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Maori Carvings, Musical Instruments, Jewellery, Textiles and Toys


The Maori created many objects whose main purpose was as works of art, something which is only possible when people are rich, because of the environment in which they live, and their command of the resources within that environment. This page includes Maori Carvings, Musical Instruments, Jewellery and Toys.



Tangonge

Tangonge Kuwaha (the gateway from Tangonge), one of New Zealand's most significant carvings.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Te Ahu Heritage Centre, Kaitaia



amo Amo





Fragments of the two amo (vertical uprights) which support the whare (house) front.

New Zealand
Oldman Collection
Acc. Nos. (left) D50.441, (right) D50.440

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




Carved post











18th Century Stone-Carved Whakawae.

This is the door jamb that holds up the carved lintel from a door porch.

Three tiki figures are carved with paua shell eyes, one male and two female.

Length 110 cm, width 12cm.

Webster Collection No. 905.
Y15655.


Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)




Carved post







Whakawae (door jamb) of the Pataka Tutangimamae.

This panel was carved in the mid-17th century by Te Ure of Kawerau for the large pataka belonging to Te Rangitaumarewa, which stood at Manukapua in the Kaipara district.

Later Tutangimamae was moved and rebuilt at Otakanini pa near Helensville, by Rukuwai of Ngāti Whatua and Kawerau.

When Tareha invaded the Kaipara in 1822, the pataka was dismantled and hidden.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




Carved post







Kuwaha Pataka

Lake Rotorua, Te Arawa.

The carved doorway of a pataka (raised storehouse) marks an important symbolic threshold. The carved figure presiding over the doorway represents a deified creator-ancestor of the tribe.

Note also that in tribute to a former master carver, Rua, the figure is shown with just three fingers.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




long spear point

Red coloured carved wooden plaque.
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013

Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ





Carved post


Te Puāwai O Te Arawa

This Pātaka (raised storehouse) has two names: Te Puāwai O Te Arawa - The Flower of Te Arawa, and Tūhua Kataore - The Pit of the Taniwha 'Kaaore'.

The pātaka was the property of Te Pōkiha Taranui, the leading chief of the Ngāti Pikiao tribe of the Arawa confederation. Te Pōkiha was also known by his European title of Major Fox, referring to his command of an Arawa contingent during the chase after Te Kooti in the late 1860s and early 1870s.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




storehouse
Te Puāwai O Te Arawa

Te Pōkiha commissioned the famous carver Wero and others of the Ngāti Tarāwhai tribe of Te Arawa to build and carve the pātaka. It was completed in the early 1870s and stood at Maketū in the Bay of Plenty for many years.

This view shows the rear of the storehouse.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum




storehouse

Te Puāwai O Te Arawa

Apart from its use as a storehouse, the Pātaka was intended to symbolise the status and power of Te Pōkiha. Ancestral figures illustrate his genealogy. The large figure over the door is Tama-te-Kapua, the captain of the Arawa canoe which finally beached at Maketū. Many figures on the porch represent well-known ancestors of Te Pōkiha's Ngāti Pikiao tribe. The tekoteko on the roof at the front is Te Tākinga, a descendant of Tama-te -Kapua and an ancestor of Te Pōkiha. The tekoteko a the rear is Awanui, a son of Te Tākinga.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum






Te Potaka

In the early part of the nineteenth century a large storehouse named Te Potaka (also known as Tairuku Potaka) was constructed at Maraenui between Opotiki and the East Cape. In the early 1820s the pataka was dismantled and given to the Hinemahuru hapu at Raukokore where a carver, said to be Puhiake, began to renovate it by making new maihi. A large war party departed from the North around the 1820s intent on raiding the district and stealing the houses. Apparently the people of Raukokore were forewarned of the raiding party by an escaped slave and consequently all the carvings were hidden in a sea cave at Te Kaha before Puhiake could complete the new ones.

It was many years after the Ngapuhi raids that the remnants of the tribes returned to the area, and although some of the older people knew where the carvings were hidden, they took no steps to recover them. Around 1898 some Europeans learnt of their whereabouts and encouraged Archdeacon Williams to induce the government to acquire them from the hapu. While the matter was being considered, Mr Spencer, an Auckland artefact dealer, heard of their existence. He chartered a small vessel known as the Aotea, visited Raukokore, and bought the carvings from the tribe for the sum of £75. The Auckland Museum purchased the carvings from in 1912 with subscriptions raised from the citizens of Auckland.

Carved post Carved post
Te Potaka

Central Pillar:
This dark brown totara kuwaha (doorway) features a wheku (carved representation of a human face) figure with hands to stomach, surrounded by small low-relief figures. Perforations have been made along the sides, through which muka (flax) binding has been attached in order to secure the kuwaha.

Dimensions: 2460 x 780 x 280 mm

Catalog: 22065

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




Carved post Carved post
Te Potaka

(left)
Maihi or barge board of the storehouse:
This carving has been executed in totara with stone tools. The symbolism on the maihi is that of a whale shown with a spiral for a mouth, a smaller spiral for the eye and a body, which tapers behind the figures to flukes at the end. The surface is decorated with taratara a kae, a pattern meaning the notching of Kae, who was the first man killed according to Māori legends.

Alternating human and manaia figures are dragging the whale along by a rope. Manaia is a mythological creature in Māori culture, and is a common motif in Māori carving and jewellery. The Manaia is usually depicted as having the head of a bird and the body of a man, though it is sometimes depicted as a bird, a serpent, or a human figure in profile. Other interpretations include a seahorse and a lizard.


Dimensions: 3150 x 870 x 70 mm

Catalog: 22063.2

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum
Text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=75
Wikipedia
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/maori-art/page-5




Carved post Carved post
Te Potaka

This carving has been executed in totara with stone tools. A whale is depicted on the maihi with a spiral for a mouth, a smaller spiral for the eye, and a body that tapers behind the figures to flukes at the end. The surface is decorated with taratara a kae. Alternating human and manaia figures are dragging the whale along by a rope consisting of small human figures.

Taratara means 'prickly' or 'barbed', and is presumably applied to this pattern from the variant form consisting of a row of pointed triangles. Taratara a kai consists of parallel strips of raised zigzag notching, separated by a ridge or, sometimes, by a plain space. The pattern is practically confined to the Arawa and Matatua tribes of Rotorua and the Bay of Plenty and the Ngāti Maru of the Thames area. In these areas the pattern is used on pataka (storehouses) and only rarely on other buildings. It is also present on a palisade post from a pa near Wairoa, Hawke's Bay.

Dimensions: 3600 x 870 x 70 mm

Catalog: 22063.1

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum
Text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=55




Carved post
Te Potaka

Left:
This pou was possibly a carving for the mahau (verandah) of Te Potaka storehouse. It features three figures, one above the other, carved with taratara a kae and surrounded by manaia. The upper figure has a naturalistic face and is playing a pūtorino or wooden trumpet. The others have their hands to their hips and chests. There is a large hole to the right of the central figure. Perforations have been made along both sides, with muka (flax) binding attached.

Dimensions: 3100 x 550 x 150 mm

Catalog: 22064.4


Right:
This pou was possibly a carving for the mahau (verandah) of Te Potaka storehouse. It features three figures, carved with taratara a kae and surrounded by manaia. The upper figure has a naturalistic face and is holding something to his mouth, possibly a pūtorino. The central figure has his hands raised, and the lower has both hands to his stomach. Perforations have been made along both sides, with muka binding attached. The top of the pou has been damaged.

Dimensions: 2600 x 630 mm

Catalog: 22064.5

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum
Text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=81
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=82




Carved post
Te Potaka

Left:
This pou was possibly a carving for the mahau (verandah) of Te Potaka storehouse. It features three wheku figures, one above the other, carved with taratara a kae spirals and surrounded by manaia. The upper figure has one hand to the hip and one to the thigh, the central has his raised, and the lower figure has both hands to the thighs. Perforations have been made along both sides of the pou, with muka binding attached.

Dimensions: 2970 x 400 x 150 mm

Centre:
This pou was possibly a carving for the mahau (verandah) of Te Potaka storehouse. This pou features three wheku figures, one above the other, carved with taratara a kae and surrounded by manaia. All three appear to be holding lizards to their mouths. Perforations have been made along both sides, with muka binding attached.

Catalog: 22064.2

Dimensions: 3060 x 370 x 100 mm


Right:
This pou was possibly a carving for the mahau (verandah) of Te Potaka storehouse. It features three wheku figures, one above the other, carved with taratara a kae spirals and surrounded by manaia. The upper figure has one hand to the hip and one to the thigh, the central has his raised, and the lower figure has both hands to the thighs. Perforations have been made along both sides of the pou, with muka binding attached.

Dimensions: 3220 x 430 x 200 mm

Catalog: 22064.3

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum
Text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=78
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=79
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=80




Carved panel
Te Ao Hurihuri

Poupou

Te Altanga-ā-Hauiti, Ngāti Porou

This pou takes the form of a figure carved over most of her body and standing with hands to stomach and chest. Her head and torso is surrounded by an openwork design, much of which has broken away. Between her legs is a second figure.

When this poupou (house wall panel) was recovered from a swamp at Whangarā in 1885, local Māori stated that it was from the house of Hinematioro, of Te Altanga-ā-Hauiti hapu, at Pourewa Island in Tolaga Bay. Hinematioro, who died about 1823, was a famous high-ranking woman. She was the grandmother of the great East Coast ariki (paramount chief) of the early 19th century, Te Kani-a-Takirau.

This poupou is one of the very few Ngāti Porou stone-tooled carvings.

(note the four digits on each hand, presumably three fingers and a thumb - Don )

Catalog: 5017

Dimensions: 1110 x 435 mm

Waka: Horouta   Iwi: Te Aitanga a Hauiti   Locality: Tolaga Bay   Region: Gisborne-East Coast

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=288




Carved posts Carved posts
These are the amo, corner posts, from a famous pātaka - Hīnana - which first stood at Pūkawa near Tokaanu at the south end of Lake Taupō. Amo stand at the front corners of pātaka, (storehouse buildings) to support the ends of the maihi (bargeboards).

Hīnana was built by Te Heuheu Iwikau of Ngāti Tūwharetoa. The opening ceremony took place at the end of 1856, at the time of a great meeting of tribes who came to Pūkawa to discuss the appointment of a king to rule over the Māori as the Governor ruled over the Pākehā. The name of the gathering was Hīnana ki Uta, Hīnana ki Tai (Search the Land, Search the Sea), which is also the name of the storehouse. Hīnana became known as one of the Pillars of the King Movement (Ngā Pou o te Kīingitanga), marking an important place in the struggle to establish a Māori King.

After Iwikau's death in 1862, Hīnana was re-erected at the nearby settlement of Waihi. By the 1880s it had fallen into disrepair and was dismantled. The paepae (bench at the front of the house) is at the Canterbury Museum and the kōruru or wooden mask at the top of the gables is on the Te Heuheu family mausoleum at Waihi.

These amos feature a large carved head above a smaller head that finishes at the top lip. Both have carved forehead, eyes, nose and mouth and have paua shell eyes with painted black wooden pupils. The back of each amo is concave with a projecting panel with a horizontal perforation. The carvings have been painted red.

Dimensions of 54519 (left): 1210 x 480 mm
Dimensions of 54518 (right): 1230 x 480 mm

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015

Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=301
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=300




Carved post Carved post Carved post
Carved house posts, Ngāti Pikiao. From the meetinghouse Rangitihi, built 1867-1871. The house stood at Lake Rotoiti, near Rotorua, New Zealand. The principal owner was the Ngāti Pikiao chief Waata Taranui.

The meeting house Rangitihi is named after the renowned Te Arawa ancestor, and formerly stood at Opatia at Taheke on the north side of Lake Rotoiti. The house was built in the years 1867-1871, with carvings carried out by Wero Taroi, Anaha Te Rahui, Te Amo a Tai, Te Horeta, all of Ngāti Tarawhai and Hoete Te Pahau, Iriapa Te Pahau and Hone Hikanga, all of Ngāti Pikiao. Some of the poupou were carved from waka taua that were at Lake Tarawera.

The principal owner was Ngāti Pikiao chief, Te Waata Taranui, elder brother of Te Pōkiha Taranui whose pātaka, Te Puawai o Te Arawa, stands in this gallery. When Te Waata died in 1882 he was buried within the porch of the house beneath an elaborately carved tomb.

