stage 4
The toki is finally polished and sharpened with wet sandstone rasps.



adze
Toki (adze)

Edendale, Southland
Gift of Mrs R.H. Gray
Acc. No. B68.43

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

Orepuki, Southland
King Collection
Acc. No. D46.202

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze

Shovel-shaped toki (adze)

Pahia, Southland
King Collection
Acc. No. M344

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze

Toki (adze)

Southland
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. B81.2

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

New Zealand
Sorenson Collection
Acc. No. D46.1463

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

Thomson's Crossing, Southland
Gift of Anonymous Donor

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Hafted toki (adze)

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M366

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

Southland
Gift of Dr D.F. Thomson
Acc. No. B69.147

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

Seaward Bush, Southland
Gift of Mr C.H. Powell
Acc. No. B62.94

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

Forest Hill, Southland
Gift of Mrs W.D. McArthur
Acc. No. D40.11

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

Pahia, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. No. D46.1407

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

Makarewa, Southland
Gift of Mr W. Davidson
Acc. No. D45.73

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




adze
Toki (adze)

Waituna Lagoon, Southland
Gift of Mr & Mrs C. Hansen
Acc. No. D53.29

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Toki poutangata (ceremonial adze)

Toki poutangata (ceremonial adze)

1500-1800
Artist Unknown

The toki poutangata is a symbol of chiefly authority and tribal leadership. Made from an elegantly fashioned pounamu blade, often decorated with ornamental kaniwha notches that may be a mnemonic device to assist in the recitation of genealies; and fastened to carved wooden handle. Toki poutangata are tribal heirlooms and ascribed personal names, and even magical powers.

Toki poutangata were used on ceremonial occasions, such as the felling of a great tree for a significant waka (canoe) or for the ridgepole of a wharenui or meeting house. The first chips cut from the tree were taken by the tohunga to a special place where karakia of thanksgiving were recited to the god of the forest, Tanemahuta in acknowledgement of the sacrifice of his offspring. The chips might also be returned ceremonially to the forest to nurture new growth.

It is believed that the toki poutangata was originally used for the ceremonial execution of captives. Upon the death of its owner, the special handle was buried with them while the pounamu blade remained with the tribe. Once it had been decided who would succeed the chief, another handle was fashioned and lashed to the adze. This toki poutangata has a carved wooden handle.

Photo and text: http://www.googleartproject.com/collection/te-papa/artwork/toki-poutangata-ceremonial-adze-unknown/357210/




adzes
Various adzes.

18. (Hokianga) - pale īnanga jade is named after its resemblance to whitebait.
Catalog: 9887

19. (Spirits Bay) - a small adze, showing the 'cut and snap' method of working pounamu.
Catalog: 27257

20. Kawakawa pounamu adze
Catalog: 20064

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




adze



This magnificent adze, glowing with rich colours, is of pounamu known as totoweka - weka's blood.

Catalog: 6292

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




adze
From left to right:

Pale īnanga jade is named after its resemblance to whitebait.
Catalog: 9887

A small adze, showing the 'cut and snap' method of working pounamu.
Catalog: 27257

Kawakawa pounamu adze.
Catalog: 20064

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




adze
From left to right:

Kawakawa pounamu adze (as above).
Catalog: 20064

Dark jade adze
Catalog: 16306.1

(Terohanga, Opotiki)
In working jade, a slab is almost cut through from each side before the remaining stone is snapped. The break is then ground smooth, a process which has not been completed on this adze.

Mere pounamu made of the kahurangi - 'treasured possession' - variety of jade.
Catalog: 1285

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




adze



Natural pounamu 'pebble' as found in a stream.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




adze


Adze found near Hamilton Waikato.
Catalog: 414

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




adze
The first adzes in New Zealand were made of stone which could be worked like familiar Pacific basalts, such as fine grained argillite or metamorphosed mudstone from the Nelson district, and basalt from Tahanga on the east coast of Coromandel Peninsula.

1. (North Cape) Argillite adzes of early form are found throughout Aotearoa. Many show that working tools could be objects of great beauty
Catalog: 16211

2. (obscured) (Wharekaho, Coromandel Peninsula) An ancient adze found near Whitianga is made of the distinctive argillite from D'Urville Island near Nelson.
Catalog: 6240


3. (Wheritoa, Coromandel Peninsula) A cache of four adzes suggests a craftsman's toolkit. All are made of basalt from nearby Tahanga. The shapes suggest a date early in the Māori settlement of Aotearoa.