In the 1886 Tarawera eruption the roof of Rangitihi was broken down by a great quantity of volcanic ash. The house was then dismantled and held at Maketu with the intention of erecting it there but this did not take place, and the house was sold to Auckland Museum in 1901 where it was erected in the old Princes Street building. The original Rangitihi carvings now in Auckland Museum are twenty-eight poupou, sixteen epa, two amo, poutahuhu, poutuarongo, one poutokomanawa and the tekoteko. Throughout the Maori gallery are seven examples of carved and painted works from Rangitihi.

The two carvings here are of the poutuarongo and the poutāhuhu. These supported the 18 metre long ridgepole which is the backbone of the Rangitihi. Catalog 5152b (left): Two large naturalistic figures feature at the top and bottom of this pou, both fully carved and with facial moko. Between them is a narrow projecting line of openwork figures, with a pair of larger low-relief wheku to each side. Paua shell insets have been used in the eyes of the larger figures, and the entire pou has been painted red.

Dimensions 5000 x 620 mm

Catalog 5152a (centre and right): A fully carved naturalistic figure stands at the bottom of this pou, holding a painted green mere in his left hand. Paua shell has been used for his eyes and teeth. Above him are two smaller carved figures supporting an embracing couple who have facial moko and are carved on the limbs. Standing above the couple is another pair of carved figures supporting a second couple. All the figures have paua shell inset eyes and the entire pou has been painted red.

Dimensions 5300 x 620 mm

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015

Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=248
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=83
Wikipedia




Carved man






Tekoteko

The tattoo on the face of the figure of this tekoteko is painted black, which is an unusual feature. The tekoteko has lost its original red paint.

(note the three digits on each hand, a tribute to the legendary carver Rua - Don )

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




Carved man
Tekoteko - Tiki - Carved post

This wooden figure has full facial moko, tattooing. Tā moko is the permanent body and face marking by the Māori. Traditionally it is distinct from tattoo and tatau in that the skin was carved by uhi (chisels) rather than punctured. This left the skin with grooves, rather than a smooth surface.

In pre-European Māori culture, many if not most high-ranking persons received moko, and those who went without them were seen as persons of lower social status. Receiving moko constituted an important milestone between childhood and adulthood, and was accompanied by many rites and rituals. Apart from signalling status and rank, another reason for the practice in traditional times was to make a person more attractive to the opposite sex.

Men generally received moko on their faces, buttocks (raperape) and thighs (puhoro). Women usually wore moko on their lips (kauwae) and chins. Other parts of the body known to have moko include women's foreheads, buttocks, thighs, necks and backs and men's backs, stomachs, and calves.

This dark brown naturalistic figure stands on a worn base with his hands resting on his chest, the fingers of the right touching his chin. He has facial moko and paua shell inset eyes. His fingers have also been carved. Little is known of the iwi origins of this tiki but it is likely to have come from a wharetupuna or ancestral house. It was gifted to the Auckland Museum with the Edward Earl Vaile Collection in 1936.

Dimensions: 780 x 100 mm

Catalog: 22790

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum
Text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=321 and Wikipedia




Carved man

Tekoteko

The tekoteko (gable figure) with full facial moko (tattoo) is a common feature on meeting houses. The figure represents an important ancestor of the tribe.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




tattoo implements

Tattoo chisels on the left, and tattoo pigment pots centre and right. One of the pots has a lid.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum



tattoo chisels

Tattoo chisels above.

They appear to be made of bone or whale tooth.

The one on the far left appears to be a sharp chisel used for moko, while the others are for other tattoing, having multiple teeth.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




Carved figure
Whakapakoko (Rotorua)

This carved image is a representation of the Madonna and Child, made for a Catholic chapel in 1845. It was the work of the carver Patoromu Tamatea, who had been converted to Christianity. However, when the carving was offered to the priests they rejected it on the grounds of unsuitability.

This whakapakoko is a representation of the Madonna and Child, and entered the Museum as part of the collection of Captain Gilbert Mair. According to Mair, the taonga was made by an unknown carver for a Catholic Chapel in the Bay of Plenty, possibly in 1845. However the priest rejected the carving on the grounds of unsuitability. James Cowan has linked the whakapakoko to the carver, Patoromu Tamatea, of Ngāti Pikiao. He notes that Tamatea carved a Madonna and Child figure in 1890 (?) for the opening of a Catholic church in Ohinemutu, Rotorua. The figure was declined by the local priest as it was viewed as objectionable. According to Cowan, Tamatea then renounced the Church and became a Hauhau, although he kept the whakapakoko until just before his death, when he passed it on to a friend.

Both the Madonna and the baby she holds in her left arm are carved with rauponga and spirals. Both figures have naturalistic features with moko and paua shell eyes. This is one of two known Madonna and Child whakapakoko. The other is held at The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.

Catalog: 22

Dimensions: 830 x 150 mm

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=86




Carved figure



Tekoteko

Ngā Raura

Weraroa pā, Waitotara

Carved in the style of Rongowhakaata from Poverty Bay, this tekoteko stood on an important house in Weraroa pā, which was captured by government forces in July 1865 in the course of fighting north of Wanganui.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




Teko Teko

Early 19th Century Wooden Maori Teko Teko.

Female tiki figure with hands on stomach.

Note the three fingers on each hand, a tribute to Rua, the master carver who had just three fingers.

Length 48 cm

Y15656.


Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)




figure
This large wooden tiki once stood in a pā (fortified village). The mere in the figure's right hand signifies that the person was probably an important ancestor of the pā.

The standing figure has been painted entirely red, with pāua shell inset eyes and black pupils. A patu (a short two-edged Maori weapon of stone, wood, or bone resembling a club and tapering in thickness but expanding in width from the butt and designed to give a crushing rather than cutting blow) is held in the right hand, with the left resting on the stomach. Rauponga spirals feature on the buttocks and shoulders and the face has been carved. Part of the left side of the mouth has been damaged.

Following convention, the figure has been given three fingers on each hand.

Catalog: 22752

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=323
http://www.merriam-webster.com/




Karetao Karetao



Karetao (articulated marionette)

The arms and legs are moved up and down by pulling a string on the back of the body. Note the facial tattoos, and the small figure on the chest of the Karetao.

Karetao are ceremonial marionettes in the form of men. The body, legs, and head are usually carved from a single piece of wood. The arms and, occasionally, the legs are articulated. They are operated by tightening and releasing attached cords. In this manner karetao were made to imitate the haka (fierce rhythmic dance) by the operator to the accompaniment of waiata (chant).

It is thought that karetao were used primarily to instruct young people in tribal history. However, there is one recorded account of a giant karetao being operated by an iwi (tribe) from their fortifed pā (stockaded village) when under seige to taunt and defy the enemy.

New Zealand
Southland Museum and Art Gallery Collection
Acc. No. D45.50

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Additional Text: http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/objectdetails.aspx?oid=212846




puppets puppets puppets
Karetao

Puppets were operated by a cord pulled in the right hand which caused the arms to move. At the same time, the left hand made the body quiver to the time of an oriori karetao (chant) as if performing a haka. The Tūhoe people called puppets keretao, among Ngāti Porou of the East Coast they were known as kararī, and in the north, toko-raurape.

The two leftmost puppets were collected by Sir George Grey.

Catalog: 21885.1, 2, 7662

(note the very realistic treatment of the buttocks of the middle puppet, shown in the right hand photo - Don )

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




Mauri





Mauri

Ngaiterangi (Motuhua Island, Bay of Plenty)

Mauri are imbued with the life principle, and may serve as the resting place of a god. Mauri were sometimes placed in a waka (canoe) to ensure the safety and well being of those travelling in it.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




Fish Talisman Fish Talisman
These objects are known as mauri (in these cases, fish-shaped talismen) that contained spirits favourable to fishing. They were carried on fishing expeditions to ensure a good catch.

(left) Tuatapere, Southland
King Collection
Acc. Nos D46.71-72

(right) Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M93

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




conch conch


Pūtātara, or shell trumpet, using one of the small trumpet shells available on the New Zealand coastline, Charonia lampas.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum




conch
Pūtātara (shell trumpet)

Ngāti Mahuta (Kawhia, Waikato)

When Maori gained access to items from the Pacific Islands as a result of the European shipping trade, they found that the large tropical Pacific triton shells such as this one made better trumpets than the small native shell.

This Putatara (shell trumpet) was given to Alfred Hughes by King Tawhiao at Kawhia.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




conch


Note the intricate carving of the mouthpiece, typical for this type of instrument.

The shell itself is probably the species Charonia tritonis.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum




trumpet shell
Pūtātara

The pūtātara was a signalling trumpet used to gather people together for important community occasions. The carved wooden mouthpiece is tightly lashed to a New Zealand trumpet shell (Charonia lampas).

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum




trumpet shell
Pūtātara

Another view of the pūtātara above.

Catalog: 24671

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum




trumpet shell







Pūtātara

Shell trumpets were used to assemble people, to announce visitors, and to herald the birth of a first born son in chiefly families. This pūtātara has a Pacific triton shell, and so dates from the 19th century when the shell was first imported to New Zealand.

Catalog: 50430

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum








Carved walking sticks
Left to right:

16. The taiaha is a traditional weapon of the Māori. It is a wooden, or sometimes whale bone, close quarters, staff weapon used for short sharp strikes or stabbing thrusts with quick footwork on the part of the wielder.

Ngāti Whātua (Auckland)

Catalog 5681

17. Tokotoko

Ngāti Huia, Ngāti Raukawa (Otaki)

This tokotoko (walking stick) belonged to the Ngāti Huia chief Te Whiwhi-o-Te-Rangi (1805-81) of the Ngāti Raukawa people. Te Whiwhi was a signatory to the Treaty of Waitangi. He was a grandson of Waitohi, sister of the famous Te Rauparaha. With his cousin Tamihana Te Rauparaha, Te Whiwhi was a prime mover in the Māori King Movement.

Catalog 21999


18. Tokotoko

Ngāti Kahungunu (Wairoa)

Sir James Carroll owned this tokotoko (walking stick). He used the tokotoko both as a walking stick and as an orator's staff. Born in Wairoa in 1858, Sir James served as Minister of Native Affairs (1899-1912) and was acting Prime Minister in 1909 and 1911.

Catalog 35442

19. Pūtōrino

Kaitahu, Ngātu Toa (Lyttleton)

This unusually shaped pūtōrino (flute) belonged to Paora Taki, a leader and respected tohunga (priest) at Rapaki. As a young man, Paora participated in fighting against Te Rauparaha.

Catalog 6400

21. Hue

(Whatiwhatihoe, Waipa River, Waikato)

A hue (calabash) believed to have been gifted to John Ogilvie in 1884 by King Tāwhuao.

Catalog 41165

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: Wikipedia




tokotoko
A range of tokotoko, or walking sticks, includes traditional straight forms and European style walking sticks. The two at right were made in the late 19th century by the Te Arawa master carver Patoromu Tamatea.

Catalog: 1645, 27962, 48402, 14643, 6080, 1644, 21896.3 and .1, 410, 38786.3 and .2

Right:

Koruru
(Waikato)

Carved mask from the top of a house gable.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




Pūtōrino
The pūtōrino is a purely Maori invention, occurring nowhere else in Polynesia or in any other part of the world. It is a wooden trumpet varying in length from 9 to 20 in. and has an uneven bore, swelling out to the centre and diminishing evenly towards the lower end, where the pipe is quite narrow and either completely closed or has a very small opening. The outer shape was carved from a solid piece of wood, split in half lengthwise, hollowed out like two small canoes and then lashed together again with flax cord.

At the widest part of the pipe there is an opening shaped like a grotesque mouth. The finest specimens are decorated at both ends with carved figures, and the open mouth is part of a head which is outlined on the flat surface of the pipe. It can be played with bugle technique, with closed lips which are set in vibration by the rapid withdrawal of the tongue. Small variations of pitch can be produced by moving the forefinger over the centre opening. An expert horn or trumpet player can produce scale passages covering two octaves or more but it is unlikely that the Maori explored its full range.

A song for a pūtōrino would be similar in range to a sung chant and would be associated with a particular set of words. The fundamental sound is reedy, penetrating, and alto in quality and pitch. Peter Buck said he was told that it was used as a speaking trumpet, like a megaphone; but, if the legend of Tutanekai and Hinemoa can be accepted as evidence, Tutanekai played a love song on the putorino which was wafted across the water from Mokoia Island and heard by Hinemoa on the mainland at Rotorua.

Text above: http://www.tahaa.co.nz/taonga-puoro-mainmenu-30/putorino-mainmenu-49.html

whistles
(left) Pūtōrino

Purchased in London, 1961. The history of this beautiful instrument is unknown.

Catalog: 16721

(right) Pūtōrino

Te Ati-Haunui-a-Paparangi

Hori Kingi Te Anaua presented this pūtōrino to Sir George Grey. In the 1820s and 1830s Te Anua fought against northern war parties as they passed through Whanganui. In 1840 he signed the Treaty of Waitangi, and thereafter consistently supported the Government. Te Anua died in 1868, aged about 75.

(above from the museum card)

A pūtōrino that is reputed to have once belonged to Hori Kingi Te Anaua, a chief of the Te Ati Haunui a Paparangi tribe, who fought against the northern raiders as they passed through Wanganui during the 1820s. After signing the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, Te Anaua consistently supported the government. The pūtōrino was apparently given to Sir George Grey by one of the Rotorua chiefs. It was believed that this was the flute upon which Tutanekai played to entice Hinemoa across the lake to Mokoia Island, but this is unlikely. The pūtōrino is part of the Sir George Grey Collection, which has been on long term loan from the Auckland Art Gallery since 1915.

(above from http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=38 )

Dimensions: 500 x 60 mm

Catalogue description: This pūtōrino is made from wood and is bound together with kiekie roots in six places. At the centre is a large openwork face with shell inset eyes. Two additional carved faces feature at both ends, one with shell inset eyes.

Catalog: 22074

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=38




whistles
Left two instruments: Kōauau - made of bone and wood.

Catalog: 21886, 7241

Right - Pōrutu

Te Arawa (Rotorua)

A decorated flute (pōrutu or rehu) from the collection of Gilbert Mair.

The flute is entirely carved with a rauponga design and has three finger holes, each sitting in the centre of a rhombus. The wood is dark brown and polished.

Catalog: 100

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=974




whistles
Pūtōrino

Wooden pūtōrino, described as 'trumpets' or 'bugles' are commonly made of matai, in two halves bound together by aerial roots of kiekie.

Catalog: 31514, 3450, 642

Central pūtōrino: This pūtōrino has three carved heads, the top one projecting outwards and the middle and bottom heads in low-relief. The two sections were originally bound by kiekie roots in six places, but one section of binding has come away. The wood is medium brown and has a low polish.

Dimensions: 500 x 50 mm

no others have database records.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




whistles
Pūtātara

Shell trumpet made of the New Zealand trumpet shell (Charonia lampas). Use of the native shell suggests the pūtātara was made before the 19th century when the larger Pacific triton shell became available and quickly took over in popularity.

Catalog: 16389

Pūtōrino: a closer view of the pūtōrino in the image above.

Catalog: 642

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




trumpet trumpet
Pūtātara above, in close up.

Catalog: 16389

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




whistles
The nguru is an end-blown flute made from wood, kauri gum, stone, whale tooth or gourd. It had a large hole at the blowing end and a smaller hole at the other end, in the centre of a narrow upturned snout. Two fingerholes are on its top side, and some nguru had a further one or two holes beneath the snout.

Nguru were also worn around the neck and blown in the same way as the koauau. It has also been mistaken as a nose flute. The scales are identical to the koauau, with lower notes being made possible if the flute had the additional finger-holes. Several stone nguru were recovered from Oruarangi, on the Hauraki Plains and this area appears to have been a manufacturing centre.

The nguru on the left is from the old Hauraki settlement of Oruarangi.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum
Text: http://www.aucklandmuseum.com/getmedia/bf65edd2-1389-4065-8ae5-6ed7983623c0/auckland-museum-education-music




whistles


whistles
Nguru have been termed 'whistles' or 'flutes'. They are characterised by a small upturned end with a little hole in it, and two or three finger holes. These examples are made of stone, wood, and ivory.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum
Text: http://www.aucklandmuseum.com/getmedia/bf65edd2-1389-4065-8ae5-6ed7983623c0/auckland-museum-education-music




whistles

On the right, a sandstone Nguru, exquisitely carved, 150 mm long.

Catalog: 3423

Catalog numbers for various other Nguru: 27832, 27728, 6064, 16390, 387, 51815, 16400, 6059.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




whistles

Nguru.

On the left, this highly carved wooden nguru has been burnt at the top.

Catalog for left nguru: 3458

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




A kōauau is a small flute, ductless and notchless, four to eight inches long, open at both ends and having from three to six fingerholes placed along the pipe. Kōauau resemble flutes the world over both in tone quality and in the range of sounds that can be produced by directing the breath across the sharp edge of the upper aperture. Māori kōauau players were renowned for the power it gave them over the affections of women (notably illustrated by the story of Tūtānekai, who, by playing his kōauau, convinced Hinemoa to swim to him across Lake Rotorua). Kōauau are made of wood or bone.

Formerly the bone was of bird bone such as albatross or moa; some instruments were also of human bone and were associated with chiefly status and with the cultural practice of utu, the reciprocation of deeds both kind and otherwise.

Text above: Wikipedia

whistles

Kōauau

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum


whistles
Kōauau

This kōauaun (second from the left in the group of four image above) is made from the thigh bone of Peka Makarini, Te Kooti's bugler. He was shot by Captain Mair in an engagement at Waikarawhiti near Tumunui on February 7, 1870. Some time afterwards, members of the tribes, some of whose people he had murdered, collected his remains and fashioned many of the bones into flutes, forks, poria, and other articles. This kōauau was purchased by the Auckland Museum in 1890.

Description: This uncarved bone koauau has three finger holes and an outstanding lug through which a suspension hole has been made. The bone itself is worn and has a low polish.

Dimensions: 145 x 25 mm

Catalog: 68

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum
Text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=944


whistles

Te Arawa
Tuhourangi
Rotorua

This kōauau (on the far right in the group of four image above) is made from a human arm bone. Ngarangikakapiti was an Urewera chief who was killed by Tuhourangi in revenge for their defeat by the Urewera at Pukekahu. This koauau, made from his arm bone, was purchased by the Auckland Museum in 1890.

Description: This bone kōauau from the Rotorua area is worn and polished. It has three finger holes and a cratered suspension hole. Both ends of the flute have been carved.

Catalog: 70

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum

Text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=945




reel pendant
Among the musical instruments shown here are nguru (left), bone koaua, and the shell of a trumpet prepared by having the point removed for fitting to a wooden mouthpiece.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




flutes
Two types of bone flute.

Whio (the upper three) and Kōauau (the lower one)

(Note that these flutes are all made of bone, possibly the traditional albatross bone, and are not constructed as detailed below - Don )

The Kōauau was only owned and played by someone of high status, such as a tribal chief. The surface was usually elaborately carved. When not in use it was often worn suspended from the owner's neck.

New Zealand
Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. 83.2113

Pahia, Southland
Sorenson Collection
Acc. Nos. D.46.1894, D46.1896

New Zealand
Acc. No. D.43.171

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




whistles
Whio

Small wooden whistles were used in music making.

Catalog: 6058, 14637

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




The Whio

Text below from: http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-BesGame-t1-body-d9-d1-d3.html
© Victoria University of Wellington

The whio was made of matai wood. A piece of suitable wood was shaped, split into two pieces, and each piece carefully hollowed out. The two pieces were then placed together again and carefully lashed with the tough aerial roots of the kiekie, care being taken to make the two pieces fit closely. The whio was made hollow from one end to the other, and three holes were bored on the upper side, with one on the lower side. The player blows into one end of the whio and presses the tips of three fingers, the toi nui, toi roa and toipoto of his left hand, on the three holes, while the thumb (koromatau) of the same hand covers the single hole on the underside of the whio. Then sounds the whio, while by lifting his fingers the player changes the sound, alters the note. Should the note be deemed not sufficiently clear and distinct, then the thumb is removed from the lower hole so as to leave it open.

This instrument is called a whio because the sound it emits is like unto the whio (whistle) made by human lips.

When a man manufactured a whio (whistle) it was for the purpose of attracting some woman he desired. If he played that whio well, then the woman could not resist him. These sort of amusements were indulged in at night and, in some cases, a man ignorant of playing a whio would arrange with an adept a deception in this manner. In the dark or dimly lighted house he would seat himself near the adept and pretend to perform upon the whio, whereas it would be the adept who played. If successful, and the man gained the woman he desired, then would he reward the true player with a present, such as a garment, or weapon, or a present of food. During the above performance should the fire happen to flare up and light the house, the adept would pass the whio to his companion who would mouth it and handle it for a while until the fire light died down again, when he would return it to his friend. Hence it so happened that such a deceitful person might so charm the woman he admired that he would gain her and marry her. Then, after they were so married, his wife would, some time or another, ask him to play on his flute, whereupon he would decline, saying that he was tired of it. Such would be his deceitful action, but what could be done, he had got the woman!

Mr. White is also responsible for the following:—There was another kind of whio, an inferior kind, made by persons not expert enough to make the better sort. It was used by beginners, persons learning to play, although an expert player alone could make it sound well. This instrument was made from a piece of tutu (Coriaria ruscifolid) the pith of which was removed by means of using a piece of wood as a borer. The outside was then dressed smooth and holes bored as in the one made of matai. These whio made of tupakihi (tutu) were used by children. The following song is one that was much favoured by flute players:

'Tenei te tangata te hihira atu nei
Te hoki atu koe i waho na i te roro
Me kore te kakea i te wehi o te tapu
He koro i tu mai note whakatakere
Rokohanga mai au ka taiaroatia.'

Another whio was made of human bone which was made like a wooden one, but the bone one had no hole on the underside, it merely had the three holes on the upper side. It was blown from one end.

Some tribes made flutes from the arm and leg bones of their own dead. We have seen that, when a woman was in labour, a tohunga or her grandfather played upon such a flute until the child was born. A tohunga (priest) would also play such a flute when a child was ill, or when the child was in any pain or distress, according to Mr. White, as when cutting its teeth. Also when the child cried without any apparent cause. The idea in the native mind was that such flutes being made of bones of departed ancestors acted as a medium between the living and the gods (from whom man is descended).

As a rule, when flutes were made of human bone, the bones so used were those of enemies. After the slaughter of Marion Du Fresne and his companions, the natives utilised some of their bones where-from to fashion flutes and other objects. Here end Mr. White's notes.

The first kind of whio or whistle described by Mr. White, a wooden instrument made in two pieces, with three stops on the upper side and one underneath, is one that has never been seen by the writer. It would appear that Mr. White also applied the name of whio to the koauau.

Although no specimen of the above described instrument has, to the writer's knowledge, been preserved in our museums, yet I am inclined to believe that Mr. White was perfectly correct in his description. That reliable and versatile writer W. B., states that such an instrument was made and used by the Maori in former times. He described it as about 2 ft. 6 in. in length, and 1¼ in. in diameter. It was made in two pieces and no mention is made of increased width of the central part, as in the pu torino. The two halves having been hollowed out they were then carefully fitted together and firmly and neatly lashed with sennit in the middle and at each end. Decorative designs were carved on the surfaces not covered by the lashings. An interesting method was employed where-by the inner surface of the tube was rendered even and smooth. A round plait cord of fibre was made that could just be drawn through the tube, and, the end having been reeved through it, one end of the cord was secured to a post or sapling, while the other end was passed round another such, hauled taut, and so made fast. Wet sand was then rubbed on the surface of the cord, and the operator, gripping the tube, drew it rapidly to and fro on the cord, giving the tube a half turn at each thrust.

Matai was the favoured wood for the manufacture of these pipes, owing to its sonority. The pipe was open at both ends and was sounded by means of blowing across the end thereof, not by blowing directly into the orifice. It seems to have had three stops, two on the upper side, and one underneath, but possibly had four. Now, experts had a very singular way of manipulating this pu. Such a person assumed a sitting position when playing it, and gripped the pipe between his knees so that its lower end reached his feet. Holding it in this position enabled him to occasionally stop the orifice of the outer or lower end of the pipe with a foot. By this means it is said that an expert could make the instrument speak me te reo tangata—like the human voice; few, however, are said to have acquired such proficiency.