(note: basalt is normally very dark in colour, not light as in, certainly, the leftmost of these four adzes. In addition, photos of Tahanga basalt adzes I have found elsewhere all show a very dark, almost black material - Don )

Catalog: AR1200

4. (Waihi Beach, Coromandel Peninsula) An unpolished adze shows the skilful flaking and hammer dressing used in shaping the D'Urville Island argillite.
Catalog: 27838

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




adze
Stone Tool Technology

25. Hammerstones - hard, tough rock was used as hammerstones in shaping stone tools.
Catalog: 38999, 22495.5

26. (Waitaki River mouth) Elegant blades, struck off blocks of Central Otago silcrete, are found at early settlement sites where moa were butchered and eaten.
Catalog: 24511, 51000

27. Kiripaka - fine grained chert, found throughout New Zealand, was made into sharp-edged knives and drillpoints.
Catalog: AR7166


28. Tuhua - chips of obsidian (volcanic glass) were struck off blocks to provide sharp-edged knives for cutting and scraping. Obsidian from Tuhua (Mayor Island, Bay of Plenty) reached every part of New Zealand.
Catalog: 23590, 1999x5.10-12

29. Stone saws - sharp-edged flakes were struck off greywacke boulders for cutting stone and bone, especially in the South Island.
Catalog: 46792, 22498.2

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




tools
29. Stone saws - sharp-edged flakes were struck off greywacke boulders for cutting stone and bone, especially in the South Island.
Catalog: 46792, 22498.2

Moa bone fishhooks date from early in the settlement of Aotearoa, and take after older Polynesian forms. A leg was sawn into sections, from which roughly shaped 'tabs' were made. The centre of the tab was then drilled out, and the fishhook filed to shape.

30. Bone tabs and hook.
Catalog: 21840.1, 21849, 21851.1, 18623.2


31. Fishhooks were also made of toitoi (Cook's turban shell).
Catalog: 23272, 34063.1

32. Files were made of abrasive sandstone or greywacke.
Catalog: 3230.5, 18647.4, 51207, 10261

33. Drillpoints were commonly made of chert.
Catalog: AR7144, AR7160, 49707.11, 52044.2

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




moa skeleton moa reconstruction



This is the South Island giant moa Dinornis robustus, largest of the nine species of moa that once lived in New Zealand but are now extinct.

This moa reached 3 metres tall in an upright standing position as shown here. It was the world's tallest bird, but other extinct birds in Australia and Madagascar were heavier.

Only females grew this big, the males being much smaller. Moa are the only truly wingless birds known. They are relatives of the kiwi, emu and ostrich. Moa had four toes, but the reduced hind toe is not shown here.

The display (left) is a plaster cast of moa bones, obtained from England in 1912.

The reconstruction (right) using emu feathers was built around 1913.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




oven
Umu tī

Oven for cooking tī (Cordyline spp.). The rhizome was roasted in a hāngi (earth oven) by Māori to extract sugar.

Many remains of umu tī are found in the South Island, some up to 8 metres across and 2 metres deep. Because other root crops such as kūmara, taro and yam could not be grown here, tī was the most important source of carbohydrate. Inside the leafy tops is the heart or koata, which when cooked is called kōuka. This was likened by Europeans to cabbage, hence the common name of this plant. But it is the underground roots or rhizomes and the trunks which contain the major food source.

In the north tī rauriki rhizomes were harvested in 1-3 years in December when the sugar level was highest. Because removal of the rhizomes led to the death of the tree, most harvesting involved the trunks (kāuru). As these are capable of regeneration they were often semi-cultivated in cleared areas called para-kāuru, in which propagation of young stems and roots was carried out.

In the south young plants less than two metres in height were harvested every 2-4 years, first in late spring and then again in late summer when the maximum amount of carbohydrate was present. Dried kāuru were wrapped in leaves and bundled into family lots before being placed in the umu. Construction of the umu tī was similar to the hāngi, but being on a much larger scale it was strategically located close to water, and a source of firewood.

Preparation for eating involved soaking and removing the fibres, leaving a soft sugary substance called paru. When mixed with water it was called wai-tī or wai-kāuru, this was often used to sweeten pounded aruhe (fern-root). Unlike the kāuru or stems, underground rhizomes were usually cooked and immediately eaten in November when the flax flowered. They were roasted and scraped open, and then flax juice (waikorari) from flax flowers was poured on before they were eaten.