This pipe recalls the one described by Mr. White, as explained above. Of the one just described, W.B. remarks that Ngāti-Maru of Taranaki claim that its use was peculiar to the members of that tribe, but this may be doubted, such claims are often made by people who do little travelling. Observe the remark of Du Clesmeur, quoted above, concerning instruments seen by him in 1772: 'They have also a species of flute made in two pieces, bound well together, into which they blow at the thick end. The smaller end and the three little holes are closed with the fingers, and serve to vary the tones a little.' These remarks assuredly do not describe the pu torino, the three small stops settles that. This instrument was seen in the Bay of Islands district, a far cry from Taranaki.

The 22 in. pipe or flute described by Sir W. Buller represents another form, inasmuch as one end was plugged, and the instrument was blown from the side. This plugged end reappears in Mr. White's rehu and in the longer specimen shown in Fig. 63 (p. 228) (No. 197 in the Dominion Museum). The Tahitian nose flute had one end plugged. W.B. applies the name of koauau to the instrument having one end closed.

Text above from: http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-BesGame-t1-body-d9-d1-d3.html
© Victoria University of Wellington




This video by Sean Folsom gives some idea of the sounds that the flutes could make:





And here you can see the beginnings of the construction of an albatross bone flute using traditional methods:



combs
Heru (combs) made from bone

(Note the human head (?) carved in outline on the bone (whalebone?) comb on the right, and possible colouring to show a face - Don )

Greenhills, Southland
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. D39.326

Birdlings Flat, Canterbury
Sorenson Collection
Acc. No. B81.42-43

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




combs
Combs

a, wooden, after Hamilton (46, pl. 52); b, whalebone (Oldman coll., no. 39).

The Maori followed the Polynesian custom of the men wearing their hair long and tying it in a large topknot. Feathers were stuck into the topknot by their quills, the tail feathers of the huia, black with white tips, being regarded as the most valuable. Feathers of the albatross (toroa), longtailed cuckoo (koekoea), and heron (kotuku) were also valued.

Combs (heru) were also stuck in the hair for decoration. Small combs (heru mapara) were made of separate wooden teeth lashed together with flax fibre (Fig. 79a). A more valuable comb was made of whalebone (heru iwi) in one piece with a small human head carved on one side (Fig. 79b).

Like other valuable ornaments, the whalebone comb was handed on in succession and a tradition states that the well-known ancestor, Ruatapu, was severely reprimanded by his father for wearing the family whalebone comb which was reserved for his elder brother. A detailed Rarotongan version of the Ruatapu story does not mention any whalebone comb and it is not present in central Polynesia where the story was laid. The form is peculiar to New Zealand and as it was not present in the Chatham Islands, it was probably a late development in New Zealand. Though the Maori story of its presence in the Hawaiki of Ruatapu is an interpolation, the story shows the great value attached to whalebone combs as family heirlooms.



Photo and Text: http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-BucTheC-t1-g1-t2-body1-d13-d3.html
© Victoria University of Wellington




comb
Comb

Heru (ornamental comb)
1800-1850, Artist unknown

This large heru (ornamental comb) is made from whale bone and paua shell. It has ten teeth and a carved manaia (stylised beaked figure) head with an inlaid pāua (large New Zealand abalone with blue-green inner shell) shell eye. It has an aged off-white patina and has sustained damage, as evidenced by a large triangular chip along the upper curved basal edge.

Māori men traditionally kept long hair that was oiled and sometimes braided, and dressed upon their heads in elaborate topknots. These were augmented with heru and bird feathers, particularly feathers from the now extinct huia (native New Zealand bird: Heteralocha acutirostris).

Dimensions: Width 105mm, height 294 mm, depth 4 mm

Oldman Collection. Gift of the New Zealand Government, 1992

Photo and Text: http://www.googleartproject.com/collection/te-papa/artwork/heru-ornamental-comb-unknown/357206/




comb

Reposted in full from the excellent Barbaraanne's Hair Comb Blog:

According to our author-scholar Kajetan Fiedorowicz, the best Maori comb ever offered on Ebay sold on Oct. 9, 2011, for $2,576.00. It was a 17th-Century whale-bone Heru comb. The dealer listed it as 'Old African? Large 'oxbone' comb; elegant!' with a starting price of $9.95.

In Maori culture, men wore their hair long with a top knot, and women wore their hair short. A Heru is the ornament, stuck in the top knot, which decorated the heads of top-ranking men. They were a symbol of mana, or status and prestige. Many of the combs had faces, which were decorated with paua-shell eyes. (Search Patoromu Tamatea on the blog.)

In 1200, Rua-tupu, the second son of Chief Uenuku, wore a Heru without permission. These combs could only be worn by the elder sons. His father belittled him. To get revenge, Rua-tupu took children of tribal noblemen into his canoe, traveled far into the ocean, and sank the boat. It is an incident in Maori history called 'Te huri-pure-i-ata.' His older brother, Kahutia-te-rangi survived with the help of a whale, and his name changed to Paikea, or whale rider. The myth says Paikea had the help of the goddess Moa-kura-manu.

What I think this comb depicts is Kahutia-te-rangi (the small carving on the left) riding the whale. Think of the age, look at the condition, marvel at the orange patina on the whale bone. Absorb the simplicity of design, which expresses the profound mythology of Maori culture. The comb is a revelation. Kajetan hoped it went to a museum where it belongs. We will never know.

However, we have the picture. Our community will recognize this comb’s significance, history, and have yet another example that design reaches its greatest heights in simple forms.

Photo and Text: http://barbaraanneshaircombblog.com/2011/10/10/ebayebay-whale-bone-maori-heru-comb/




whalebone comb whalebone comb

Whalebone combs.

Note this quite different design for combs from those showing the whale rider. They are highly carved, symmetrical, with an open fretwork design.

Left:

Heru paraoa - Whale bone Comb

This seven-pronged bone heru features an openwork rauponga design, incorporating round paua shell insets.

Catalog: 125


Right:

Waka: Te Arawa   Iwi: Te Arawa   Locality: Rotorua

Made from bone, this heru features a figure in profile at each side, looking outwards. One has a broken projection on its head. There is a carved head between the two figures, and all have paua shell inset eyes. The comb has five prongs and rauponga surface carving.

Dimensions: 220 x 80 mm

Catalog: 38784

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum
Text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=995
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=1972




combs and whistles
Nga Tohu Tawhito a Oruarangi Pa (Traditional items from Oruarangi Pa)

1. Heru

Whalebone combs decorated men's hair.

2. Ornaments

Among Oruarangi pendants made of bone, ivory and shell is an example of the rare koropepe (spiral) form, in bone.

Pounamu (jade) pendants include hei-tiki, kuru (straight) and kapeu (hockey stick) styles.

A reel made of soft serpentine rock from Nelson, was originally made in the early years of settlement of Aotearoa. The paua inlay would have been added centuries later. Brass and bone buttons and the china pendant date from the early 19th century.

3. Toggles secure necklace cords.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




whalebone pendant
Rei puta - Whale bone pendant

This rounded whale bone pendant has a small point and has a horizontal perforation through the flat upper end. The back of the pendant is flat.

Little is known of the iwi origins of this rei puta but it was found during an archaeological dig in 1978 on Raoul Island in the Kermadec group north of New Zealand. It was later accessioned into the Auckland Museum in 1983.

Dimensions: 59 x 46 mm

Catalog: (AR)7454

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum
Text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=350






whale ivory carving

This unusual and striking ornament was found on a beach at Whangamumu, near the Bay of Islands, after an 1895 storm. The tiny human figures remind us of tropical East Polynesian art, and also of the central figure of the Kaitaia Carving, the oldest known Māori carving, found in 1921 in a swamp between Kaitaia and Ahipara. It belongs to the Ngā Tohu Tawhito (very old symbols) class, in the group known as chevroned pendants.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum



whaletooth pendant
Ngā Tohi Tawhito (very old symbols)

A chevroned pendant from Coromandel Peninsula has the same basic arrangement as the Whangamumu example, but is treated very differently.

Catalog: 20015

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum


whale tooth imitation
Whale Tooth Form

This outstanding item in Māori art, which may be compared to ivory chevroned pendants, is a development of the simple whale tooth form.

Waitōtara, Wanganui.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




whale teeth pendants
On Sunday 17 March 1996, three sperm whales were stranded on the beach at Paekakariki. In the days that followed, they were to become a catalyst for change among the Ngāti Haumia, Ngāti Toa and Te Ati Awa Whakarongotai people. The whales were named Haumia Te Wai, Ruatau and Wainui. The jawbones, teeth and oil from these whales were recovered and a year later were brought to Takapuwahia Marae.

These pendants were made from the teeth of Ruatau.

Rei niho parāoa (whale tooth pendants) 1990s
Carved by Tana Salzmann
Whale ivory, wax-linen thread

Catalog: Private collection
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Additional text: http://stationmuseum.co.nz/iwiwhale.htm




whaletooth pendant
Rei puta - Whale tooth pendant

This rei puta is made of a single whale tooth and has a serrated edge. A cratered suspension hole features at the top. The surface has a low polish.

Waka: Mahuhukiterangi   Locality: Howick   Region: Auckland

Dimensions: 70 x 30 mm

Catalog: 26110

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum
Text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=393


humpback whale


Whales were not hunted by the maori, but they made use of the meat and bones from whales washed up on their beaches.

This is a humpback whale breaching.

In the Southern Hemisphere there are six humpback whale stocks, as defined by their Antarctic summer feeding areas. They are frequent visitors to the coastal waters of New Zealand when they undertake seasonal long distance migrations between summer feeding grounds in high latitudes (Antarctica) and winter calving and breeding grounds in tropical or near tropical waters. They travel mainly along the east coast and Cook Strait during winter and return along the west coast during spring.

Photo: White Rich guy Facepalm
Permission: GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
Text: Adapted from http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/native-animals/marine-mammals/whales/humpback-whales/facts/




jewellery



Rei-puta (jewellery) with rare spiral decoration carved from whale tooth ivory.

Ocean Beach, Stewart Island
Willa Collection
Acc. No. 86.292
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




jewellery



Early ornaments of pierced tio (oyster) and papa (fan shell)

Pahia, Southland
Acc. Nos. D46.1918, D46.1921

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M110

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




fan shell





Chlamys zelandiae (New Zealand fan shell) dredged from the east coast of Northland , New Zealand.

It is a bivalve mollusc of the family Pectinidae, and was used by the Maori for jewellery, as in the photo above.

Photo: Graham Bould
Permission: Public Domain
Text: Adapted from Wikipedia




jewellery jewellery



Jewellery

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




jewellery



Pendants such as hei-tiki were suspended around the neck from a string held together with bone toggles.

Tumbledown Bay, Canterbury
Sorenson Collection
Acc. No. D46.1915

Invercargill, Southland
Gift of Mr John Thompson Jnr.
Acc. No. D39.260

Birdlings Flat, Canterbury
Sorenson Collection
Acc. No. D46.1890

Southland
King Collection
Acc. No. D46.667

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




albatross


Wandering Albatross (Diomedea exulans ) in flight, East of the Tasman Peninsula, Tasmania, Australia.

Bird bones were often used by the Maori, since they are hollow, and adapt well to the making of jewellery and flutes. The albatross is especially useful because of the large size of the bones.

Photo: JJ Harrison (jjharrison89@facebook.com)
Permission: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.




jewellery
(top image)
Necklace made from fish vertebrae.

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M115



(bottom image)
Rei (necklace) of Dentalium reels

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. D.S.39.486

In Maori Art, Hamilton (1896) in the section: 'Ornaments and Personal Decorations,' quotes Elsdon Best as saying: 'Others were made of the hollow tube-like shells of a species of Dentalium called hangaroa, through which threads of flax fibre were passed, a band being formed of these.' Hamilton adds that they 'were also strung on a belt, called tu-hangaroa.'

(Note that Dentalium shells are sometimes found washed up on beaches - Don )



Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Additional text: Dawson (1952)




necklaceshellsfox.jpg Jewellery

Dentalium shells are (and were) highly prized around the world. They are extraordinarily hard to collect from the seabeds in which they grow, but the effort was made in order to have large quantities of shells in good condition. Where fossil shells were available, they were extracted from the limestone in which they were found.

These fossil shells made up into necklaces are from the Czech Republic.

(left) Necklace made of fossil Dentalium badense shells and teeth of the arctic fox, Dolní Věstonice.

Photo: Jelinek (1975)



(right) Necklace of fossil Dentalium badense shells. These would have come from the large deposits of Jurassic Limestone which form the peaks just behind the Dolni Vestonice / Pavlov deposits.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2008
Source: Apparently originals, display, Dolní Věstonice Museum




dentalium
Dentalium badense fossil shells.

Their modern descendants are still highly prized as jewellery, and are commonly used by Native North American artists. They are often referred to as tusk shells or tooth shells, and are used in indigenous jewellery and personal decoration in Western Canada and the United States.

Photo: http://www.oocities.org/fossil_sharks_from_transylvania/Other_fossils_html/Dentalium_badense.htm




dentalium



Dentalium decussatum fossil shells from Gault, near Brienne, France.

Photo: Schmidt, Rolf (Collection Manager)
© Museum Victoria
Source: Museum Victoria, Australia
Photographer: Darren Hastie




jewellery
Rei (necklace) of Dentalium shells.

(Note that the creation of these rings or beads required skill of the highest order, and on very valuable material, and there may well have been a lot of waste, making the successful rings even more valuable.

Note also that before making the rings, most of the
Dentalium shells shown here have been grooved very finely around the circumference, a delicate and time consuming process. The grooves, where present, are originally longitudinal. From the text below, it seems likely that these particular Dentalium shells are fossil examples, possibly Dentalium nanum - Don )

Haldane, Southland
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M111

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




jewellery





A Dentalium Shell Necklace 'Workshop'

Necklaces of Dentalium shell, both fossil and recent, have occasionally been found on Moa-hunter sites in New Zealand. The big fossil ones are usually cut into rings. In the first season's dig at their site on the Coromandel Peninsula, the Auckland University Archaeological Society recovered a necklace of tubular sections of Dentalium in situ. Last January, while with the Society, I was fortunate in finding a site where such necklaces had been manufactured.

While passing it about half an hour before sundown I bent down to pick up some moa-bone and saw a number of these bead sections in the sand. At first I thought I had found another necklace, but soon realised that I had discovered a 'floor' where necklaces had been made. There were many hundreds of the tubes, including the non-perforated, curved ends of the shells. Two of us filled a 'twenty' cigarette packet with the beads in the short period before dark and on subsequent visits to the place several match-boxes were filled.

The shell was provisionally identified as Dentalium nanum Hutton; this identification has been confirmed by Dr. A. W. B. Powell. Associated were fragments of moa-bone and obsidian flakes and knives.



Photo and text: Scarlett (1958)




jewellery



(top)

Rei (necklace) of European Trade beads.

Pahia, Southland
Gift of Mrs K. Loverty

(bottom)

Rei (necklace) made from pierced shells

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M148

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




jewellery



Rei (necklace) of imitation human teeth made from shells.

Southland
Gill Collection
Acc. No. B79.571

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




necklace
Tāhei

Ngāti Koata, Ngāti Toa
(D'Urville Island, Nelson)

This D'Urville Island tāhei (necklace) is made of whale teeth. It was worn as a pair of bracelets in the 19th century by Aniwaniwa, wife of Ngāti Koata chief, Karepa Te Whetu, but was clearly made much earlier, soon after Māori ancestors came to Aotearoa. The pieces were later buried with Aniwaniwa, but were exhumed by Te Whetu's sons and kept as an heirloom.

Catalog 19977

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




jewellery
Rei (necklace) made of imitation whale teeth, possibly made from moa bone.

(note that these objects are almost uniform, made up of a truncated cone with a lip, and a short cone, base to base. It is difficult to see how they could be made with stone tools. I wish I knew the method. They look like they were turned on a lathe!

Note also that they were originally designed to be held on a cord which passed entirely around each 'tooth', at the level of the lip at one end, but appear to have been subsequently drilled right through with a modern small diameter steel drill bit so that a cord could be passed through - Don 
)

Fortrose, Southland
Gibb Collection
Acc. No. B81.161

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




jewellery jewellery



Mako (shark) tooth ear pendants.

(left) Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. 85.240

(right) Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M149, D36.207, M161

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




mako shark
The Shortfin Mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) is a fairly large species of shark. An average adult specimen will measure around 3.2 m (10 ft) in length and weigh from 60–135 kg (130–300 lb). Females are larger than males. The largest 'mako' taken (not verified between the two species) on hook-and-line was 505.8 kg (1 115 lb). Larger specimens are known, with a few large, mature females exceeding a length of 3.8 m (12 ft) and a weight of 570 kg (1 300 lb). The longest verified length for a Shortfin Mako caught off France in September 1973, was 4.45 m (14.6 ft). A specimen caught off of Italy, and examined in an Italian fish market in 1881, was reported to weigh an extraordinary 1 000 kg (2 200 lb) at a length of 4 m (13 ft). Growth rates appear to be somewhat more accelerated in the Shortfin Mako than they are in other species in the lamnid family.

The Shortfin Mako is cylindrical in shape, with a vertically-elongated tail that assists its highly hydrodynamic lifestyle. This species' colour is brilliant metallic blue dorsally and white ventrally, although coloration varies as the shark ages and increases in size. The line of demarcation between blue and white on the body is distinct. The underside of the snout and the area around the mouth are white. Larger specimens tend to possess darker colour that extends onto parts of the body that are white in smaller individuals. The juvenile mako differs in that it has a clear blackish stain on the tip of the snout. The Longfin mako shark very much resembles the Shortfin, but has larger pectoral fins, dark rather than pale coloration around the mouth and larger eyes. The presence of only one lateral keel on the tail and the lack of lateral cusps on the teeth distinguish the makos from the closely related porbeagle sharks of the genus Lamna.

The shortfin mako inhabits offshore temperate and tropical seas worldwide. The closely related longfin mako shark, Isurus paucus, is found in the Gulf Stream or warmer offshore waters. It is a pelagic species that can be found from the surface down to depths of 150 m (490 ft), normally far from land though occasionally closer to shore, around islands or inlets. One of only four known endothermic sharks, it is seldom found in waters colder than 16 °C (61 °F).

(Endothermic means that the shark is capable of maintaining its body at a warmer temperature than its surroundings, mostly by use of heat generated by its internal body functions such as the heat generated by its muscles, instead of being 'cold blooded', as most if not all bony fishes are, with the notable exception of tuna - Don )

Photo: Mark Conlin, SWFSC Large Pelagics Program
Permission: Public Domain
Text: Wikipedia




sea temperatures nz
This is a map of sea temperatures around New Zealand on 3rd February 2013. Ocean temperatures around NZ peak at this time.

From the map we can see that so far as sea temperatures are concerned, the Mako shark would have no difficulty visiting the shores of NZ in summer, from the whole of the coast of the North Island, to half way down the east coast of the South Island, and most of the way down the west coast.

Catching Sharks

Sharks were an important part of the Māori diet. Fishing expeditions used to bring in thousands of sharks, which were dried on racks as long as 400 metres. The stench was tremendous – some European explorers remarked that fishing villages could be smelt up to 13 kilometres away.

Each year, the northern Te Rarawa tribe set aside two days for shark fishing. The first day was close to the full moon in January; the second was two weeks later. People catching sharks outside of these days were stripped of their property.

In order to catch the fierce mako shark, Māori would first catch a ray or skate to use as bait. Once a mako took the bait, a lasso was placed around its tail so as not to damage its precious teeth. The shark was then made to tow the canoe until it was exhausted.

Small species, such as school sharks, were usually taken. Large numbers would swim into harbours at high tide, where they were intercepted and caught with hooks before they could escape. Observing one shark-fishing expedition in 1855, the European naturalist R. H. Matthews counted 1,000 people in a fleet of 50 canoes, catching about 7,000 sharks.

Photo: http://www.surf-forecast.com/breaks/Ocean-Beach_1/seatemp
Text: Gerard Hutching. 'Sharks and rays - Māori and sharks', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 13-Jul-12 URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/sharks-and-rays/page-2




jewellery



Kapeu (long pendants) made from bone.

Southland
Kingsland Collection
Acc. No. D39.112

Native Is., Stewart Is.
Gift of Elizabeth Bellamy
Acc. No. D42.16

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M163

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




jewellery

jewellery

Treasure Boxes.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ

These are Māori treasure boxes known as waka huia, 'canoe-shaped' treasure boxes.

Treasure boxes were made to carry the precious personal ornaments of a high-ranking person, such as feathers worn in the hair (sometimes of the huia bird, see below), decorative combs, and particularly prized pounamu (nephrite) ear and neck ornaments. A chief's person, his ornaments and clothing included, were considered to be highly tapu – they had a sacred or divine quality, which could cause misfortune or death if not properly managed. For this reason, ornaments were stored in decorated boxes, suspended from the ceiling rafters inside houses, out of easy reach.

Text: Adapted from http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/aoa/m/maori_treasure_box_papahou.aspx




treasure chest treasure chest

Late 18th Century Stone-Carved Oval Waka Huia Lidded Box.

With spiral carving all over the underneath with two tiki bodies as handles each end, male and female. Lid has two tiki figures and partially carved in whakarare style carving.

Length 42 cm, width 12 cm
Y15654.

Photo: Dunbar et al (2011)






treasure box
Turikatuku

Ngāti Tūwharetoa (Lake Rotoaira, Taupō)

The famous chief Hongi Hika presented Turikatuku, an elaborately carved papahou, or treasure box, to Ngāti Tūwharetoa at Lake Rotoaira. In 1866 Hari Tauteka gave it to Sir George Grey. The lid and bottom of the base feature a pitau design, while the sides are carved with figures.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=143




treasure box
Turikatuku

The handle at each end is formed by two openwork figures lying side on. At one end of the lid is a slight ridge, through which a hole has been made. The surface of the papahou has a low polish.

Dimensions: 902 x 160 x 93 mm

Catalog: 25203

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=143




jewellery

Treasure Box, waka huia, displayed in New Zealand's Supreme Court

Photo: http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/HL1001/S00169.htm



feather box

This wooden case is known as a wakahuia, a treasure or feather box.

Precious feathers and other valuable jewellery were kept in them, and the boxes were suspended from the roof beams.
Some feather boxes are treasures in their own right.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum



Lidded treasure box
Wakahuia

Tūhourangi, Ngāti Tarāwhai

(Te Wairoa, Tarawera, Rotorua)

This wakahuia (treasure box) was recovered from the whare or house of Tūhoto Ariki, the famous tohunga of the Tūhourangi and Ngāti Tarawhai people of the Te Arawa tribe. The old tohunga (priest) was buried in his whare by ash falls during the 1886 Tarawera eruption.

Catalog 82

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




Huia birds Huia birds
Huia, Heteralocha acutirostris

Now extinct because of hunting by wealthy collectors and museums around the world.

(left) Watercolour by Johannes G. Keulemans, ca 1900.
Permission: Public Domain

(right) Taxidermy exhibit of a pair of Heteralocha acutirostris at Museum für Naturkunde, Germany

Photo: Haplochromis
Permission: GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2




The Huia had black plumage with a green metallic tinge and distinctive rounded bright orange wattles at the gape. In both sexes, the eyes were brown; the beak was ivory white, greyish at the base; the legs and feet were long and bluish grey while the claws were light brown. Huia had twelve long glossy black tail feathers, each tipped for 2.5–3 cm (1–1.2 in) with a broad band of white. Immature Huia had small pale wattles, duller plumage flecked with brown, and a reddish-buff tinge to the white tips of the tail feathers. The beak of the young female was only slightly curved. Māori referred to certain Huia as huia-ariki, 'chiefly Huia'. The huia-ariki had brownish plumage streaked with grey, and the feathers on the neck and head were darker. This variant may have been a partial albino, or perhaps such birds were simply of great age. Several true albino Huia were recorded.