Wai-korari is a sweet syrupy fluid, which fills the large reddish- brown flowers of the flax-stalks, and was sucked out of the flower by the Maoris and also gathered in calabashes and brought home to the pa for more leisurely use. A curious thing about the flower of the flax is that the state of the tide can be told from them with considerable exactitude. In coastal country at low tide the flower is empty, and as the tide comes in, so the wai-korari gradually rises in the flower, until at high tide it is full to the brim, and at spring-tide actually flows over in a steady drip. As the tide goes out, the wai-korari recedes until the flower is dry again, and so on, twice a day while the flowers are in full bloom.

The season of the wai-korari was another carnival time for the Māori. The Māori revelled in the bountiful supply where every flax-bush was a sweet-shop, and wandering homeward at night, they daubed their faces in streaks with the sticky pollen of the flower, a time-honoured method of announcing to all whom they might encounter, that that day they had been gathering wai-korari.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://www.forgottenbooks.com/readbook_text/Te_Hekenga_1000835365/69




sharpening stone



This stone has been marked with many grooves from the grinding and sharpening of adzes and other stone tools.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




sharpening stone

A grindstone is marked with the remains of natural red haematite, ground in the preparation of kokowai (red ochre powder), and later mixed with shark oil to produce a rich red paint.

A pot for colours used in tattooing is to the left of the stone.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




Waka kereru (pigeon snare)


Waka kereru (pigeon snare)
Waka kereru (pigeon snare)

Wooden troughs were filled with water and berries with loop snares positioned on the top section. The waka kereru was then positioned in the branches of the tree, so when a kereru (pigeon) tried to drink, its neck was caught in the loop.

Lake Hauroko, Fiordland
Gift of R.A. Brookes
Acc. No. 88.19

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Kauroti and kaurima fire making kit


Kauroti and kaurima fire making kit
Kauroti and kaurima fire making kit

For fire making, a kaurima (hardwood stick) was rubbed vigorously against a kauroti (grooved batten) to create smouldering sawdust. Tinder was then applied to the smoking area and gently blown on to produce fire.

Lake Te Anau
Gift of Kim Morrison
Acc. No. Z.4113

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




beaters
(left) Patu aute (paper mulberry bark beater)

This tapa (bark cloth) beater was used to beat the fibres of aute (paper mulberry) to make tapa. Beaters like this were brought to Aotearoa New Zealand by early Polynesian ancestors, and were adapted for use on the fibres found in New Zealand.

Maker unknown, attributed to Society Islands, made of heavy wood.

(right) E'e (bark cloth beater) 1800s. Maker unknown, attributed to Pitcairn Islands, made of whalebone

This whalebone beater was used to beat bark to make tapa cloth. Tapa cloth is made from the bark of the paper mulberry, banyan, and breadfruit trees.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington








References

  1. Anderson A., Binney J., Harris A., 2014: Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History, Bridget Williams Books, 15 Nov 2014, 544 pp
  2. Carrington H., Te Maire Tau, Anderson A. , 2008 (Vol. i): Ngāi Tahu : a migration history : the Carrington text  Bridget Williams Books, 2008. 272 pp.
  3. Coutts P., 1970: The Port Craig-Sand Hill Point Regions of Southland: A Preliminary Archaeological Report Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania  V(1): 53-59.
  4. Coutts P., 1972: The emergence of the Foveaux Strait Maori from prehistory: a study of culture contact  Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Anthropology Department, University of Otago.
  5. Downes T., 1928: Bird-snaring, etc., in the Whanganui river district The Journal of the Polynesian Society Volume 37 No. 145, 1928
  6. Dunbar and Sloane, 2011: Tribal Art Auction Including Kenneth Athol Webster Collection Part III, Artefacts returned to New Zealand from England, Auckland, Tribal Art Auction 22nd March 2011
  7. Fletcher H., 1919: Art. XXVI. - The Edible Fish, etc, of Taupo-nui-o-Tia Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 1868-1961 Volume 51, 1919
  8. Walter R., Jacomb C., 2005: An Archaeological Survey of Hakapureirei (Sand Hill Point) Southern Pacific Archaeological Research August 2005


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