Although sexual dimorphism in bill shape is found in other birds, such as the riflebirds, sicklebills and other wood-excavating birds including some species of woodpecker, it was most pronounced in the Huia. The beak of the male was short at approximately 60 mm (2.3 in) and slightly arched downwards and robust, very similar to that of the closely related Saddleback, while the female's beak was finer, longer at around 104 mm (4 in), and decurved (curved downward) like that of a hummingbird or honeyeater. The difference was not only in the bone; the rhamphotheca grew way past the end of the bony maxilla and mandible to produce a pliable implement able to deeply penetrate holes made by wood-boring beetle larvae. The skulls and mandibles of the Huia and Saddleback are very similar, the latter essentially miniatures of the former.

There are two possible explanations for the evolution of this sexual difference in bill shape. The most widely supported is that it allowed birds of different sexes to utilise different food sources. This divergence may have arisen because of a lack of competitors in these foraging niches in the North Island forest ecosystems. The other idea is that the ivory-coloured bill, which contrasted sharply with the bird's black plumage, may have been used to attract a mate. In animals that use sexually dimorphic physical traits to attract a mate, the dimorphic feature is often brightly coloured or contrasts with the rest of the body, as with the Huia. It has been suggested that as the female was the main provider of food for the chicks by regurgitation, this sex evolved the longer bill to obtain the protein-rich invertebrate diet required for the chicks.

Another, less obvious aspect of the Huia's sexual dimorphism was the minor size difference between the sexes. Males were 45 cm (18 in) long, while females were larger at 48 cm (19 in). Additionally, the tail of the male was about 20 cm (7.8 in) in length and the wingspan was between 21 and 22 cm (8.2–8.6 in), while the female's tail was 19.5 to 20 cm (7.6–7.8 in) and the female's wingspan was 20 to 20.5 cm (7.8–8 in).

Habitat destruction and the predations of introduced species were problems faced by all New Zealand birds, but in addition the Huia faced massive pressure from hunting. Due to its pronounced sexual dimorphism and its beauty, Huia were sought after as mounted specimens by wealthy collectors in Europe[42] and by museums all over the world. These individuals and institutions were willing to pay large sums of money for good specimens, and the overseas demand created a strong financial incentive for hunters in New Zealand. This hunting was initially by naturalists. Austrian taxidermist Andreas Reischek took 212 pairs as specimens for the natural history museum in Vienna over a period of 10 years, while New Zealand ornithologist Walter Buller collected 18 on just one of several expeditions to the Rimutaka Ranges in 1883. Others keen to profit soon joined in. Buller records that also in 1883, a party of 11 Māori obtained 646 Huia skins from the forest between the Manawatu Gorge and Akitio. Several thousand Huia were exported overseas as part of this trade. Infrastructure development within lowland forest did not help the situation: hundreds of Huia were shot around road and rail construction camps.

Text above: Wikipedia




huia ornament

Tukukino, an old fighting chief of the Ngāti Tamaterā people of the Hauraki district, North Island, New Zealand, circa 1880. He is pictured wearing a pōhoi ear ornament made from the skin of the huia, an ornament often worn by high-born chiefs in the years before the bird became extinct. Tukukino was famous for his determined opposition to the opening up of the Ohinemuri area for goldmining. Lindauer painted this portrait in 1878.

Photo: Painting by Gottfried Lindauer (1839–1926)
Permission: Public Domain




jewellery
Rei pounamu (greenstone jewellery) worn on the chest.

Locations:
Greenhills, Pahia, Southland, West Coast, Birdlings Flat, Canterbury

Donors:
Michael Forrest (B73.1), Mrs E. Fosbender (B62.33), John Kennedy (B75.27), Sorenson Collection (B81.30, B81.31, B81.35, D46.1329, D46.1329, D46.1417) and Gift of Anonymous Donor (2001.955, M126)

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




jewellery
Rei pounamu (greenstone jewellery) worn on the chest.

(left to right)
Southland
Gift of John Kennedy
Acc. No. B75.27

New Zealand
Gift of an Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. M122

New Zealand
Gift of Anonymous Donor
Acc. No. D46.1430

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




jewellery
The hei-tiki is an ornamental pendant of the Māori which is worn around the neck. Hei-tiki are usually made of pounamu, greenstone, and are considered a taonga (treasure). They are commonly referred to as tiki, a term that actually refers to large human figures carved in wood, and, also, the small wooden carvings used to mark sacred places. Tourist versions are commonly found throughout New Zealand - these can be made from jade, other types of stone, plastic, or other materials.

One theory of the origin of the hei-tiki suggests a connection with Tiki, the first man in Māori legend. According to Horatio Gordon Robley, there are two main ideas behind the symbolism of hei-tiki: they are either memorials to ancestors, or represent the goddess of childbirth, Hineteiwaiwa. The rationale behind the first idea is that they were often buried when their kaitiaki (guardian) died and would be later retrieved and placed somewhere special to be brought out in times of tangihanga (mourning and associated activities). Because of the connection with Hineteiwaiwa, hei-tiki were often given to a woman by her husband's family if she was having trouble conceiving.

The most valuable hei-tiki are carved from pounamu which is either nephrite or bowenite (Māori: tangiwai). Pounamu is esteemed highly by Māori for its beauty, toughness and great hardness; it is used not only for ornaments such as hei-tiki and ear pendants, but also for carving tools, adzes, and weapons. Named varieties include translucent green kahurangi, whitish inanga, semi-transparent kawakawa, and tangiwai or bowenite.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Text: Wikipedia




jewellery

Traditionally there were several types of hei-tiki which varied widely in form. Modern-day hei-tiki however, may be divided into two types. The first type is rather delicate, with a head/body ratio of approximately 30/70, with small details included, such as ears, elbows, and knees. The head is on a tilt, and one hand is placed on the thigh, and the other on the chest. The eyes are relatively small. The second type is generally heavier than the first. It has a 40/60 head/body ratio, both hands are on the thighs, and the eyes are proportionately larger.

From the size and style of traditional examples of hei-tiki it is likely that the stone was first cut in the form of a small adze. The tilted head of the pitau variety of hei-tiki derives from the properties of the stone - its hardness and great value make it important to minimise the amount of the stone that has to be removed. Creating a hei-tiki with traditional methods is a long, arduous process during which the stone is smoothed by abrasive rubbing; finally, using sticks and water, it is slowly shaped and the holes bored out. After laborious and lengthy polishing, the completed pendant is suspended by a plaited cord and secured by a loop and toggle.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Text: Wikipedia




tiki tiki
13: Houriki - Hei tiki, greenstone pendant

Ngāti Whakaue, Hokianga, Far North

In 1825, Ngahuruhuru, a Ngāti Tunohopu rangatira of Rotorua, presented Houriki to some Ngapuhi people from the Hokianga. The hei tiki is a symbol of mourning for Te Arawa people killed on Mokoia Island during the Ngapuhi invasion of May 1823. In 1927 Houriki was deposited in the Auckland Museum by Mr George Graham and later returned to him in 1946. Houriki then became part of the Miett Collection and was purchased by the Auckland Museum at auction in 1989.

This light green pounamu hei tiki has both arms on its thighs and its head to the right shoulder. A gold link has been attached to the suspension hole and the surface is worn and polished.

Dimensions: 100 x 54 mm

Catalog: 1117

14: Te Parakore - Kuru, Ear pendant

Ngai Te Rangi, Tauranga, Western Bay of Plenty

Tama a Hua came to Aotearoa as a baby in the Kurahaupo canoe. As an adult, he found a block of pounamu during the course of his travels through the South Island. After his sister, Taupea, removed the tapu from the block, Tama a Hua created several taonga, including a toki named Tamapinaki, a mere named Te Kaoreore, and the kuru Te Parakore. Before his return to Hawaiki, Tama a Hua gave Te Parakore to his son, Raumati. Raumati then travelled to Tauranga, where his mother was from. It was during this time that he was involved in the burning of the Te Arawa canoe at Maketu, which led to war with Te Arawa.

Hatupatu of Ngāti Whakaue captured Raumati at Maunganui. Rather than be killed by a common weapon, Raumati presented his own weapon, Te Kaoreore, to Hatupatu so that he could be slain with dignity. Tamapinaki and Te Parakore were also taken from Raumati. Te Parakore came into the possession of Mr George Graham and in 1918 was gifted by him to the Auckland Museum.

Te Parakore is almost round, with a cratered suspension hole. There is a short diagonal groove on one side. The stone is light green pounamu and has a polished surface.

Dimensions: 83 x 15 mm

Catalog: 6130

15: Hineata

Te Arawa (Rotorua)

The eyes of Hineata are emphasised by red sealing wax, which became available after European contact in the late 18th century.

Catalog: 30161.2

16: Whakaruruhau

Ngāti Maru (Thames)

Clearly depicting a female ancestress, this hei tiki bears the name Whakaruruhau. It belonged to Turuhira Rapana of Thames.

Dimensions 120 x 70 mm

Whakaruruhau has her head to the right shoulder and both arms to thighs. Sealing wax has been used in her eyes. The stone she has been carved from is medium green in colour, and is worn and polished.

Catalog 13839

17. Tamainupo

Ngāto Takinga (Kāwhia, Raglan)

Tamainupo, a well known tribal heirloom of the Ngāti Takinga people of Kāwhia, is a rare example of an early bone tiki with finely detailed surface decoration derived from wood carving patterns.

Tamainupo is made from whalebone and has both (three fingered) hands resting on the chest, with the head to one side. Tamainupo is entirely carved in rauponga designs and has a cratered suspension hole above the right eye.

Dimensions: 128 x 55 mm

Catalog: 5502

18. Te Maiwa

Ngāto Awa (Whakātane)

Te Maiwa bears the name of an ancestor of the Apanui family of the Ngāti Awa tribe. Apanui Hamaiwaho presented the meeting house Hotunui, now on display in the museum, to the Ngāti Maru tribe as a wedding gift on the marriage of his daughter Mereana Mokomoko to Hoterini Taipari in 1878.

Te Maiwa has visible ears and chin and has both hands to thighs. A cratered suspension hole has been made over the left eye and the stone used to create the hei tiki is light to medium green and polished.

Dimensions: 80 x 30 mm

Catalog: 13907

19. Taringa-I-Motukia

Te Arawa, Ngāti Uenukukopako (Owhata, Rotorua)

Taringa-i-Motukia, a Te Arawa pendant, belonged to Matuha who lived at Owhata on the shores of Lake Rotorua. Both points of this kuru are rounded, one of which has a cratered suspension hole. The stone itself is light to medium green with black flecks, and has a polished surface.

Dimensions: 80 x 16 mm

Catalog: 34314

20. Whakairi Pīpīwharauroa

Te Arawa (Rotorua)

Whakairi Pīpīwharauroa has been in the possession of Te Arawa for many generations. Pīpīwharauroa means shining cuckoo.

Whakairi Pipiwharauroa's head leans to the right shoulder, with one hand to the chest and the other resting on a thigh. The suspension hole is at the top of the head above the left eye. The stone used to create Whakairi Pipiwharauroa has a milky light green colouring.

Dimensions: 121 x 56 mm

Catalog: 6046 (not 604 as in the museum case label - Don )

21. Te Aporotanga

Ngāti Rangiwewehi, Ngāti Tūhourangi, Ngāti Tūwharetoa (Rotorua, Taupō)

The arm of Te Aporotanga, a Te Arawa tribal heirloom, was lost during the chase after Te Kooti in the 1870s. Ihakara Kahuao, a member of the elite Te Arawa Flying Column, was wearing Te Aporotanga when one of Te Kooti's men struck him with a sword. The hei tiki deflected the blow and saved Ihakara's life.

Te Aporotanga has light green colouring with white speckles, and both red sealing wax and shell has been used in her eyes. Te Aporotanga has visible ears and chin, and a small ridge on her forehead. Her right arm has broken away.

Dimensions: 130 x 70 mm

Catalog: 14003



Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum

Additional text:
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=306
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=307
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=308
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=91
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=92
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=170
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=309
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=96




Tāmihana Te Rauparaha gift
Hei tiki (pendant in human form) before 1800s, owned by Tāmihana Te Rauparaha (1821 - 76), made of the inanga variety of pounamu, from the Arahura pounamu source, Westland.

Tāmihana Te Rauparaha (son of the Ngāti Toa leader Te Rauparaha and his fifth wife, Te Akau of Tuhourangi) gave this precious pendant to Colonel Godfrey Mundy in 1847. The gift was in appreciation of Mundy's kindness to his father, Te Rauparaha, while he was illegally detained between 1846 and 1848. When Tāmihana visited his father in custody, Te Rauparaha was quoted as saying 'Oh son, both you and Mātene [Te Whiwhi] go to your people and say: Repay only with goodness on my account; do not incur ill-will with the Europeans on my account - for only by goodwill is the salvation of Man, Woman and Child.'

As a child, Tāmihana accompanied his father on war expeditions. Later, he converted to Christianity. With his cousin Matene Te Whiwhi, he moved to the South Island in 1843. They preached a message of peace to their relations and to the Ngai Tahu tribe, their former enemies.

Tāmihana negotiated peaceful outcomes in two well-known situations. In 1845, land in the Hutt Valley was in dispute between Maori and settlers. Te Rauparaha sent Tāmihana to make sure that Māori left the land, as he and his ally Te Rangihaeata had agreed.

In 1846, Te Rauparaha was arrested. Tamihana successfully dissuaded the Ngāti Raukawa people from joining with Te Rangihaeata to take revenge.

Dimensions: 113 x 68.5 x 9 mm
Catalog: ME023986
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Additional text: http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/Object/855412




bone tiki
Hei tiki

Owned by Wī Parata (mid 1830s - 1906).

Whale bone, Pāua shell, plaited hair cord, gold.

Wiremu Parata Te Kakakura, also known as Wī Parata (ca 1830s – 29 September 1906) was a New Zealand politician of Māori and Pākehā descent. During the 1870s he was a member of the House of Representatives and a Minister of the Crown.

Private collection

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Additional text: Wikipedia




jewellery





Hinepare, a woman of the Ngāti Kahungunu tribe, wearing a hei-tiki. She has a Pounamu earring on the right ear, a shark tooth earring on her left ear, and two Huia feathers in her hair. She has a tattoo on her chin.

(These adornments, as well as the superbly made and finished dress, indicate that the woman is of very high rank - Don )

Photo: Lindauer, Bohumír Gottfried, 1839-1926, painting ca 1890
Permission: Public Domain
Source: Alexander Turnbull Library, Reference number G-516




jewellery jewellery





Note the way that the eyes are carved on these hei-tiki.

They were probably carved by rotating a hollow tube on the jade with an abrasive such as sand, and water. Some, as in the example on the left, have had this groove inlaid with Pāua, the Māori name given to three species of large edible sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs which belong to the family Haliotidae, known in the United States and Australia as abalone, and in the United Kingdom as ormer shells.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ
Additional text from Wikipedia




Tiki
Hei Tiki (pendant in human form) 1500 - 1800

owned by Waitohi (?-1839)

Pounamu (greenstone), inanga variety, wax.

This pendant belonged to Waitohi, elder sister of Te Rauparaha and mother of Te Rangihaeata and Te Rangi Topeora. She managed to convince the Ngāti Raukawa people to migrate south as allies of Ngāti Toa

Catalog: Private collection
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington




Tiki
'Te Pirau' Hei Tiki (pendant in human form) 1500 - 1800

Owned by Te Uira (? - about 1822)

Pounamu (greenstone), inanga (pale milky) variety, gold alloy chain (not shown here)

Te Pirau belonged to Te Uira, Te Rauparaha's eldest daughter, who carried it on the tribe's migration south. She was one of the three children of Te Rauparaha who were killed by a rival tribe at Lake Papaitonga shortly after arriving in Horowhenua.

The features, although not highly detailed, are well formed. The peaked head, which is inclined toward the right shoulder, is thought to represent sacred Mt Taranaki, suggesting that Ngā Pirau may originally have been fashioned in the Taranaki region. Hei tiki are either female in gender, where sex is indicated, or asexual, where no particular gender is displayed. Ngā Pirau is asexual.

Ngā Pirau is a highly valued taonga (treasure) of the Ngāti Toa tribe. It has a special association with the Ngāti Te Rā hapū (sub-tribe), who are the descendants of the celebrated warrior chief Te Haunga. The Ngāti Te Rā take their name from Te Haunga's mother Te Rā-ka-huru. Te Haunga was a grandson of Toa Rangatira.


The well-known nineteenth-century Māori composer Rihi Puhiwahine makes reference to a hei-tiki named Ngā Pirau in her composition commemorating a trip to visit her Ngāti Toa and Ngāti Raukawa relations at Kapiti (an island and coastal region north of Wellington). In it she states how it was worn by Te Rangi-Topeora, a sister of Te Rangihaeata and niece of Te Rauparaha (celebrated warrior chief of Ngāti Toa).

The name Ngā Pirau is sometimes applied to hei tiki associated with the practice of hāhunga, a practice where treasured family heirlooms are interred with the deceased to absorb the body's oils and essence during decomposition. After a period of time, the family gather the bones and heirlooms for a final farewell, after which the taonga are ceremonially cleansed and passed on to the descendants. This process can be repeated over several generations or more.

Dimensions: 95 x 55 mm
Catalog: ME011430
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Additional text: http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/object/105183




tiki
Tiki.

In pre-European times the wearing of ornaments was important in personal grooming, and as an expression of status. Ornaments included ear and breast pendants, necklaces, bracelets and anklets.

Pendants were made of ivory, bone, shell and pounamu (jade) as well as delicate feathers and other organic materials which have not survived. Prized ornaments were kept in finely carved waka huia (feather boxes).

Personal ornaments worn by Māori have always been dictated by fashion, and by available raw materials. In the late 18th century, whale ivory pendants called rei puta (rei meaning 'whale ivory' and puta 'hole') were much in evidence.

Today, the hei tiki (hei meaning suspend around the neck, and tiki meaning man) made of pounamu or jade, is the best known traditional ornament.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




jade ornament jade ornament
Jade pendant.

Note that two previous holes for suspension of the piece have worn away with prolonged use.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum




jade ornaments
Panel of mostly tiki pendants.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum




whale bone ornaments
Rei Puta are made of sperm whale teeth, and were popular in the late 18th century, but later fell out of favour.

Some of them have had to have another hole drilled for a suspension cord when the first has worn away or broken.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum




jade ornaments
Ornaments mostly of jade but including two bone pendants.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum




jade ornaments
Ornaments mostly of jade.

The piece to the right of the number '5' is a pendant made of the rare variety of pounamu jade known as pipiwharauroa, after the speckled breast of the shining cuckoo.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum




jade ornaments
Ornaments of jade, many in the 'hockey stick' format, a form called kapeu.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum




jade ornaments jade ornaments
(left) This kuru from Ruakākā, Northland, is one example of a variety of jade ornaments that were worn by both sexes, suspended from flax cords around the neck or hung from pierced earlobes. The most common were straight or end-curved pendants, usually worn on only one ear.

This light to dark green kuru is slightly rounded at one end, and tapers sharply to a point at the other. The surface is polished and has dark specks throughout.

Dimensions: 160 x 20 mm

Catalog: 16433.2

(right) Hook shaped pendants such as this jade kapeu are common, and are still given to babies to chew on when they are teething.

This kapeu tapers to a short hook. The top point is chipped and worn and has a cratered suspension hole. The stone itself is medium green and polished.

Dimensions: 116 x 18 mm

Catalog: 54343

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=371
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=384




tiki
3. HeiTiki.

Ngāti Tipa (North Waikato Head)

This fine hei tiki, which is of jade with fine black specks, was found buried in the sandhills at North Waikato Head.

Catalog: 16111


4. Hei Tiki

(Tāheke, Hokianga, Northland)

Little is known of the iwi origins of this hei tiki but it comes from Taheke in the Hokianga. It was purchased by the Auckland Museum in 1948.

This hei tiki has its head leaning slightly to the right with visible ears and chin and worn features. The hands rest on the thighs. Next to the cratered suspension hole is a small dent at the top of the head. The stone is medium green with dark mottling throughout and some dark markings around the left eye.

Dimensions: 100 x 50 mm

Catalog: 30166

5. Whakakaipiko

(Mahurangi Heads, north of Auckland)

This whakakaipiko (ear pendant) has a kink halfway along its length, before it tapers to a point. The ear pendant was found inside a skull that was attached to the branches of a tree.

Catalog: 5599

6. Kapeu

(Mayor Island, Tauranga)

Found in a burial ground on Mayor Island (Tūhua), this kapeu (ear pendant) is made of pounamu īnanga (īnanga jade). īnanga jade is a milky colour similar to the appearance of whitebait (īnanga).

Catalog: 6258

7. Hei Tiki

Ngāti Awa (Whakatāne)

In 1879 Apanui Hamaiwaho of Ngāti Awa gifted the ancestral house Hotunui to the Ngāti Maru people of Thames, on the marriage of his daughter Mereana Mokomoko to Hoterini Taipari of Ngāti Maru. Mereana was the owner of this hei tiki. The whare whakairo Hotenui is on display in the centre of this gallery.

This milky green hei tiki has its right hand to a thigh, and the left resting on the chest. Sealing wax has been used in the eyes and a cratered suspension hole has been made above the right eye. The three-toed feet come together below the abdomen. The entire hei tiki is worn and polished.

Dimensions: 130 x 70 mm
Catalog: 13838

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=379
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=382




jewellery

Various greenstone pendants.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




jewellery






Rei-puta (neck pendant) in the shape of a sperm whale tooth, made of serpentine.

Fortrose, Southland
Gift of Ray McPherson
Acc. No. B65.63

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




greenstone pendants


Greenstone pendants

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ






disc pendant
Hei rakai - Disc pendant

Only five complete and intact disc pendants are known. They are like pendants made elsewhere in the Pacific of whale bone and pearl shell, but in New Zealand were made of serpentine rock from the Nelson district. The notches are a feature of early Māori art.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Facsimile, display, Auckland Museum




disc pendant
Hei rakai - Disc pendant

This pendant is made from serpentine and is circular in form, with a flattened top edge. It is notched along the rounded edge, with four large suspension holes along the top and a smaller one at each side. The stone itself is polished and incorporates various shades of grey.

Little is known of the iwi origins of this hei rakai but it was found in a shingle pit at Motueka, Nelson.

Dimensions: 160 x 150 mm

Catalog: 3417

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum
Text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=346




disc pendant
Hei rakai - Disc pendant

Waka: Tokomaru   Locality: D'Urville Island   Region: Marlborough

Little is known of the iwi origins of this hei rakai but it comes from Rangitoto (D'Urville Island) in the Marlborough Sounds. Serpentine has been used to create this pendant. There is a raised, rough area at the top. One side of the pendant has been polished, but the other is scratched and the edges are rough.

Dimensions: 100 x 100 mm

Catalog: 33873

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Auckland Museum Text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=460




disc pendant
(left) Hei Rakai - Twin-lobed pendant

Locality: Rangitikei

Little is known of the iwi origins of this hei rakai which was found near the mouth of the Rangitikei river about 1890 by Mr M. E. Rockel.

This pendant is made from serpentine and has a highly polished surface.

Dimensions: 60 x 60 mm

(right) Hei Rakai - Twin-lobed pendant

This pendant comes from Manukau South Head, is also made from serpentine, and has been highly polished. Instead of the parallel sides of the lobes in the left example, this one has the lobes spread out, and it is smaller.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Facsimile, display, Auckland Museum Text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=460




reel pendant
Hei Rakai - Reel Pendant from Waihi Beach Coromandel

This hei rakai has one central ridge and is hollowed in the middle. The raw material is black serpentine.

Reel pendants or necklace units are the most abundant of early Māori ornaments. The form was probably developed in the western Pacific, before the settlement of East Polynesia more than 1500 years ago.

Dimensions: 25 x 10 mm

Catalog: 3057

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=394




reel pendant
Hei Rakai - Reel Pendant

A unique variation of the reel form. Tauranga.

Waka: Mataatua   Locality: Tauranga   Region: Western Bay of Plenty

The raw material of this hei rakai is black serpentine. Three ridges form one narrow and one broad groove around the circumference. There is a drop-shaped perforation through the pendant and worn chips along the edge.

Dimensions: 40 x 40 mm

Catalog: 22139

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=391




reel pendant
Hei Rakai - Reel Pendants

Top: Unusually large and ornate reel, from Parengarenga in the far north.

Waka: Ngatokimatawhaorua   Locality: Parengarenga   Region: Far North

Little is known of the iwi origins of this hei rakai but it was found at Parengarenga harbour in Te Tai Tokerau, Northland.

Traces of notching can be seen on the damaged edges of four sharp and prominent ridges. The raw material is black serpentine with grey veining.

Dimensions: 70 x 50 mm

Catalog: 30819


Bottom: Serpentine reel pendant from a 14th-15th century settlement at Hot Water Beach, Coromandel Peninsula.

Waka: Tainui   Locality: Hot Water Beach   Region: Coromandel

Little is known of the iwi origins of this hei rakai but it was found during an archaeological dig at Hot Water Beach, Coromandel in 1969.

This reel pendant has a central ridge and is hollowed in the middle. The stone has been chipped along the edge.

Dimensions: 45 x 36 mm

Catalog: 2879

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=347
http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=396




reel necklace
Hei Rakai - Ivory Reel necklace

Waka: Tainui   Locality: Mercury Bay   Region: Coromandel

A hei rakai made of ivory was found at Mercury Bay, Coromandel. It is made up of ten individual reel units of ivory varying in size at 14-24mm length and 10-19mm diameter. They also vary in treatment of the central ridge, which are more or less broad and in one case hardly delineated at all.

Dimensions: 150 x 20 mm

Catalog: 6049

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Facsimile, display, Auckland Museum
Text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=359




Kiwi Feather Cloak


A Kiwi Feather Cloak with muka kaupapapa (base) of double pair twining. Shaping evident. Small area of fringing at each top edge corner. Remnants of muka tie cords also visible. Kiwi feathers form a band below top edge and down both sides.

Kiwi feathers are also across the front surface in diagonal rows. A band of white feathers sits at the bottom third followed by a band of red feathers (kaka) and then another wide band of white with green triangles. A few pink and blue feathers are also evident. Length 900 mm, width 1400 mm

Photo and text: http://www.webbs.co.nz/auction/maori-artifacts-oceanic-arts-and-decorative-arts-0?page-select2=yes&number_on_page=24




Carved vase



This carved vase is the work of Piwiki, a celebrated chief and famous carver of the Huia tribe.

Ngāti Toa people presented the kapu whakairo to Mrs Swainson as a wedding gift. Some time later, she presented the carved vase to the descendants of the Ngāti Toa chiefs Rakahaere and Maui.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




Lidded Bowl
Kumete, wooden food vessel.

An intricately carved kumete and pōtae (lid) made in the 19th century for sale.

The carver was Jacob Heberley of Te Ati Awa who carved in the Rotorua style.

Catalog 54898-9

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




Lidded Bowl Lidded Bowl
Kumete, carved lidded presentation bowl

This kumete whakairo (carved lidded presentation bowl) attributed to the Ngāti Pikiao master carver Patoromu Tamatea, 1850-1890, Lake Rotoiti.

Large figure-supported, lidded presentation bowls such as this are a departure from traditional forms. Patoromu is attributed with the development of the carved presentation bowl, a developmental and innovative response to an increased demand for Maori carvings from Europeans during the 1850s and 1860s.

Patoromu Tamatea lived in the Rotorua area. This is one of three bowls by Patoromu carved between 1865 and 1885. Patoromu is also know to have carved various figures, weapons, bowls, boxes, walking sticks and tobacco pipes for the tourist trade, many of which are now in the collections of the Auckland Museum and the Museum of New Zealand, Te Papa Tongarewa.


This particular kumete whakairo was presented to Tamihana Te Rauparaha, son of the famous Ngāti Toa warrior chief Te Rauparaha who is today remembered for popularising the haka (posture dance) 'Ka Mate, Ka Mate', associated with New Zealand's national rugby team the All Blacks.

Catalog: ME005222
Dimensions: 450mm (Height) x 350mm (Length) x 330mm (Width/Depth)
Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Te Papa Museum, Wellington
Text: http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/object/130276




learning staff
Toko Wānanga

A learning staff or toko wānanga was a symbol of a special kind of higher learning associated with instruction in occult lore. Carved patterns on the staff symbolised the kind of knowledge available. It is said that toko wānanga were stuck in the ground outside each whare wānanga (house of learning) to indicate what was taught there.

This staff zig-zags along its length, with a circular recess at each shoulder that may have once contained paua shell insets. An openwork head at the top of the staff has been carved with a rauponga design, and is also missing the insets from its eyes.

Catalog: 54517

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum
Additional text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=377




war belt
Tātua

Māori warriors wore little into battle except the tātua (war belt) which enabled the warrior to carry short clubs.

These are woven of harakeke, or flax, the lower tātua a finer weave than the patterned upper.

Catalog: 1853, 14650

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




basket





Potaka ta (spinning tops) were spun with a whip made of strips of flax tied to a short handle. The toys were made from hard woods or occasionally stone.

New Zealand
Acc. No. D44.567

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2013
Text and source: Display, Southland Museum and Art Gallery, Invercargill, NZ




top
Pōtaka

Spinning tops in Polynesia and New Zealand were whipped in the same way as traditionally in England. The Māori whip was made of strips of flax tied to a handle about 400 mm long.

Wooden pōtaka were commonly made of mataī or heart kahikatea. Stone tops were mostly made from andesite or greywacke.

Pōtaka kukume (humming tops) differ from ordinary tops in the shaft rising from the top. They are spun by a cord in the same way as ordinary tops, emitting a strong humming sound (wheo). Poro is the term given to flat-topped pōtaka.

Catalog numbers for the tops:
Top shelf: Whatipu 2849, 2832, Rotorua 6077, Urewera 751, 47231
Lower shelf: 21887, 29449, Coromandel 19879, 37478, Te Awamutu 6944

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




top top top


top top



Lower shelf tops, in order.

Catalog: 21887, 29449, Coromandel 19879, 37478, Te Awamutu 6944

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




bull roarer
Pūrorohū

Tūhoe (Urewara, Eastern Bay of Plenty)

The bull roarer has been used throughout the world since the time of the ancient Greeks. Māori knew it as huhu, Pūrorohū, rangorango and Weorooro.

It was operated by whirling the rod and attached slat round with increasing speed until it gave a whirring sound, with greater speed this developed into a boom. A ritual use of the pūrorohū was in bringing rain to the crops.

Catalog: 749

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




knucklebones
Small waterworn stones were used to play a game like 'knucklebones' called ruru, kōruru, kai makamaka, ti kai, or tutukai in different communities.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




knucklebones
The game of knuckle stones - known to peoples the world over - was popular with Maori children under the name of ruru. It was played with five stones thrown into the air and caught deftly on the back of the hand.

Mr A.W. Reed writes: 'In the Maori game a rough square is traced on the ground and the stones are placed in the corners. The player tosses the remaining stone in the air, picks up one of the corner stones and catches the first before it touches the ground. As the game proceeds it becomes more difficult as two, three, or four stones must be picked up before the first stone is caught.'

Artist: Gottfried Lindauer
Photo: http://gonzofreakpower.blogspot.com.au/2012/06/good-gottfried-2-game-of-stones.html
Source and text: http://gonzofreakpower.blogspot.com.au/2012/06/good-gottfried-2-game-of-stones.html




stonedisks
Stone Disks

Nothing is known of the Māori name or use of stone disks found in the Taurunga district. They are, however, similar to stone discs found in Hawaii, and it has been suggested that they were used in a similar game of bowls.

Catalog: 5514, 19214.4, 3016.9, 11, 12 Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




hoop
Hoops were rolled between two contesting parties, the idea being to hit it with sticks to prevent it from coming to rest in one's side of the area marked out for playing.

Catalog: 757

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




castanets
Tōkere

(Nelson, South Island)

Tōkere were played like castanets with a pair in each hand.

Catalog: 752

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




poi
Poi, made of dry raupo leaves, are unique in all of Polynesia. They are used in women's posture dances, which are a highlight of cultural performances.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




sledge
Sledge for sliding down hill slopes. This example was made by a Tuhoe craftsman at the request of the well-known student of Māori life, Elsdon Best.

Catalog: 5190

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Auckland Museum




Tangonge

Tangonge Kuwaha (the gateway from Tangonge), one of New Zealand's most significant carvings.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Te Ahu Heritage Centre, Kaitaia



Tangonge

The central figure on Tangonge.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Te Ahu Heritage Centre, Kaitaia



tangonge
The central figure from the back.

This carving was discovered in 1920 by Muru Hori Walters, also known as William Worth, while digging a government drain at Pukepoto, halfway between Kaitaia and Ahipara. It was recovered from the border of the former Lake Tangonge. It was embedded in clay approximately one metre below the ground, and was almost completely intact and in a remarkable state of preservation. The carving was sold to the Auckland Museum in 1921. It was initially described as a pare (lintel), but being carved on both sides with a slotted attachment in the base, it was then considered a roof combing originally designed to be viewed from both sides. However, the latest view is that the carving was perhaps used as a gateway.

This openwork carving has a central figure and two manaia (a mythological creature in Māori culture, usually depicted as having the head of a bird and the body of a man) facing outwards from each end. Several edges feature notching, and the entire carving sits on a rectangular base. It has been carved from totara wood.

Dimensions: 2250 x 300 mm

Catalog: 6341

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Te Ahu Heritage Centre, Kaitaia
Text: http://tekakano.aucklandmuseum.com/objectdetail.asp?database=maori&objectid=71




tangonge
The drainage of Lake Tangonge ca 1922.

The significance of this Taonga as one of New Zealand's earliest wooden artefacts cannot be overstated. The style and genre of the sculpture reveals its ancient origins among the islands of East Polynesia. This is astounding when found among a Māori cultural and artistic tradition which is West Polynesian. The timber used for the sculpture has been identified as a local species of Totara, indicating that while the style is East Polynesian the style must have traversed the Pacific to Aotearoa bringing with it communities from whom the iwi Māori of today are descended.

The extremely archaic and reptilian nature of this piece, and the graphic ancestor symbolism is riveting but more astonishing when we observe that it is carved on both sides, removing any suggestion that it is a door lintel. The Taonga shows its purpose by its architecture as a passage way beneath an ancient protector whose name has long been forgotten. Its cultural significance to the nation of New Zealand is immense, and to the iwi Māori it is considered to be a blessing from the past.


When discovered by diggers among the drain workings at the Waiake stream on the edge of Lake Tangonge the elders of Te Rarawa immediately recognised its significance, as did the farm manager who enabled the elders to access and eventually remove the Taonga to a safer place. However the sculpture had lain hidden in swampland for hundreds of years, and the exposure to sunlight and to drying posed many problems for its ongoing care.

It was soon recognised that special care was required if the integrity of the Taonga was to be kept intact. The obvious choice at the time was to entrust this task to the Auckland Museum who had the knowledge and expertise to not only perfectly preserve the Taonga for many years, but also to feature its historical and cultural significanc as a marker of New Zealand's nationhood.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source and text: Display, Te Ahu Heritage Centre, Kaitaia




tangonge


tangonge


The manaia in this case take the form of four legged animals, possibly lizards, with a bird head.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Te Ahu Heritage Centre, Kaitaia




Tangonge

Tangonge Kuwaha (the gateway from Tangonge).

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Te Ahu Heritage Centre, Kaitaia



tangonge


The central figure has an exaggeratedly large head, and is holding two wooden beams as though they are oars, although this may simply be a device to give more structural integrity to the carving.

The penis is not exaggerated.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Te Ahu Heritage Centre, Kaitaia




tangonge


The central figure from behind. Note that the testicles have been included.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Te Ahu Heritage Centre, Kaitaia




tangonge


Detail of the side of the gateway.

Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Display, Te Ahu Heritage Centre, Kaitaia








References

  1. Dawson, E., 1952: Excavations of Maori burials at Long Beach, Otago The Journal of the Polynesian Society Volume 61 1952 > Volume 61, No. 3 + 4 pp. 283 - 291
  2. Hamilton, A., 1892: Notes on Maori Necklaces Trans. N.Z. Inst. Vol. XXV, pp. 491–493.
  3. Hamilton, A., 1896: The Art Workmanship of the Maori Race in New Zealand Maori Art part 4, Dunedin, 439 pp.
  4. Jelinek, J., 1975: The Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Evolution of Man, Hamlyn (1975), 552 pp.
  5. Scarlett, R., 1958: A Dentalium Shell Necklace 'Workshop' The Journal of the Polynesian Society Volume 67, 1958, No. 1 > Notes and queries, pp. 73-77


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